All space missions on one map
American design studio Pop Chart Lab has made a wall poster that demonstrates the progress of human space exploration to date.
Since the launch of Sputnik-1, which became the first artificial satellite of the Earth, in a year and a half it will be 60 years. Since then, man has repeatedly sent into space a variety of spacecraft, animals and people.
Colorful infographics covers all the way from 1959 to 2015 and clearly shows on the map more than 100 research probes, descent vehicles and mars rovers.
In the upper part of the poster you can see the path that the spacecraft crossed, and in the lower part you can see how these vehicles looked. All vehicles are grouped by flight directions.
And let most of them never leave the Earth's orbit, the map shows how incredible distances in the solar system man has managed to overcome!
Outer space (space) - relatively empty areas of the Universe, which lie outside the boundaries of the atmospheres of celestial bodies. Contrary to popular belief, space is not an absolutely empty space - there is a very low density of some particles (mostly hydrogen), as well as electromagnetic radiation and interstellar matter.
In its original understanding of the Greek term "space" (order, world order) had a philosophical basis, defining a hypothetical closed vacuum around the Earth - the center of the Universe. However, in the Latin-based languages and its borrowings, the practical term “space” is used to the same semantics (since scientifically the vacuum enveloping the Earth is infinite), therefore in Russian and close to him, as a result of the reform adjustment, a kind of oxymoron “cosmic space".
There is no clear boundary, the atmosphere is gradually diluted as it moves away from the earth’s surface, and there is still no consensus on what to consider as a factor in the beginning of the cosmos. If the temperature were constant, then the pressure would change exponentially from 100 kPa at sea level to zero. The International Aviation Federation, as a working boundary between the atmosphere and space, set a height of 100 km (the Karman line), because at this altitude, to create aerodynamic lift force, it is necessary for the aircraft to move with the first space velocity, which makes it lose its meaning. Astronomers from the USA and Canada measured the boundary of the influence of atmospheric winds and the onset of the effects of cosmic particles. She was at an altitude of 118 kilometers, although NASA themselves consider 122 km as the boundary of space. At such an altitude, the shuttles switched from conventional maneuvering using only rocket engines to aerodynamic ones with a “footing” to the atmosphere.
The space in the solar system is called interplanetary space, which passes into interstellar space at the heliopause points of the solstice. The vacuum of space is not really absolute - it contains atoms and molecules detected by microwave spectroscopy, the relic radiation left from the Big Bang, and cosmic rays, which contain ionized atomic nuclei and various subatomic particles. There is also gas, plasma, dust, small meteors and space debris (materials left over from human activity in orbit). The absence of air makes outer space (and the surface of the moon) ideal sites for astronomical observations at all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Proof of this are photographs taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. In addition, invaluable information about the planets, asteroids and comets of the solar system is obtained using spacecraft.
The impact of being in outer space on the human body
According to NASA scientists, contrary to popular belief, if they enter space without a protective suit, a person will not freeze, will not explode and will not immediately faint, his blood will not boil - instead, death will result from a lack of oxygen. The danger lies in the decompression process itself - it is this period of time that is most dangerous for the organism, since with explosive decompression gas bubbles in the blood begin to expand. If a refrigerant is present (for example, nitrogen), then under such conditions it freezes the blood. Under space conditions, there is not enough pressure to maintain the liquid state of the substance (only gaseous or solid state is possible, with the exception of liquid helium), therefore, first the water begins to evaporate quickly from the mucous membranes of the body (tongue, eyes, lungs). Some other problems - decompression sickness, sunburns of unprotected skin areas and damage to the subcutaneous tissues - will begin to appear in 10 seconds. At some point, the person will lose consciousness due to lack of oxygen. Death can occur in about 1-2 minutes, although it is not known for sure. However, if you do not hold your breath in the lungs (an attempt to delay will lead to barotrauma), then 30-60 seconds of being in outer space will not cause any irreversible damage to the human body.
NASA describes a case in which a person happened to be in a space close to a vacuum (pressure below 1 Pa) due to air leakage from a spacesuit. The person remained conscious for approximately 14 seconds — approximately the time it takes for the blood depleted of oxygen to pass from the lungs to the brain. A full vacuum did not appear inside the suit, and the recompression of the test chamber began after approximately 15 seconds. Consciousness returned to the person when the pressure rose to an equivalent height of about 4.6 km. Later, a person caught in a vacuum told how he felt and heard the air coming out of him, and his last conscious memory was that he felt the water in his tongue boil.
