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Glossary of Architectural Terms

Словарь архитектурных терминов

Dictionary of architectural terms. Bay window, Shirinka, Rotunda, Spaniel, Portico, Portal, Curb, Pilaster, Buttress, Stacked column, Capital, Zakomara, Crest, Garland, Gallery (culinary estate), Volyuta, Belvedere, Balusters, Balustrade, Attik, Antablement and others ...

When creating the section, the following materials were used: "Architectural and Construction Dictionary" by V. S. Poplavsky and other sources.

A visual guide for those who want to understand architecture (so that next time you can easily distinguish a balustrade from a baluster, we made a simple and understandable guide to basic architectural terms and forms.)

Entablature (French Entablement, from table - table, board) - the upper horizontal part of the structure, usually lying on the columns , is an integral element of the classical architectural order . The entablature is divided into a bearing part - an architrave, a frieze resting on it and a crowning part - a cornice. The entablature arose on the basis of wooden beam ceilings and in its forms reflects its structure. [ picture ]

Apse , absida (from the Greek. Hapsis , genus case h apsidos - arch) - located in the eastern part of the Christian church altar ledge, semicircular, faceted or rectangular in plan.

Arch (from Lat. Arcus - arc, bend) - curvilinear overlap of the opening in the wall or the space between two supports. Arches first appeared in the architecture of the Ancient East, were widely used in the architecture of Ancient Rome. See the creeping arch .

Arcade (from French Arcade) - a series of arches of the same shape and size, resting on columns or pillars. Most often used for open galleries . [ Image ]

Arkatur (from German Arkatur) - a series of decorative false arches on the facade of a building or on the interior walls of rooms. Sometimes it looks like a belt, supplemented by columns on the brackets ( arkaturno-columnar belt ). [ picture ]

Arcature-columnar belt - see Arkatura .

Architrave - see entablature .

Attik (from the Greek. Attikos - attic) - a wall erected over the crowning of the architectural structure with a cornice, the rectangular completion of the portico . [ picture ]

Balustrade (French balustrade) - a fence (usually not high) of stairs, terraces, balconies, etc., consisting of a series of curly columns ( balusters ) connected from above by a horizontal beam or railing. [ picture ]

Balusters - low curly columns (sometimes with carved decor) supporting the railing of the balconies, stairs, etc.

A drum is a cylindrical or multi-faceted base of a dome (in Russian architecture of the 17th century, sometimes a decorative onion dome ), usually cut through by windows. [ picture ]

Runner - decorative brickwork in the form of a belt of triangular depressions, facing vertices alternately up and down. drawing

Gazebo (Italian: Belvedere, lit. - beautiful view) - superstructure above the building, usually round in plan

A flowerpot is a decorative ornament in the form of a vase. It is characteristic of baroque and Naryshkin baroque. [ picture ]

Voluta (Latin and Italian. Voluta, lit. - curl, spiral) - an architectural motif in the form of a spiral curl with a circle (“eye”) in the center. Part of the ionic capitals , is also part of the Corinthian and composite capitals. Various architectural details characteristic of the Baroque style have the form of volutes. [ Image ]

Eight - piece - in Russian stone and wooden architecture, the building is octagonal in plan or part of the structure. Distributed mainly in church architecture. Eights were usually placed on a quadrangular base (type “octagon on four”), less often they complete a cross-shaped volume in plan.

Gallery (French. Galerie, from Italian. Galleria) - a long covered bright room in which one of the longitudinal walls is replaced by columns , poles or balustrades adjacent to the wall of the building. See the cemetery , the porch .

Garland - an ornamental motif of wave-like hanging leaves, flowers, ribbons, etc. It is characteristic for baroque. drawing

A weight is a figured detail in the form of an overturned pyramid made of brick or stone. The weight is suspended on an iron rod hidden in the masonry and serves as a support for decorative arches, usually located under a large arch uniting them. The weight was widely used in Russian architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries. in the decoration of gates, porches, window openings, as well as in pseudo-Russian eclecticism. [ picture ]

The head , the head - the exterior decorative completion of the drum . The chapters are helmet-shaped, pear-shaped, bulbous, umbrella, conical, etc. They give the upper part of the architectural structure a characteristic silhouette and great picturesqueness, which is enhanced by gilding coloring, as well as the texture of covering materials (tile, ploughshare, figured iron, etc.).

Combs, combs - in the Naryshkin Baroque architecture, the curly curls adorning the top of the wall resembled a torn pediment in shape. [ picture ]

Gulbische - in ancient Russian architecture, an outdoor gallery surrounding the building at the level of the basement floors. They were common in the cult architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries. Sometimes found in secular buildings. If ambulatory located at the entrance to the church, it is also called a porch . [ picture ]

Denticles - see crackers .

