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Chernobyl: catastrophic accident



Disastrous Chernobyl accident


Chernobyl NPP (Chernobyl NPP) is the first nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The first Chernobyl power unit with a capacity of 1 million kW. entered service on September 27, 1977. On December 22, 1978, the second power unit came into operation, in December 1981 - the third, in December 1983 - the fourth. Of the 75.3 billion kWh produced by all Ukrainian power engineers, Chernobyl accounted for 4.7 billion kWh per year.

On the night of April 26, 1986 at 1 hours 23 minutes, the largest nuclear accident in the world occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, with a partial destruction of the reactor core and fission fragments leaving the zone. According to experts, the accident occurred due to an attempt to do an experiment to remove additional energy during the operation of the main nuclear reactor. According to scientists, the experiment was necessary in order to learn how to turn off the reactor, in particular, in wartime.

190 tons of radioactive substances were released into the atmosphere. 8 out of 140 tons of reactor radioactive fuel were in the air. Other hazardous substances continued to leave the reactor in a fire that lasted almost two weeks. People in Chernobyl were exposed 90 times more than when a bomb fell on Hiroshima.







The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986. was the biggest environmental disaster in modern human history.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), created by the international community, is called upon to monitor the global use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. On August 25-29, 1986, an IAEA expert conference was held to analyze the causes of the Chernobyl accident and the radiological consequences of the disaster. Academician V.A. made a report on the causes, consequences and lessons of the Chernobyl disaster. Legasov. This report (INSAG-1) was published in the journal Atomic Energy (Volume 61, Issue 5, November 1986) under the title “Information on the Chernobyl Accident and its Consequences Prepared for the IAEA”.
Additions to Report No. 1 (INSAG-1) were made in 1993. and the IAEA documents are recorded as an INSAG-7 report.
INSAG - International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group - IAEA International Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee.


INSAG-1
The root cause of the accident was an extremely unlikely combination of violations of the order and mode of operation.
The saturation of the modern world with potentially dangerous industrial production, significantly exacerbating the consequences of hostilities, raises a new plane the question of the meaninglessness and inadmissibility of war in modern conditions.
Another side of nuclear safety is the prevention of nuclear terrorism.
The Chernobyl accident once again demonstrated the danger of nuclear energy getting out of control and made it possible to feel the devastating consequences of its military use.
While developing and solving the problems of the safe use of atomic energy, it is absurd to simultaneously develop ways and means of its most dangerous and inhuman use.

INSAG-7
It is not known for certain how the power surge began, which led to the destruction of the reactor.
To date, not a single scientific organization in the USSR has published a reasonably well-grounded, integral version that clearly explains the origin and development of the emergency process.
The calculations of American experts do not confirm the statement about the change in power and explosion within a minute of testing.
There is no mention of any external thermophysical disturbance.
It is not possible to make a final conclusion about the legitimacy or erroneousness of the actions of personnel due to the inconsistency of the requirements of the regulation.
INSAG's works contain the content of the “safety culture” concept beyond purely operational activities and encompass all types of activities ... even the highest management spheres, including legislative and governmental, which, according to the concept, should form a national climate in which security is a matter of daily attention.
In the country, almost no one bears full responsibility for the safety of operating stations ... The right to make a decision is divorced from liability for it ... There are dangerous objects, but there is no responsibility for them.
Studies of the causes of the Chernobyl accident cannot be considered completed, and they should be continued in order to establish the truth and learn the necessary lessons for the future.


S O D E R F A N I E
0. Introduction
1. Description of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant with RBMK-1000 reactors.
2. The chronology of the development of the accident.
3. Analysis of the development of the accident on a mathematical model.
4. The causes of the accident.
5. Prevention of the development of the accident and reduction of its consequences.
6. Control of radioactive pollution of the environment and public health.
7. Recommendations for improving the safety of nuclear energy.

9. Photo gallery "Before And After the Catastrophe. How Chernobyl Has Changed in 25 Years" (2011)