The magazine “Aviation Week and Space Technology” on February 13, 1995 published a letter in which it was told about the incident that took place on August 16, 1960, when a stratostat was raised from an open gondola to an altitude of 19.5 miles to make a record parachute jump (Excelsior "). The pilot's right hand was depressurized, but he decided to continue the climb. The hand, as could be expected, experienced extremely painful sensations, and it could not be used. However, when the pilot returned to the more dense layers of the atmosphere, the state of the arm returned to normal.
Borders on the path to space and the limits of deep space
Atmosphere and near-Earth space
- The sea level is 101.3 kPa (1 atm .; 760 mmHg of atmospheric pressure), the density of the medium is 2.7 · 1019 molecules per cm.
- 0.5 km - up to this altitude 80% of the human population of the world lives.
- 2 km - 99% of the world's population lives up to this altitude.
- 2-3 km - the beginning of the manifestations of ailments (mountain sickness) in non-acclimatized people.
- 4.7 km - MFA requires additional oxygen supply for pilots and passengers.
- 5.0 km - 50% of atmospheric pressure at sea level.
- 5.1 km - the highest town of La Rinconada (Peru).
- 5.3 km - half of the total mass of the atmosphere lies below this height (slightly below the top of Mount Elbrus).
- 6 km - the border of permanent human habitat (temporary settlements of Sherpas in the Himalayas), the boundary of terrestrial life in the mountains.
- to 6.5 km - snow line in Tibet and the Andes. In all other places it is located lower in Antarctica to 0 m above sea level.
- 6.6 km - the highest stone building (Mount Lulagliaco, South America).
- 7 km - the limit of human adaptability to a long stay in the mountains.
- 8.2 km - the boundary of death without an oxygen mask: even a healthy and trained person can lose consciousness at any moment and die.
- 8,848 km - the highest point of the Earth, Mount Everest - the natural limit of accessibility on foot.
- 9 km - the limit of adaptability to short-term respiration by atmospheric air.
- 12 km - breathing air is equivalent to being in space (the same time of loss of consciousness ~ 10-20 s); the limit of short-term breathing with pure oxygen without additional pressure; ceiling subsonic passenger liners.
- 15 km - breathing pure oxygen is equivalent to being in space.
- 16 km - when you are in a high-rise suit in the cabin you need additional pressure. Overhead left 10% of the mass of the atmosphere.
- 10-18 km - the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere at different latitudes (tropopause). It is also the border of the rise of ordinary clouds, further stretches rarefied and dry air.
- 18.9—19.35 - Armstrong's line - the beginning of the cosmos for the human body - boiling water at the temperature of the human body. Internal bodily fluids at this height do not boil yet, because the body generates enough internal pressure to prevent this effect, but saliva and tears may begin to boil with the formation of foam, eyes may swell.
- 19 km - the brightness of the dark purple sky at the zenith of 5% of the brightness of a clear blue sky at sea level (74.3–75 candles versus 1500 candles per m), during the day the brightest stars and planets can be seen.
- 20 km - the intensity of the primary cosmic radiation begins to prevail over the secondary (born in the atmosphere).
- 20 km - ceiling of hot air balloons (hot air balloons) (19 811 m).
- 20-22 km - the upper boundary of the biosphere: the limit of the rise in the atmosphere of living spores and bacteria by air currents.
- 20-25 km - the brightness of the sky during the day is 20-40 times less than the brightness at sea level, as in the center of the band of a total solar eclipse, and as at dusk, when the Sun is 9-10 degrees below the horizon and stars up to the 2nd stellar magnitude are visible.
- 25 km - during the day you can navigate by bright stars.
- 25-26 km - the maximum height of the established flight of existing jet aircraft (practical ceiling).
- 15-30 km - the ozone layer at different latitudes.
- 34.668 km is the official altitude record for a balloon (stratostat) operated by two stratonauts (Strato Lab Project, 1961).
- OK. 35 km - the beginning of space for water or a triple point of water: at this altitude the atmospheric pressure is 611.657 Pa and water boils at 0 ° C, and above cannot be in liquid form.
- 37.8 km - the altitude record of the turbojet aircraft (MiG-25M, dynamic ceiling).