Melon is a decorative detail in Russian wooden and stone architecture of the 13th - 18th centuries: a thickening on pillars, columns, window frames and door portals . It was used in ancient Russian architecture and pseudo-Russian eclecticism. [ picture ]

Zakomara (from other Russian mosquito - arch) - a semicircular or keeled completion of a wall section, covering the inner cylindrical (box, cross) arch adjacent to it. [ picture ]

The keystone of the castle (fastener) - wedge-shaped stone or brick in the top of the vault or arch . Often has an ornamental or sculptural finish. Sometimes it turns into a decorative detail decorating arches and flat lintels. Characteristic of classicism. [ picture ]

Tightening - a horizontal or inclined beam, tightening parts of any structure, usually the sides of the arch. [ picture ]

A prong (merlon) is a ledge of a fortress wall or tower intended for defense. In Russian architecture, a tooth of a special shape, the “dovetail,” was often used.

Cornice - see entablature .

Capital - the upper part of the column or pilasters , the shape of which is determined by the order . [ picture ]

Kokoshnik - in Russian church architecture of the XVI-XVII centuries. semicircular or keeled fake zakomara, having a decorative purpose. They are located on walls, arches , as well as tiers decreasing upwards at the bases of tents and drums of chapters. Picture During Uzoroche innovative features and decorated windows. drawing .

The bell tower is a tower with an open tier for bells. It was placed next to the temple or included in its composition. In medieval Russian architecture, pillar-shaped and hipped bell towers are known along with belfries of the wall-shaped and ward type.

Column (French: colonne, from Latin: columna - pillar) - an architecturally machined, round cross-section vertical support with an artistically decorated capital and base, the core element of architectural orders . [ picture ]

Buttress (from French contreforce - opposing force) - a stone, concrete or reinforced concrete transverse wall, a vertical protrusion or rib reinforcing the main supporting structure (mainly the outer wall) and absorbing horizontal forces (for example, a spacer from the arches covering the building). Buttresses are also widely used to strengthen walls during the restoration of architectural monuments. drawing , drawing2

Koruna - multi-beam kokoshnik above the window, outlines resembling a crown. [ picture ]

Cubular column - support with smooth expansion in the central part [ figure ]

Dome (Italian cupola -. Dome, arch, from the Latin cupula, diminutive of Cupa -. Barrel) - the kind of overlap ( vault ), similar in form to the hemisphere.

Dovetail - a type of serf tooth with a bifurcation in the upper part. [ picture ]

Stucco molding - relief ornaments (curly and ornamental) on the facades and in the interiors of buildings, as a rule, cast or pressed from gypsum, plaster, concrete or other materials. It was especially widely used in baroque and Naryshkin baroque.

The shoulder blade is a flat vertical strip protruding on the surface of a building wall. The spatula can be a constructive thickening of the wall or have a decorative value, being one of the means of dividing the facades. See also pilaster . [ picture ]

Mascaron (French mascaron, from Italian. Mascherone - large mask) is a decorative relief in the form of a mask depicting (often in a grotesque or fantastic appearance) a human face or head of an animal. Mascarons are placed mainly on the locks of arches , window and doorways. Mascarons were used in the architecture of classicism and modernism. drawing drawing2

Mashikuli (French machicoulis) - mounted loopholes located in the upper parts of the walls and towers of medieval fortifications. Having lost their defensive significance with the development of firearms, mashikuli were used as an element of architectural decoration. [ picture ]

Merlon - see a tooth

Stacked column - a column, usually decorative, made up of small carved elements. It was widely used in ancient Russian architecture, especially during the period of design. figure figure2 figure3

Platband - a decorative frame of a window opening. The term “platband” is usually applied to Russian architecture of the XV-early. XVIII centuries

Narteks , narthex (late Greek. Narthex , from the Greek. Narqhx - small chest , casket) - the entrance room, usually adjoining the western side of the Christian church. Narteks was intended for people who did not have the right to enter the main room for worshipers.

Nave (French nef, from Latin navis - ship) - an elongated room, part of the interior (usually in buildings such as the basilica), limited on one or both longitudinal sides by a number of columns or pillars.

Architectural orders (from lat. Ordo - order) - an artistically meaningful combination of bearing and carried parts.

Bearing parts: a column with a capital , base, sometimes with a pedestal.
Bearings: architrave, frieze and cornice, together constituting entablature .

The classical order system has developed in ancient Greece. The main orders, named after Greek tribes and regions: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian (a variety of Doric order - Tuscan, Corinthian and Ionic - composite). An order is an essential element of the architecture of classicism, sometimes used in baroque.

The porch is a room in front of the entrance to the church, which looks like a small gallery .

