Architectural Terms Dictionary
Dictionary of architectural terms. Bay window, Shirinka, Rotunda, Peslochlo, Portico, Portal, Curb, Pilaster, Buttress, Stacked column, Capital, Zakomara, Comb, Garland, Gallery (gulbishche), Volyut, Belvedere, Balusters, Balustrade, Attic, Entablement and others ...
When creating the section, the following materials were used: "Architectural and Construction Dictionary" by V.S. Poplavsky and other sources.
A visual guide for those who want to understand the architecture (So that the next time you can easily distinguish the balustrade from the baluster, we made a simple and understandable guide to the main architectural terms and forms.)
Entablature (French Entablement, from table - table, board) - the upper horizontal part of the structure, usually lying on the columns , is an integral element of a classical architectural order . The entablature is divided into the carrier part — the architrave, the frieze resting on it, and the crowning part — the cornice. The entablature originated on the basis of a wooden joist and in its forms reflects its structure. [ drawing ]
The apse , the apse (from the Greek. Hapsis , genus. Case h apsidos - arch) - located in the eastern part of the Christian church altar ledge, semicircular, faceted or rectangular in plan.
Arch (from the Latin. Arcus - arc, bend) - curvilinear overlapping of the opening in the wall or the space between the two supports. Arches first appeared in the architecture of the Ancient East, were widely used in the architecture of ancient Rome. See the creeping arch .
Arkatur (from him. Arkatur) - a series of decorative false arches on the facade of the building or on the interior walls of the premises. Sometimes it looks like a belt, supplemented with columns on brackets ( column-type belt ). [ drawing ]
Architrave - see entablature .
Balustrade (French balustrade) - fencing (usually low) stairs, terraces, balconies, etc., consisting of a series of figured columns ( balusters ), connected from above by a horizontal beam or railings. [ drawing ]
Balusters - low figured columns (sometimes with carved decor), supporting railings fences balconies, stairs, etc.
The runner is a decorative brickwork in the form of a belt of triangular depressions, with the tops alternating up and down. drawing
Flowerpot - a decorative ornament in the form of a vase. Characteristic of the Baroque and Naryshkin baroque. [ drawing ]
Volyut (Latin and Italian. Voluta, letters. - curl, spiral) - an architectural motif in the form of a spiral curl with a circle ("eye") in the center. Part of the Ionic capitals , is also part of the Corinthian and composite capitals. The shape of volutes has various architectural details characteristic of the Baroque style. [ drawing ]
The octagon - in the Russian stone and wooden architecture octagonal in plan or part of the structure. Distributed mainly in church architecture. The octagons were usually placed on a quadrilateral base (the type of “octagon on a quadrangle”), less often they complete the cruciform volume in terms of.
Gallery (French galerie, from Italian. Galleria) is a long, covered, bright room in which columns , pillars or balustrades replace one of the walls of a building replace one of the longitudinal walls. See gulbishche , the porch .
Weights - figured detail in the form of an overturned pyramid of brick or stone. The weight is suspended on an iron rod hidden in a clutch and serves as a support for decorative arches, usually located under the large arch that unites them. Girka was widely used in Russian architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries. in the decoration of gates, porches, window openings, as well as in pseudo-Russian eclecticism. [ drawing ]
Head , cupola - outer decorative completion of the drum . Heads are helmet-shaped, pear-shaped, bulbous, umbrella-shaped, conical, etc. Give the upper part of the architectural structure a distinctive silhouette and great picturesqueness, which is enhanced by gilding coloring, as well as the texture of covering materials (tile, shemore, figure iron, etc.).
Gulbische - in the old architecture of the outer gallery , surrounding the building at the level of the floors of the basement. They were common in the religious architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries. Sometimes they met in secular buildings. If the gulbische is located in front of the entrance to the church, it is also called the porch . [ drawing ]
Dentils - see crackers .
The hitch is a decorative detail in Russian wooden and stone architecture of the 13th - 18th centuries: thickening on pillars, columns, window casings and door portals . It was used in ancient Russian architecture and pseudo-Russian eclecticism. [ drawing ]
The keystone , the castle (castle) - a wedge-shaped stone or brick at the top of the arch or arch . Often has an ornamental or sculptural processing. Sometimes it turns into a decorative detail that adorns the arches and flat lintels. Characteristic of classicism. [ drawing ]
Barb (merlon) - projection of the fortress wall or tower, intended for defense. In Russian architecture, a special tooth is often used - “dovetail”.
Cornice - see entablature .
Kokoshnik - in the Russian church architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries. semicircular or keeled fake zakomara, which has a decorative purpose. They are located on walls, arches , as well as tiers diminishing up at the bases of tents and drum heads. drawing During the pattern of kokoshniki also decorated windows. drawing
Bell tower - tower with an open tier for bells. Staged near the temple or included in its composition. In medieval Russian architecture are known pillar-shaped and tent belltowers along with belfries of stenobodnogo and ward type.
Column (French colonne, from Lat. Columna - pillar) - architecturally treated, vertical support round in cross section with artistically decorated capital and base, a pivotal element of architectural orders . [ drawing ]
Buttress (from French. Contreforce - opposing force) - stone, concrete or reinforced concrete transverse wall, vertical protrusion or edge, reinforcing the main supporting structure (mainly the outer wall) and perceiving horizontal forces (for example, spread from the arches overlapping the building). Buttresses are also widely used to strengthen the walls during the restoration of architectural monuments. drawing , drawing2
Coruna is a multipath kokoshnik above the window, outlines resembling a crown. [ drawing ]
Cubed column - a support with a smooth expansion in the central part [ drawing ]
Stucco molding - embossed decorations (figured and ornamental) on the facades and in the interiors of buildings, as a rule, cast or pressed out of plaster, plaster, concrete or other materials. Especially widely used in Baroque and Naryshka baroque.
