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Architectural Terms Dictionary

Словарь архитектурных терминов

Dictionary of architectural terms. Bay window, Shirinka, Rotunda, Piesloch, Portico, Portal, Curb, Pilaster, Buttress, Stacked column, Capital, Zakomara, Comb, Garland, Gallery (gulbishche), Volyut, Belvedere, Balusters, Balustrade, Attic, Entablement and others ...

When creating the section, the following materials were used: "Architectural and Construction Dictionary" by V.S. Poplavsky and other sources.

A visual guide for those who want to understand the architecture (So ​​that the next time you can easily distinguish the balustrade from the baluster, we made a simple and understandable guide to the basic architectural terms and forms.)

Entablature (French Entablement, from table - table, board) - the upper horizontal part of the structure, usually lying on the columns , is an integral element of the classical architectural order . The entablature is divided into the carrier part — the architrave, the frieze resting on it, and the crowning part — the cornice. The entablature originated on the basis of a wooden joist and in its forms reflects its structure. [ drawing ]

The apse , the apse (from the Greek. Hapsis , genus. Case h apsidos - arch) - located in the eastern part of the Christian church altar ledge, semicircular, faceted or rectangular in plan.

Arch (from the Latin. Arcus - arc, bend) - curvilinear overlapping of the opening in the wall or the space between the two supports. Arches first appeared in the architecture of the Ancient East, were widely used in the architecture of ancient Rome. See the creeping arch .

Arcade (from the French. Arcade) - a series of identical in shape and size of arches , based on columns or pillars. Most often used in the device open galleries . [ drawing ]

Arkatur (from him. Arkatur) - a series of decorative false arches on the facade of the building or on the interior walls of the premises. Sometimes it looks like a belt, supplemented with columns on brackets ( column-type belt ). [ drawing ]

Column belt - see Arcature .

Architrave - see entablature .

Atticus (from the Greek. Attikos - Attic) - a wall erected above the crowning architectural structure with a cornice, rectangular completion of the portico . [ drawing ]

Balustrade (French balustrade) - fencing (usually low) stairs, terraces, balconies, etc., consisting of a series of figured columns ( balusters ), connected from above by a horizontal beam or railings. [ drawing ]

Balusters - low figured columns (sometimes with carved decor), supporting railings fences balconies, stairs, etc.

A drum is a cylindrical or multifaceted base of a dome (in Russian architecture of the 17th century, sometimes a decorative onion head ), usually cut through by windows. [ drawing ]

The runner is a decorative brickwork in the form of a belt of triangular depressions, with the tops alternating up and down. picture

Gazebo (ital. Belvedere, letters. - beautiful view) - superstructure above the building, usually round in terms of pattern

Flowerpot - a decorative ornament in the form of a vase. Characteristic of baroque and naryshkino baroque. [ drawing ]

Volyut (Latin and Italian. Voluta, letters. - curl, spiral) - an architectural motif in the form of a spiral curl with a circle ("eye") in the center. Part of the Ionic capitals , is also part of the Corinthian and composite capitals. The shape of volutes has various architectural details characteristic of the Baroque style. [ drawing ]

The octagon - in the Russian stone and wooden architecture octagonal in plan or part of the structure. Distributed mainly in church architecture. The octagons were usually placed on a quadrangular base (the type of “octagon on a quadrangle”), less often they complete the cruciform volume in terms of.

Gallery (French galerie, from Italian. Galleria) is a long, bright indoor space in which columns , pillars or balustrades replace one of the walls of a building replace one of the longitudinal walls. See gulbishche , the porch .

Garland - an ornamental motif of wave-like hanging leaves, flowers, ribbons, etc. It is characteristic for baroque. picture

Weights - figured detail in the form of an overturned pyramid of brick or stone. The weight is suspended on an iron rod hidden in a laying and serves as a support to the decorative arches, usually located under the large arch uniting them. Girka was widely used in Russian architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries. in the decoration of gates, porches, window openings, as well as in pseudo-Russian eclecticism. [ drawing ]

Head , cupola - outer decorative completion of the drum . Heads are helmet-shaped, pear-shaped, bulbous, umbrella-shaped, conical, etc. Give the upper part of the architectural structure a distinctive silhouette and great picturesqueness, which is enhanced by gilding coloring, as well as the texture of covering materials (tile, shemore, figure iron, etc.).

Combs, scallops - in the architecture of the Naryshka baroque, curly curls that adorned the top of the wall, in a form echoed with a torn pediment . [ drawing ]

Gulbische - in the old architecture of the outer gallery , surrounding the building at the level of the floors of the basement. They were common in the religious architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries. Sometimes they met in secular buildings. If the gulbische is located in front of the entrance to the church, it is also called the porch . [ drawing ]

Dentils - see crackers .

