Luminaire lighting T4, T5 and T8
Technical characteristics, used gear, spectral combinations
- Lighting Tips
- The picture shows how much the light intensity at the bottom of the water decreases, depending on the depth
- Picture on the penetration of light into the thickness of water
- Osram color product catalog in .PDF format
- Spectral characteristics of the LL from the manufacturer Osram
- Color Marking Indexes LL
- Compatible with LL and specifications for electronic ballasts for frame size T5 from Osram
- Major manufacturers of non-specialized lamps, linear dimensions
- The main characteristics of LL type T4 and T5 from the manufacturer Navicator
- Possible malfunction lumlamp
- Characteristics of lumlamp from DENERLE
- Characteristics of lamps from HAGEN
- Catalogs on Lumlam 2007 and 2009/2010 from Sylvania
- Examples of aquariums and lighting lamps
Any, even the most primitively organized aquarium, should be considered as an artificial microbiocenosis created by the aquarist himself. Consequently, the aquarist himself is able, to varying degrees, to control the energy flows entering the aquarium (light, temperature, water flow, feeding, etc.). The task of the aquarist is to balance these flows. You can use the formula:
proposed energy -> stored energy -> released energy
It is important to understand that the dissimilation processes should not prevail over the synthesis processes both in individual species and in the aquarium specific community as a whole. The primary producers in the aquarium trophic chain are chemo- and photosynthetic bacteria, lower algae, and green plants.
So, how do you need to light your aquarium? Unfortunately, I still have never met in the sale of ready-made aquariums, in which the lighting would be well thought out. As a rule, they either lack the lamps, or, worse, the length of the lamps does not correspond to the length of the aquarium. This means that the plant community will not receive the necessary amount of light energy for further transformations. With an aquarium height of 40-50 cm, the luminous flux should be in the range of 30-50 lumens per liter. And no calculations in watts! Fluorescent tubes of the same length have different light output:
- Lamp LB-40 - 2800 lm
- Hagen Sun Glo - 3100 lm
- Hagen AquaGlo - 960 lm
- Sylvania DaylightStar - 3250 lm
A sure sign of proper lighting in an aquarium — when, 3-4 hours after the light is switched on, oxygen begins to be emitted from the intercellular space of plant tissues in the form of optically visible bubbles. By the way, a big misconception is the view that the release of atomic oxygen is the beginning of photosynthesis. For this, it is enough that one quantum of light falls on the chlorophyll molecule. At the same time, the oxygen, which is split off from the water molecule during the photolysis process, diffuses into the water as a by-product. But first, in the first hours after turning on the light, the oxygen released dissolves in the water. And only then, with the glut of intercellular fluid with it, it begins to stand out visible to the eyes. Naturally, this oxygen release under normal illumination is possible only with a sufficient amount of CO2, the optimum temperature, and a nutritionally balanced micro and macro element. Thus, when calculating the lighting, the first thing to do is to calculate the required luminous flux in your aquarium.
Now let's talk about the spectral composition of the aquarium lighting. In the photoculture of plants, much attention is paid to the spectral composition of the proposed light. The spectral composition influences all the vital processes of plant organisms, growth, development, photoperiodism, movement, pigment formation, plant color, etc. that plants need more orange-red long-wave radiation than blue-violet short-wave radiation. Comparative studies of the intensity of photosynthesis in some plants under illumination below the light saturation showed that the intensity of photosynthesis was maximum in the red and minimum in the blue and green parts of the spectrum. With light saturation, the maximum speeds of photosynthesis for rays of different wavelengths were almost the same. When aligning illumination by the number of absorbed quanta, the photosynthesis curves for red, blue and white colors coincided.
Tips "advanced" aquarists on the use of only special fitolamp with a predominance of the red component in the spectrum is not entirely correct. Such advice makes sense only with a frank lack of coverage. In my aquariums, I use a combination of Hagen SunGlo and AquaGlo and Sylvania GroLux, AquaStar and DaylightStar lamps. It is the GroLux lamp that has a well-calibrated composition with maximum peaks in the blue-violet and orange-red parts of the FAI spectrum (physiologically active radiation). The combination of SunGlo with others and lamps similar in spectral data with GroLux also gave interesting results.
After differential spectrometry, it was found that the absorption bands of the pigment systems of most long-stemmed plants in my aquariums are close to the spectral curves of the GroLux lamp.
In general, gradually for myself I came to the following conclusion: in a properly organized aquarium with plants, two types of lamps should be used: giving a maximum luminous flux to achieve a norm of 30-50 lm / l and phytolamps with a maximum absorption spectrum of plant pigment systems. As the first ones, I prefer Hagen LifeGLO, SunGlo and Sylvania AquaStar, DaylightStar. Second lamps: Hagen AquaGlo and Sylvania GroLux. But the Hagen phytolamp FloraGlo is my own for myself - despite the good growth of the plants under it, it fairly stimulates the development of algae.
In addition to brightness and spectrum, the third important parameter is the length of daylight. There is a fairly common opinion that light inhibits plant growth. In fact, light limits only the stretching phase of cells and accelerates their transition to differentiation. Many aquarists still think that plants grow only in the dark. It is not, and here's why. The increase in the size of a multicellular plant is solely due to the growth of cells in the stretching phase. And that's just the light just inhibits cell stretching, but not completely. Cell mitosis occurs continuously and also continuously, albeit at different rates, an increase in cell size occurs.
In a decorative aquarium you need to find a compromise between the desire to observe your aquarium as much as possible and the right rhythm day and night in plant life. My aquariums are lit 10-12 hours a day, from 10 to 20-22 hours; peak oxygen saturation occurs at 19-21 hours, about 13mg / l. 100 percent oxygen saturation of the water is approximately 5 hours after the lights are turned on. All in full accordance with the recommendations of Caspar Horst.
Sufficient daylight for most plants in aquariums is 8–10 hours, which is clearly seen by closing the apical points of long stem plants.