Spatula - a flat vertical strip protruding on the surface of the wall of the building. The spatula may be a constructive thickening of the wall or have a decorative meaning, being one of the means for dividing the facades. See also pilaster . [ drawing ]
Maskaron (French mascaron, from Italian. Mascherone is a large mask) is a decorative relief in the form of a mask depicting (often in a grotesque or fantastic guise) the human face or head of an animal. Masquerades are placed mainly on the locks of the arches , window and door openings. Maskaroni used in the architecture of classicism and modernity. drawing drawing2
Mashikuly (French machicoulis) - mounted loopholes, located in the upper parts of the walls and towers of medieval fortifications. Having lost their defensive significance with the development of firearms, machiculi were used as an element of architectural decoration. [ drawing ]
Merlon - see prong
A typesetting column is a column, usually decorative, composed of small carved elements. It was widely used in the Old Russian architecture, especially in the period of patterns. drawing drawing2 drawing3
The platband is a decorative frame for the window opening. The term "platband" is usually applied to Russian architecture XV-beg. XVIII centuries.
Narteks , the porch (late Greek: Narthex , from the Greek. Narqhx - casket, casket) - the entrance room, usually adjacent to the western side of the Christian church. Narthex was intended for persons who did not have the right to enter inside the main room for worshipers.
The nave (French nef, from the Latin. Navis - ship) is an elongated room, part of the interior (usually in basilica-type buildings), bounded on one or both longitudinal sides by a series of columns or pillars.
Architectural orders (from the Latin. Ordo - order) - artistically meaningful combination of bearing and bearing parts.
The classical system of orders has developed in ancient Greece. The main orders that received the name from the Greek tribes and regions: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian (a type of Doric order - Tuscan, Corinthian and Ionic - composite). The warrant is the most important element of the architecture of classicism, sometimes used in baroque.
A portico (from the Latin porticus) is a characteristic element of buildings built in the style of classicism: a series of columns (sometimes pilasters ) placed in front of the building facade ends with an attic or a pediment . drawing
Side - chapel - in the Orthodox church there is a small, without a column extension from the south or north side of the facade, or a specially designated part of the main building, which has an additional altar for certain worship services.
Sink , rocaille (from the French. Rocaille, letters. - small, crushed stone, shells) - ornament motif in the form of a stylized shell. Shells, located in the kokoshniks , borrowed from the decoration of the Archangel Cathedral of the Kremlin, are characteristic of Naryshkin baroque. drawing drawing2
Rotunda (Italian. Rotonda , from the Latin. Rotundus - round) - a centric structure, round in terms of construction (temple, mausoleum, pavilion, hall), usually topped with a dome . The rotunda often completes the central part of the building in the style of classicism drawing [ drawing ]
Rust, rustic, rustic (from the Latin. Rustic - simple, rough) - wall decoration, imitating large masonry. Reviving the plane of the wall with the game of light and shade, the rustication gives the impression of power and massiveness of the building. When finishing the facade with plaster, the rust is imitated by breaking the wall into rectangles and stripes. Characteristic of classicism. [ drawing ]
The arch is a spatial structure, overlapping or covering of structures, having a geometric shape formed by a convex curvilinear surface. Under the load, the vault transfers not only vertical load to the supports, but also horizontal forces (thrust).
Crackers, dentils - a decorative ornament in the form of a series of downwardly pointed teeth. In ancient Russian architecture they were called crackers, with reference to styles of Western origin (for example, Baroque) they use the word denticules. [ drawing ]
Timpan (Greek tumpanon ) - the triangular field of the gable ; an indented part of the wall (niche) of a semi-circular, triangular or lancet outline above a window or door. Sculpture, pictorial images, emblems, etc. are often placed in the tympanum.
The refectory (from the Greek. Trapeza - table, food) - a spacious low extension from the western side of the Christian church, which served for worship in the winter time and public needs of the parishioners. Characteristic for Russian architecture of the 17-18 centuries.
Facade (French facade, from Italian. Facciata, from faccia - person) - the outer side of the building or structure. Depending on the configuration of the building and its surroundings, the main facade, the street facade, the side facades, the street, courtyard, park and other facades are distinguished.
Frieze (French frise)
- in architectural orders, the middle horizontal part of the entablature , between the architrave and the eaves; filled with a continuous ribbon of reliefs or left empty; drawing
- a continuous strip of decorative, sculptural, painting and other images (often of an ornamental nature) bordering the top of the walls, the surface of the floor of the room, the floor of the carpet, etc.
The fronton (French fronton, from the Latin frons, frontis - forehead, front part of the wall) is a triangular (less often bow) completion of the portico , bounded by two slopes on the sides and a cornice at the base. drawing The field of the pediment ( tympanum ) is often decorated with sculpture. Decorative gables adorn the doors and windows of buildings drawing (see also torn gable ).
Chetverik - in Russian stone and wooden architecture, a construction that is quadrilateral in plan or an integral part of the compositions of tent and longline temples, including in combination with the octahedral part ("octagon on cheverive").
A tent , a hip roof - the completion of centric structures (temples, bell towers, towers, porches) in the form of a high four-sided, octahedral or multi-faceted pyramid. Distributed in Russian stone architecture from the XVI century. Brick tents were made of sloping rows or horizontal rows of brick with an overlap, wooden - overlapping crowns with decreasing side lengths. In religious buildings, the tent was usually crowned with an onion head, while in civil and military buildings - a watch tower, weather vane. [ drawing ]
Shirinka - a decorative ornament in the form of a rectangular groove, sometimes decorated with a tile, stucco. Characteristic for the style of patterns. Often the buildings were decorated with a belt of spikes. drawing