The chandelier is a decorative detail in Russian wooden and stone architecture of the 13th - 18th centuries: thickening on pillars, columns, window casings and door portals . It was used in ancient Russian architecture and pseudo-Russian eclecticism. [ drawing ]

Zakomara (from the other russians. Mosquito - vault) - a semicircular or keeled end of a wall section, covering the inner cylindrical (box-like, cross) vault adjacent to it. [ drawing ]

The keystone , the castle (castle) - a wedge-shaped stone or brick at the top of the arch or arch . Often has ornamental or sculptural processing. Sometimes it turns into a decorative detail that adorns the arches and flat lintels. Characteristic of classicism. [ drawing ]

Tightening is a horizontal or inclined beam tightening parts of a structure, usually the sides of the roof. [ drawing ]

Tooth (merlon) - projection of the fortress wall or tower, intended for defense. In Russian architecture, a special tooth is often used - “dovetail”.

Cornice - see entablature .

Capital - the upper part of the column or pilaster , the shape of which is determined by the order . [ drawing ]

Kokoshnik - in the Russian church architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries. semi-circular or keeled fake zakomara, which has a decorative purpose. They are located on walls, arches , as well as tiers diminishing up at the bases of tents and drum heads. drawing During the pattern of kokoshniki also decorated windows. drawing

Belfry - tower with an open tier for bells. Staged near the temple or included in its composition. In the medieval Russian architecture are known pillar-shaped and tent belltowers along with belfries of the stenobodnogo and ward type.

Column (French colonne, from Lat. Columna - pillar) - architecturally treated, vertical support round in cross section with artistically decorated capital and base, a pivotal element of architectural orders . [ drawing ]

Buttress (from French. Contreforce - opposing force) - stone, concrete or reinforced concrete transverse wall, vertical protrusion or edge, reinforcing the main supporting structure (mainly the outer wall) and perceiving horizontal forces (for example, spread from the arches overlapping the building). Buttresses are also widely used to strengthen the walls during the restoration of architectural monuments. drawing , drawing2

Koruna is a multipath kokoshnik above the window, the outlines resembling a crown. [ drawing ]

Kubchaty column - support with smooth expansion in the central part [ drawing ]

Dome (Italian. Cupola - dome, dome, from the Latin. Cupula, diminutive from cupa - barrel) - type of overlap ( arch ), similar in shape to the hemisphere.

Dovetail - a type of serf prong with a split in the upper part. [ drawing ]

Stucco molding - embossed decorations (figured and ornamental) on the facades and in the interiors of buildings, as a rule, cast or pressed out of plaster, plaster, concrete or other materials. Especially widely used in Baroque and Naryshka baroque.

The paddle is a flat vertical strip protruding on the surface of the building wall. The blade may be a constructive thickening of the wall or have a decorative meaning, being one of the means for dividing the facades. See also pilaster . [ drawing ]

Maskaron (French mascaron, from Italian. Mascherone is a large mask) is a decorative relief in the form of a mask, depicting (often in a grotesque or fantastic guise) the human face or head of an animal. Masquerades are placed mainly on the locks of the arches , window and door openings. Maskaroni used in the architecture of classicism and modernity. drawing drawing2

Mashikuly (French machicoulis) - mounted loopholes, located in the upper parts of the walls and towers of medieval fortifications. Having lost their defensive significance with the development of firearms, machiculi were used as an element of architectural decoration. [ drawing ]

Merlon - see prong

A typesetting column is a column, usually decorative, composed of small carved elements. It was widely used in the Old Russian architecture, especially in the period of patterns. drawing drawing2 drawing3

Platband - decorative frame window opening. The term "platband" is usually applied to Russian architecture XV-beg. XVIII centuries.

Narteks , the porch (late Greek: Narthex , from the Greek. Narqhx - casket, box) - the entrance room, usually adjacent to the western side of the Christian church. Narthex was intended for persons who did not have the right to enter inside the main room for worshipers.

The nave (French nef, from the Latin. Navis - ship) is an elongated room, part of the interior (usually in buildings like the basilica), bounded on one or both longitudinal sides by a series of columns or pillars.

Architectural orders (from the Latin. Ordo - order) - artistically meaningful combination of bearing and bearing parts.

Bearing parts: a column with a capital , base, sometimes with a pedestal.
Worn: architrave, frieze and cornice, which together form the entablature .

The classical system of orders has developed in ancient Greece. The main orders that received the name from the Greek tribes and regions: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian (a type of Doric order - Tuscan, Corinthian and Ionic - composite). The warrant is the most important element of the architecture of classicism, sometimes used in baroque.

The porch is a room in front of the church that looks like a small gallery .

