Chernobyl: an accident with disastrous consequences
Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) is the first nuclear power plant in Ukraine.
The first power unit of Chernobyl NPP with a capacity of 1 million kW. entered service September 27, 1977. On December 22, 1978, the second power unit was commissioned, in December 1981 - the third, in December 1983 - the fourth. Of the 75.3 billion kW / h produced by all Ukrainian power engineers, the Chernobyl NPP accounted for 4.7 billion kW / h per year.
On the night of April 26, 1986, at 1 hours 23 minutes, the largest nuclear accident in the world occurred at the fourth block of the Chernobyl NPP, with partial destruction of the reactor core and the release of fission fragments outside the zone. According to experts, the accident occurred due to an attempt to make an experiment to remove additional energy during the operation of the main atomic reactor. According to scientists, the experiment was necessary in order to learn how to turn off the reactor, in particular, in wartime.
190 tons of radioactive substances were released into the atmosphere. 8 out of 140 tons of radioactive reactor fuel were in the air. Other hazardous substances continued to leave the reactor as a result of a fire lasting almost two weeks. People in Chernobyl were exposed to radiation 90 times more than when the bomb fell on Hiroshima.
The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986. was the biggest environmental catastrophe in the modern history of mankind.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), created by the world community, aims to control peaceful uses of atomic energy for global purposes. A conference of IAEA experts was held on August 25-29, 1986, devoted to analyzing the causes of the Chernobyl accident and the radiological consequences of the disaster. Academician V.A. made a report on the causes, consequences and lessons of the Chernobyl disaster. Legasov. This report (INSAG-1) was published in the journal Atomic Energy (Vol. 61, Issue 5, November 1986) entitled “Information on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident and its Consequences, prepared for the IAEA”.
Additions to Report No. 1 (INSAG-1) were made in 1993. and in the IAEA documents are recorded as an INSAG-7 report.
INSAG - International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group - The IAEA International Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee.
The root cause of the accident was an extremely unlikely combination of violations of the order and mode of operation.
The saturation of the modern world with potentially dangerous industrial productions, significantly aggravating the consequences of military actions, raises the question of the meaninglessness and inadmissibility of war in modern conditions.
Another side to nuclear security is to prevent nuclear terrorism.
The accident of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant once again demonstrated the danger of nuclear power getting out of control and made it felt to what disastrous consequences its military use could lead to.
Developing and solving the tasks of safe use of atomic energy, it is absurd to simultaneously develop ways and means of its most dangerous and inhuman use.
It is not known for certain how the power jump started, which led to the destruction of the reactor.
Up to the present, none of the scientific organizations in the USSR has published a reasonably sound integral version, which convincingly explains the emergence and development of the emergency process.
The calculations of American experts do not confirm the statement about the change in power and explosion during a minute of testing.
There is no mention of any external thermal disturbance.
It is not possible to make a final conclusion about the legality or erroneousness of the actions of the staff due to the inconsistency of the requirements of the regulations.
In INSAG, the content of the concept of "safety culture" has been extended beyond purely operational activities and has covered all types of activities ... even higher areas of management, including legislative and governmental, which according to the concept should form a national climate in which safety is a matter of daily attention.
In the country, almost no one bears full responsibility for the safety of the operated stations ... The right to make a decision is divorced from responsibility for it ... There are dangerous objects, but there is no responsibility for them.
Research into the causes of the Chernobyl accident cannot be considered completed, and they should be continued in order to establish the truth and to learn the necessary lessons for the future.
S U D E F G H I N
1. Description of the Chernobyl NPP with RBMK-1000 reactors.
2. Chronology of the accident.
3. Analysis of the development of the accident on a mathematical model.
4. Causes of the accident.
5. Preventing the development of the accident and reducing its consequences.
6. Control of radioactive pollution of the environment and public health.
7. Recommendations for improving the safety of nuclear power.
9. Photo gallery "Before and after the Holocaust. How Chernobyl has changed in 25 years" (2011)