Pechura - vaulted recess on the inner side of the fortress wall for the installation of tools. [ picture ]

Pilaster - a flat vertical ledge on the surface of the wall. It differs from the scapula in that it has the same order parts (trunk, capital, base) as the column . [ picture ]

A creeping arch is an arch whose supports are located at different levels. [ picture ]

A curb is a type of ornamental brickwork, in which one row of bricks is laid at an angle to the outer surface of the wall. drawing drawing2

Portal (German: Portal, from Lat. Porta - entrance, gate) - an architecturally designed entrance to the building. Perspective portals are characteristic of ancient Russian architecture. [ picture ]

A portico (from Latin porticus) is a characteristic element of buildings built in the style of classicism: a row of columns (sometimes a pilaster ), placed in front of the building’s facade, ends with an attic or pediment . drawing

A side chapel - in the Orthodox church there is a small pillar-less extension on the south or north side of the facade or a specially allocated part of the main building, which has an additional altar for individual services.

Spindle - a section of the wall between two shoulder blades or pilasters . In fortress architecture, a section of a wall between two towers. [ picture ]

A torn pediment is a decorative pediment located above a window, the frame of which is torn in one or more places. A characteristic element of the Naryshkin Baroque. Figure risunok2

Sink , rocaille (from the French. Rocaille, letters. - small, crushed stone, sinks) - the motif of the ornament in the form of a stylized shell. The shells located in the kokoshniks are borrowed from the decor of the Kremlin’s Archangel Cathedral and are typical of the Naryshkin baroque. drawing drawing2

Rotunda (Italian: rotonda, from Latin: rotundus - round) is a centric structure, a round construction in plan (temple, mausoleum, pavilion, hall), usually crowned with a dome . The rotunda often completes the central part of the building in the style of classicism drawing [ drawing ]

Rust, rustication, rustic (from lat. Rusticus - simple, coarse) - wall decoration that imitates large masonry. Reviving the plane of the wall with a game of chiaroscuro, rustication creates the impression of power, massiveness of the building. When decorating the facade with stucco, rust is simulated by breaking the wall into rectangles and stripes. Characteristic of classicism. [ picture ]

Arch - a spatial structure, overlapping or covering structures having a geometric shape formed by a convex curved surface. Under load, the arch transfers to the supports not only a vertical load, but also horizontal forces (struts).

Crackers, denticles - a decorative ornament in the form of a series of denticles directed downward. In ancient Russian architecture they were called crackers, in relation to the styles of Western origin (e.g., baroque) they use the word denticles. [ picture ]

Tympanum (Greek tumpanon ) - a triangular pediment field; the deepened part of the wall (niche) of a semicircular, triangular or lancet outline above a window or door. Sculptures, paintings, coats of arms, etc. are often placed in the tympanum.

The refectory (from Greek trapeza - table, food) is a spacious low extension on the western side of the Christian church, which served for worship in winter and for the public needs of the parishioners. Characteristic for Russian architecture of the 17-18 centuries.

Facade (French facade, from Italian facciata, from faccia - face) - the outer side of a building or structure. Depending on the configuration of the building and its environment, the main facade, street facade, side facades, street, courtyard, park and other facades are distinguished.

Frieze (French frise)

  1. in architectural orders, the average horizontal part of the entablature , between the architrave and the cornice; It is filled with a continuous tape of reliefs or left empty; drawing
  2. a continuous strip of decorative, sculptural, pictorial and other images (often of an ornamental nature) bordering the top of the walls, the floor surface of the room, the carpet field, etc.

Fronton (French fronton, from Latin frons, frontis - forehead, front of the wall) - the triangular (less often onion) completion of the portico , limited by two slopes on the sides and a cornice at the base. Figure Field gable ( tympanum ) often decorated sculpture. Decorative gables adorn the doors and windows of buildings drawing (see also torn pediment ).

Cherub - a decorative ornament in the form of a child's face, sometimes with wings. Widely used in baroque architecture. [ picture ]

Chetverik - in Russian stone and wooden architecture, the construction is quadrangular in plan or an integral part of the composition of tent and tier temples, including in combination with the octagonal part ("octagon on four").

Tent , hipped roof - the completion of centric buildings (temples, bell towers, towers, porches) in the form of a high tetrahedral, octagonal or polyhedral pyramid. Distributed in Russian stone architecture from the XVI century. Brick tents were made up of inclined rows or horizontal rows of brick with a lap, wooden - a lap of rims with decreasing side lengths. In places of worship, the tent was usually crowned with the onion head, in the civil and military - the sentinel tower, weather vane. [ picture ]

Shirinka is a decorative ornament in the form of a rectangular recess, sometimes decorated with a tile, stucco molding. Characteristic for patterned style. Often the buildings were decorated with a belt of widths. drawing