Pechora - vaulted recess on the inside of the fortress wall for the installation of guns. [ drawing ]

Pilaster - flat vertical ledge on the surface of the wall. It differs from the blade in that it has the same order parts (trunk, capital, base) as the column . [ drawing ]

Creeping arch - the arch , whose supports are located on different levels. [ drawing ]

A curb is a type of ornamental brickwork in which one row of bricks is laid at an angle to the outer surface of the wall. drawing drawing2

Portal (German Portal, from the Latin. Porta - entrance, gate) - an architecturally designed entrance to the building. For ancient architecture is characterized by promising portals. [ drawing ]

A portico (from the Latin porticus) is a characteristic element of buildings built in the style of classicism: a series of columns (sometimes pilasters ) placed in front of the building facade ends with an attic or a pediment . picture

Side - chapel - in the Orthodox church there is a small, without a column extension from the south or north side of the facade, or a specially designated part of the main building, which has an additional altar for individual services.

Pryoslo - the section of the wall between the two blades or pilasters . In the fortress architecture - the section of the wall between the two towers. [ drawing ]

A broken pediment is a decorative pediment located above the window, the frame of which is torn in one or several places. A characteristic element of the Naryshkin baroque. drawing drawing2

Sink , rocaille (from the French. Rocaille, letters. - small, crushed stone, shells) - ornament motif in the form of a stylized shell. Shells, located in kokoshniks , borrowed from the decoration of the Archangel Cathedral of the Kremlin, are characteristic of Naryshkin baroque. drawing drawing2

Rotunda (Italian. Rotonda , from the Latin. Rotundus - round) - centric structure, round in terms of construction (temple, mausoleum, pavilion, hall), usually topped with a dome . The rotunda often completes the central part of the building in the style of classicism drawing [ drawing ]

Rust, rustic, rustic (from the Latin. Rustic - simple, rough) - wall decoration, imitating large masonry. Reviving the plane of the wall with the game of light and shade, the rustication gives the impression of power and massiveness of the building. When finishing the facade with plaster, rust is imitated by breaking the wall into rectangles and stripes. Characteristic of classicism. [ drawing ]

The arch is a spatial structure, overlapping or covering of structures, having a geometric shape formed by a convex curvilinear surface. Under load, the arch transfers to the supports not only the vertical load, but also the horizontal forces (thrust).

Crackers, dentils - a decorative ornament in the form of a series of downwardly pointed teeth. In ancient Russian architecture they were called crackers, with reference to styles of western origin (for example, baroque) they use the word denticules. [ drawing ]

Timpan (Greek tumpanon ) - the triangular field of the gable ; an indented part of the wall (niche) of a semi-circular, triangular or lancet outline above a window or door. Sculpture, pictorial images, emblems, etc. are often placed in the tympanum.

The refectory (from the Greek. Trapeza - table, food) - a spacious low extension from the western side of the Christian church, which served for worship in the winter time and public needs of the parishioners. Characteristic for Russian architecture of the 17-18 centuries.

Facade (French facade, from Italian. Facciata, from faccia - person) - the outer side of the building or structure. Depending on the configuration of the building and its surroundings, the main facade, the street facade, the side facades, the street, courtyard, park and other facades are distinguished.

Frieze (French frise)

  1. in architectural orders, the middle horizontal part of the entablature , between the architrave and the cornice; filled with a solid ribbon of reliefs or left empty; picture
  2. a continuous strip of decorative, sculptural, painting and other images (often of an ornamental nature) bordering the top of the walls, the floor surface of the room, the floor of the carpet, etc.

The fronton (French fronton, from the Latin frons, frontis - forehead, front part of the wall) is a triangular (less often bow) completion of the portico , bounded by two slopes on the sides and a cornice at the base. The field of the pediment ( tympanum ) is often decorated with sculpture. Decorative gables adorn the doors and windows of buildings drawing (see also torn gable ).

Cherub - a decorative ornament in the form of a child's face, sometimes with wings. Widely used in baroque architecture. [ drawing ]

Chetverik - in the Russian stone and wooden architecture, the construction is quadrangular in plan or an integral part of the compositions of tent and longline temples, including in combination with the octahedral part ("octagon on quadrangle").

A tent , a hip roof - the completion of centric structures (temples, bell towers, towers, porches) in the form of a high four-sided, octahedral or multi-faceted pyramid. Distributed in Russian stone architecture from the XVI century. Brick tents were made of sloping rows or horizontal rows of brick with an overlap, wooden - overlapping crowns with decreasing side lengths. In religious buildings, the tent was usually crowned with an onion head, while in civil and military buildings - a watch tower, weather vane. [ drawing ]

Shirinka - a decorative ornament in the form of a rectangular groove, sometimes decorated with a tile, stucco. Characteristic for the style of patterns. Often the buildings were decorated with a belt of chinks. picture