- 38.48 km (52,000 steps) - the upper boundary of the atmosphere in the 11th century: the first scientific determination of the height of the atmosphere by the duration of twilight and knowledge of the diameter of the Earth (Arab scientist Algazen, 965-1039) 
- 39 km - a record jump from the stratosphere without a stabilizing parachute (Felix Baumgartner, 2012).
- 41.42 km is a record of the height of a one-person stratostat, as well as a record of the height of a jump with a stabilizing parachute, performed by Google Vice President Alan Eustace on October 24, 2014. 
- 45 km is the theoretical limit for a ramjet aircraft.
- 48 km - the atmosphere does not weaken the ultraviolet rays of the sun.
- 50 km - the boundary between the stratosphere and the mesosphere (stratopause).
- 51,694 km - the last manned altitude record in the pre-cosmic era (Joseph Walker on the X-15 rocket plane, March 30, 1961)
- OK. 53 km - altitude record for a gas unmanned aerostat.
- 55 km - the atmosphere does not affect cosmic radiation.
- 40–80 km is the maximum ionization of air (the conversion of air into a plasma) from friction against the body of the descent vehicle when entering the atmosphere at the first cosmic velocity .
- 70 km - the upper boundary of the atmosphere in 1714, according to Edmund Halley’s calculations based on pressure measurements by climbers, Boyle’s law and meteor observations .
- 80 km - the boundary between the mesosphere and the thermosphere (mesopause); the height of the silvery clouds.
- 80.45 km (50 miles) - the official height of the space border in the United States.
- 100 km - the official international boundary between the atmosphere and space - the Karman line, which defines the boundary between aeronautics and astronautics. Aerodynamic surfaces (wings) starting from this altitude do not make sense, since the speed of flight to create lift becomes higher than the first cosmic velocity and the atmospheric aircraft turns into a space satellite. The density of the medium at this height is 12 trillion molecules per 1 dm? 
- 100 km — the registered boundary of the atmosphere in 1902: the discovery of the radio-reflecting ionized Kennelly-Heaviside layer 90–120 km .
- 118 km - the transition from atmospheric wind to the flow of charged particles.
- 122 km (400,000 feet) - the first noticeable manifestations of the atmosphere during the return to Earth from orbit: the incoming air begins to unwrap the Space Shuttle with its nose in the direction of travel, ionization of air from friction and body heating begins.
- 120-130 km - a satellite in a circular orbit with such an altitude can make no more than one revolution.
- 150-180 km is the altitude of the perigee of the orbit of the first manned space flight.
- 200 km - the lowest possible orbit with short-term stability (up to several days).
- 302 km - the maximum height (apogee) of the first manned space flight (Gagarin Yu.A. on the spacecraft Vostok-1, April 12, 1961)
- 320 km - the registered boundary of the atmosphere in 1927: the discovery of a radio wave reflecting layer of Appleton.
- 350 km - the lowest possible orbit with long-term stability (up to several years).
- OK. 400 km - altitude of the International Space Station
- 500 km is the beginning of the internal proton radiation belt and the end of safe orbits for long human flights.
- 690 km - the average height of the boundary between the thermosphere and the exosphere (Thermopause, exobase). Above the exobase, the free path of air molecules becomes greater than the height of a homogeneous atmosphere, and if they have a speed higher than the second cosmic one, they can with a probability higher than 50% leave the atmosphere.
- 1000–1100 km is the maximum height of auroras, the last manifestation of the atmosphere visible from the surface of the Earth (but usually well noticeable auroras occur at altitudes of 90–400 km).
- 1372 km - the maximum height reached by man before the first manned missions to the Moon, the astronauts for the first time saw not just the horizon curve, but the Earth's sphericity (Gemini-11 ship on September 2, 1966).
- 2000 km - the atmosphere has no effect on satellites and they can exist in orbit for thousands of years.
- 3000 km is the maximum intensity of the proton flux of the internal radiation belt (up to 0.5-1 Gy / hour).
- 12,756 km - we retired a distance equal to the diameter of the planet Earth.
- 17 000 km - external electronic radiation belt.
- 27,743 km is the smallest distance from the Earth at which the asteroid 2012 DA14 with a diameter of 30 m and a mass of about 40 thousand tons flew in advance (over 1 day).
