Lighting with T4, T5 and T8 lumlamps
Technical characteristics, applied ballasts, spectral combinations
- Lighting Tips
- The picture shows how much the light intensity at the bottom of the aqua decreases depending on the depth
- The picture of light penetration into the water thickness
- Osram color product catalog in .PDF format
- Spectral characteristics of LL from the manufacturer Osram
- LL color coding indices
- LL compatibility and technical specifications for electronic ballasts for frame size T5 from Osram
- Major manufacturers of non-specialized lamps, linear sizes
- Main characteristics of LL size T4 and T5 from the manufacturer Navicator
- Possible malfunctions of the lumlamp
- Characteristics of the LUMLAMP from DENERLE
- HAGEN lamp specifications
- Lumlama catalogs 2007 and 2009/2010 by Sylvania
- Examples of aquariums and layout of lighting lamps
Any, even the most primitively organized aquarium, should be considered as an artificial microbiocenosis created by the aquarist himself. Consequently, the aquarist himself is able, to one degree or another, to control the energy flows entering the aquarium (light, temperature, water flow, feeding, etc.). The task of the aquarist is to balance these flows. You can use the formula:
proposed energy -> accumulated energy -> allocated energy
It is important to understand that the processes of dissimilation should not prevail over the synthesis processes in both individual species and the species community of the aquarium as a whole. The primary producers in the trophic chain of the aquarium are chemo and photosynthetic bacteria, lower algae and green plants.
So, how do you properly light your aquarium? Unfortunately, so far I have never met ready-made aquariums for sale in which lighting would be intelligently thought out. As a rule, they either do not have enough lamps, or, worse, the length of the lamps does not correspond to the length of the aquarium. This means that the plant community will not receive the necessary amount of light energy for further transformations. With an aquarium height of 40-50 cm, the luminous flux should be within 30-50 lumens per liter. And no calculations in watts! Luminescent tubes of the same length have different light output:
- Lamp LB-40 - 2800 lm
- Hagen Sun Glo - 3100 lm
- Hagen AquaGlo - 960 lm
- Sylvania DaylightStar - 3250 lm
A sure sign of proper lighting in the aquarium is when 3-4 hours after the light is turned on, oxygen begins to be released from the intercellular space of plant tissues in the form of optically visible vesicles. By the way, a big misconception is the opinion that the release of atomic oxygen is the beginning of photosynthesis. To do this, it is enough that one quantum of light hits the chlorophyll molecule. In this case, oxygen cleaved from a water molecule during photolysis diffuses into water as a by-product. But first, in the first hours after the lighting is turned on, the released oxygen dissolves in water. And only then, with the supersaturation of the intercellular fluid, it begins to stand out apparently for the eyes. Naturally, this oxygen evolution under normal lighting conditions is possible only with a sufficient amount of CO2, an optimum temperature, and a balanced micro- and macrocell nutrition. Thus, when calculating the lighting, the first thing to do is to calculate the necessary luminous flux in your aquarium.
Now let's talk about the spectral composition of aquarium lighting. In light culture of plants, much attention is paid to the spectral composition of the proposed light. The spectral composition affects all the vital processes of plant organisms, growth, development, photoperiodism, movement, pigment formation, color of plants, etc. You can talk about how the quality of light in the process of photosynthesis affects various biochemical reactions and the direction of photosynthesis itself, talk that plants are more in need of orange-red long-wave radiation than blue-violet short-wave radiation. Comparative studies of the intensity of photosynthesis in some plants under illumination below light saturation showed that the intensity of photosynthesis was maximum in the red and minimum in the blue and green parts of the spectrum. At light saturation, the maximum photosynthesis rates for rays of different wavelengths were almost the same. When the illumination was equalized by the number of absorbed quanta, the photosynthesis curves for red, blue, and white were the same.
The advice of "advanced" aquarists on the use of only special phytolamps with a predominance of the red component in the spectrum is not entirely correct. Such advice makes sense only with a clear lack of lighting. In my aquariums I use combinations of Hagen SunGlo and AquaGlo and Sylvania GroLux, AquaStar and DaylightStar lamps. It is the GroLux lamp that has a clearly calibrated composition with maximum peaks in the blue-violet and orange-red parts of the FAI spectrum (physiologically active radiation). The combination of SunGlo with another and lamps similar in spectral data to GroLux also gave interesting results.
After differential spectrometry, it was found that the absorption bands of the pigment systems of most long-stemmed plants in my aquariums are close to the spectral curves of the GroLux lamp.
In general, gradually for myself, I came to the following conclusion: in a properly organized aquarium with plants, it is worth using two types of lamps: those that give the maximum luminous flux, to achieve a norm of 30-50 lm / l and phytolamps with a maximum absorption spectrum of plant pigment systems. As the first, I prefer Hagen LifeGLO, SunGlo and Sylvania AquaStar, DaylightStar. Second lamps: Hagen AquaGlo and Sylvania GroLux. But I reject the Hagen FloraGlo phytolamp for myself - despite the good growth of plants under it, it pretty much stimulates the development of algae.
In addition to brightness and spectrum, the third important parameter is the length of daylight. There is a fairly widespread belief that light inhibits plant growth. In fact, light limits only the phase of cell elongation and accelerates their transition to differentiation. Many aquarists still think that plants only grow in the dark. This is not so, and that is why. The increase in the size of a multicellular plant is due solely to the growth of cells in the extension phase. And just light only inhibits cell elongation, but not completely. Mitoses of cells occur continuously and also continuously, albeit at different speeds, an increase in cell size occurs.
In a decorative aquarium, you need to find a compromise between the desire to observe your aquarium as much as possible and the correct rhythm day and night in the life of plants. My aquariums are lit 10-12 hours a day, from 10 to 20-22 hours; the peak of oxygen saturation occurs at 19-21 hours, about 13 mg / l. 100 percent oxygen saturation of the water - approximately 5 hours after the lighting is turned on. All in full accordance with the recommendations of Caspar Horst.
Sufficient daylight hours for most plants in aquariums are 8-10 hours, this is clearly visible by closing the apical points of long-stemmed plants.