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Chernobyl: an accident with disastrous consequences



Chernobyl accident with catastrophic consequences


The Chernobyl nuclear power plant (Chernobyl nuclear power plant) is the first nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The first power unit of the ChNPP with a capacity of 1 million kW. entered service on September 27, 1977. December 22, 1978, the second power unit was put into operation, in December 1981 - the third, in December 1983 - the fourth. Out of 75.3 billion kW / h, produced by all Ukrainian energy companies, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accounted for 4.7 billion kW / h per year.

On the night of April 26, 1986, at 1 am 23 minutes the fourth nuclear power plant in the world, with a partial destruction of the reactor core and the release of fission fragments outside the zone, occurred at the fourth block of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. According to experts, the accident occurred due to an attempt to make an experiment to remove additional energy during the operation of the main nuclear reactor. According to scientists, the experiment was necessary in order to learn how to shut down the reactor, in particular, in wartime.

190 tons of radioactive substances were emitted into the atmosphere. 8 out of 140 tons of radioactive fuel of the reactor were in the air. Other dangerous substances continued to leave the reactor as a result of a fire that lasted almost two weeks. People in Chernobyl were exposed to radiation 90 times more than when the bomb fell on Hiroshima.







Accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986. was the greatest ecological catastrophe in modern history of mankind.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), created by the world community, is called upon to monitor the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes on a global scale. August 25-29, 1986, the IAEA experts' conference was held, devoted to the analysis of the causes of the Chernobyl accident and the radiological consequences of the disaster. The report on the causes, consequences and lessons of the Chernobyl disaster was made by Academician V.A. Legasov. This report (INSAG-1) was published in the journal Atomic Energy (Vol. 61, Issue 5, November 1986) titled "Information on the Chernobyl Accident and Its Consequences Prepared for the IAEA."
Additions to Report No. 1 (INSAG-1) were made in 1993. and in IAEA documents recorded as an INSAG-7 report.
INSAG - International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group - IAEA International Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety.


INSAG-1
The root cause of the accident was an extremely unlikely combination of violations of order and operating conditions.
The saturation of the modern world with potentially dangerous industrial production, significantly exacerbating the consequences of military operations, raises in a new plane the question of the meaninglessness and inadmissibility of war in modern conditions.
Another side of nuclear safety is the prevention of nuclear terrorism.
The accident of Chernobyl NPP once again demonstrated the danger of nuclear energy coming out of control and made it possible to feel the destructive consequences of its military use.
While developing and solving the problems of safe use of atomic energy, it is absurd to simultaneously develop ways and methods of the most dangerous and inhuman use of nuclear energy.

INSAG-7
It is not known for certain, with what the jump in power started, which led to the destruction of the reactor.
Until now, not one of the scientific organizations in the USSR has published a sufficiently substantiated whole version, which explains the emergence and development of the emergency process.
Calculations by US specialists do not confirm the statement about the change in power and explosion within a minute of testing.
There is no mention of any external thermophysical perturbation.
It is not possible to make a final conclusion about the lawfulness or inaccuracy of the actions of the personnel due to the contradictory nature of the requirements of the regulations.
In INSAG, the content of the concept of "safety culture" is beyond the scope of purely operational activities and has covered all activities ... even the highest spheres of government, including legislative and governmental, which, according to the concept, must form a national climate in which security is a matter of daily attention.
In the country, no one carries full responsibility for the safety of the operated stations ... The right to make a decision is divorced from responsibility for it ... There are dangerous objects, and there is no responsibility for them.
Studies of the causes of the Chernobyl accident can not be considered complete, and they must be continued with the goal of establishing the truth and drawing the necessary lessons for the future.


C O D E R A N E E
0. Introduction
1. Description of the Chernobyl NPP with RBMK-1000 reactors.
2. Chronology of the development of the accident.
3. Analysis of the process of development of the accident on a mathematical model.
4. Causes of the accident.
5. Preventing the development of an accident and reducing its consequences.
6. Control over radioactive contamination of the environment and public health.
7. Recommendations for improving the safety of nuclear power.

9. Photo gallery "Before and After the Holocaust. How Chornobyl Changed in 25 Years" (2011)