- 35 786 km - the height of the geostationary orbit, a satellite in such an orbit will always hang above one point of the equator. In the first half of the 20th century, this height was considered the theoretical limit to the existence of the atmosphere. If the whole atmosphere rotated evenly with the Earth, then from this height at the equator the centrifugal force of rotation would exceed the gravitational forces, and the air molecules that went beyond this boundary would fly apart. In fact, the phenomenon of atmospheric scattering takes place, but it occurs due to the thermal and corpuscular influence of the Sun in the entire volume of the exosphere at altitudes from 400 to ~ 100 thousand km (see above).
- OK. 90 000 km is the distance to the head shock wave formed by the collision of the Earth’s magnetosphere with the solar wind.
- OK. 100,000 km is the upper limit of the Earth’s exosphere (geo-corona) noted by satellites. The last manifestations of the earth's atmosphere ended, the interplanetary space began.
- 363 104–405 696 km - the height of the Moon’s orbit above the Earth.
- 401 056 km - an absolute record of the height at which the man was (Apollo 13, April 14, 1970).
- 930,000 km is the radius of the gravitational sphere of the Earth and the maximum height of its satellites. Above 930,000 km, the attraction of the Sun begins to prevail, and it will drag the bodies that rise above.
- 1,500,000 km is the distance to one of the L2 libration points in which the bodies that have got there are in gravitational equilibrium. A space station deduced to this point, without being an orbital satellite, would always follow the Earth and be in its shadow with minimal expenditures of fuel for the correction of the trajectory.
- 21 000 000 km - at this distance the gravitational influence of the Earth on the passing objects practically disappears.
- 40 000 000 km - the minimum distance from the Earth to the nearest large planet Venus.
- 56 000 000 - 58 000 000 km - the minimum distance to Mars during the Great oppositions.
- 149 597 870.7 km - the average distance from the Earth to the Sun. This distance serves as a measure of distance in the solar system and is called an astronomical unit (a.). Light travels this distance in about 500 seconds (8 minutes 20 seconds).
- 590 000 000 km - the minimum distance from the Earth to the nearest large gas planet Jupiter. Further numbers indicate the distance from the sun.
- 4 500 000 000 km (4.5 billion km) - the radius of the border of the near-solar interplanetary space - the radius of the orbit of the farthest planet Neptune.
- 8 230 000 000 km - the distant border of the Kuiper belt - the belt of small ice planets, which includes the dwarf planet Pluto.
- 20 000 000 000 km - the distance to the farthest today interstellar automatic spacecraft Voyager-1 January 5, 2016.
- 35 000 000 000 km (35 billion km) - the limit of the range of the solar wind - the boundary of the heliosphere, the beginning of interstellar space.
- 65 000 000 000 km - the distance to the Voyager-1 unit by the year 2100.
- OK. 300,000,000,000 km (300 billion km) is the near border of the Hills cloud, which is the inner part of the Oort cloud - a large but very rarefied cluster of ice blocks that slowly fly in their orbits. Occasionally getting out of this cloud and approaching the Sun, they become comets.
- 9,460,730,472,580.8 km (approx. 9.5 trillion km) - light year - the distance that light travels at a speed of 299,792 km / s in 1 year. It is used to measure interstellar and intergalactic distances.
- up to 15 000 000 000 000 km - the range of the probable location of the hypothetical satellite of the Sun of the star Nemesis
- up to 20 000 000 000 000 km (20 trillion km, 2 years old) - the gravitational boundaries of the Solar System (Hill Sphere) - the outer boundary of the Oort Cloud, the maximum range of existence of the Sun satellites (planets, comets, hypothetical low-luminous stars).
- 30 856 776 000 000 km - 1 parsec - a more narrow professional astronomical unit of measurement of interstellar distances, equal to 3.2616 light years.
- OK. 40,000,000,000,000 km (40 trillion km, 4.243 light years) is the distance to the nearest known star Proxima Centauri
- OK. 56,000,000,000,000 km (56 trillion km, 5.96 times of the year is the distance to the flying star Barnard, to which it was supposed to send an unmanned research device “Daedalus” developed from the 1970s, capable of flying and transmitting information within one human life (about 50 years).
- 100,000,000,000,000 km (100 trillion km, approx. 10 more years) - 11 nearest stars are within this radius.
- OK. 300,000,000,000,000 km (300 trillion km, 30 light years) is the size of the Local Interstellar Cloud, through which the Solar System is now moving (the density of the medium of this cloud is 300 atoms per 1 dm?).
- OK. 3 000 000 000 000 000 km (3 quadrillion km, 300 light years) - the size of the Local gas bubble, which includes the Local Interstellar Cloud with the Solar System (medium density of 50 atoms per 1 dm?).
- OK. 33,000,000,000,000,000 km (33 square kilometers, 3,500 years old) is the thickness of the galactic arm of Orion, near the inner edge of which the local bubble is located.
- OK. 300,000,000,000,000 km (300 square kilometers) is the distance from the Sun to the nearest outer edge of the halo of our Milky Way galaxy. Beyond it, there is a black, almost empty and starless intergalactic space with small spots of several nearby galaxies barely visible without a telescope. The density of the medium of intergalactic space is less than 1 hydrogen atom per 1 dm ?.
- OK. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 km (1 quintillion km, 100 thousand light years) is the diameter of our Milky Way galaxy, it contains 200–400 billion stars, the total mass together with black holes, dark matter and other invisible objects are ca. 3 trillion suns
- OK. 5 000 000 000 000 000 000 km (approx. 5 quintillion km) - the size of the subgroup of the Milky Way, which includes our galaxy and its satellites dwarf galaxies, a total of 15 galaxies. The most famous of them are the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud.
- OK. 30,000,000,000,000,000,000 km (ca. 30 quintillion km, ca. 1 million parsecs) is the size of the Local Group of galaxies, which includes three large neighbors: the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy, the Triangle Galaxy, and numerous dwarf galaxies (more than 50 galaxies). The Andromeda Galaxy and our galaxy are moving closer at a speed of about 120 km / s and are likely to collide with each other in about 4-5 billion years.
- OK. 2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 km (2 sextillion km, 200 million light years) is the size of the Local Supercluster of Galaxies (Virgo Superclusters) (about 30 thousand galaxies, mass around the quadrillion Suns).
- OK. 4,900,000,000,000,000,000,000 km (4.9 sextillion km, 520 million light years) is the size of the still larger supercluster Laniakea (“Immense Heaven”), which includes our Virgo supercluster and the so-called Great attractor that attracts galaxies and us, including at a speed of about 500 km / s. There are about 100 thousand galaxies in Leniakia, its mass is about 100 quadrillion suns.
- OK. 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (10 sextillions km, 1 billion years old) is the length of the Fishes-Whale Supercluster Complex, also called the Galactic filament and the Fishes-Whale hypercluster in which we live (60 clusters of galaxies, 10 masses of the Leniakey or about the quintillion of suns).
- up to 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 km is the distance to Supervoyda Eridan, the largest known void in size today, about 1 billion sv. years old. In the central regions of this vast empty space there are no stars and galaxies, and in general there is almost no ordinary matter (density 10% of the average density of the Universe). An astronaut in the center of the void without a large telescope could see nothing but darkness. In the picture on the right, in the cubic clipping from the Universe, many hundreds of large and small voids are visible, arranged like bubbles in a foam, between numerous galactic filaments.
- OK. 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (100 sextillions km, 10 billion years old) is the length of the great wall of Hercules-Northern Crown, the largest superstructure known today in the observable Universe. It is located at a distance of about 10 billion light years from us.
- OK. 250,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (about 250 sextillion km, more than 26 billion light years) is the size of the visibility limits of matter (galaxies and stars) in the observable Universe (over 500 billion galaxies).
- OK. 870,000,000,000,000,000,000 km (870 sextillion km, 92 billion light years) is the size of the limits of visibility of radiation in the observable universe.
The speed required to enter the near and far space
In order to go into orbit, the body must reach a certain speed. Space speeds for the Earth:
- The first cosmic velocity, 7.9 km / s, is the speed for going into orbit around the Earth;
- The second cosmic velocity, 11.1 km / s, is the velocity for escaping from the sphere of gravity of the Earth and entering interplanetary space;
- The third cosmic velocity, 16.67 km / s, is the velocity for leaving the sphere of gravity of the Sun and entering the interstellar space;
- The fourth cosmic velocity, about 550 km / s, is the velocity for escaping from the sphere of attraction of the Milky Way galaxy and going out to intergalactic space.
For comparison, the speed of the Sun relative to the center of the galaxy is about 220 km / s.
If any of the speeds is less than the specified one, then the body will not be able to reach the corresponding orbit (the statement is true only for launching at a specified speed from the Earth’s surface and further movement without thrust).
The first who realized that to achieve such speeds when using any chemical fuel, a multistage liquid fuel rocket was needed was Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky.