Shape, type of cut, licensing, information on semiprecious stones and gems
A facet is a stone with flat polished surfaces - faces. The degree of brilliance and “play” of the stone depends on the optical properties of the mineral and the relative position of the faces. A stone with a higher refractive index gives off much better light than a stone with a lower refractive index, provided that it is correctly faceted. In any faceted stone, the angles under which the edges are located are chosen in such a way as to give it maximum shine, and these are not random angles. It is at this stage that the professionalism of the cutter plays a large role. If the faceting of jewelry stones does not take into account the individual optical properties of the raw material, the quality of the cut can greatly affect the cost.
By analyzing the cross-section of three faceted stones, demonstrating the effects of faceting, it can be determined that not only finding the correct proportions of the stone, but also ideal angles, that is, the corners of the crown and pavilion, which provide maximum gloss, are of great importance for the quality of the cut. These angles are always given in the cutting tables. In transparent faceted stones, good shine is achieved with crown angles of 40-50 degrees and pavilion angles of 39-43 degrees.
Smaller angles are recommended for stones with a higher refractive index, and larger ones for stones with a lower refractive index. For stones, the proportions of which are selected so as to provide maximum shine and "play", the site is calculated as 50 percent of the diameter of the stone. In the case of a rectangular stepped cut, it is 50 percent of the width. The height of the top is 1/3 of the height of the stone, the height of the pavilion is 2/3 of the total height. For large stones, the correct proportions are rarely observed, not only because of an increase in the yield of raw materials, but also because of the inability to fix too high stones in the frame.
When assessing the quality of cut gem stones, surface polishing is of great importance. Good polishing, on the one hand, ensures that the maximum amount of light enters the stone, and on the other hand, it contributes to the maximum penetration of light into the eyes after it is reflected from the back faces, which gives the impression of a sparkling stone.
The most popular and advertised stone on Earth is diamond. The remarkable properties of a diamond — its exceptional hardness, high refractive indices, and amazing color play — put diamond in an exceptional place among other minerals. Colorless or bluish-white diamonds are most valuable. Diamond has extraordinary power. According to legend, he should bring luck to his owner, transferring his own qualities - strength, hardness and purity.
- 1 - light passes through the crown
- 2 - reflected back through the crown
- 3 - the pavilion is too small
- 4 - the pavilion is too deep
The shape and appearance of the gem facet should ensure its external beauty, a high degree of "play" and brilliance. A good cut can best represent the color of the stone, while a bad cut can make the gem look too dark or too light. When assessing the quality of a colored stone cut, the defectiveness and quality of processing are not separately distinguished.
For example, the sale of faceted stones in the USA, taking into account the quality of faceting, is carried out according to the following classification (proportions, symmetry and quality are taken into account):
- EX - gorgeous
- VG is very good
- G is good
- F is not bad
- P is bad.
The prices of faceted colored stones take into account gradations in the quality of processing of colored stones:
- Very Good - very good,
- Good is good
- Poor is bad.
We remind you that almost all natural minerals and crystals come with inclusions, cracks and voils, many natural stones are opaque or partially translucent, have roughness and color defects, natural cracks, inclusions (inclusions) and irregular shapes. Many stones value their special structure with a reasonable minimum of processing or a unique color. This in no way speaks of their “danger” or “unsuitability” for lithotherapy, jewelry or ornamental needs - they are very dangerous and unsuitable for use ONLY radioactive and poisonous stones (especially soluble imitation stones), even if they look visually attractive . Perfect transparency in 99.97% of cases indicates a fake - the "perfectly" -pure and transparent gemstone raw materials are now actively used in industry and production, and small and inexpensive products (rare) can be made from its waste. Glass and composite glass materials are the most common, convenient and objectively inexpensive and practical material for fakes and imitations of stones, especially pure and transparent or with bright and catchy effects.
Buy natural or do not overpay for glass and other synthetic materials that also cost money (malachite, turquoise, cat's eye, aventurine with sparkles, drilled rhinestones from stained, colorless or tinted glass, etc.) !!! The state monopoly is subject to all colorless and color imitators of high-value jewelry raw materials (industrial pure quartz, cubic zirconia, synthetic corundum, garnet, etc.). No stones drilled through should be used in industrial jewelry - there are effective methods for securing stones that have not been drilled through. The complete prohibition on use is subject to all undrilled through and through rhinestones and any imitations made of glass, including glass-imitated stone imitations of stones, including faceting (facets, cabochon and fancy cut), any complex stones using glass and stones, ennobled with the use of glass, since they are the most favorite tool of fraudsters and swindlers "from cutting and jewelry."
Attention - the sale, exchange and other operations with jewelry and other products from precious metals from one piece with a production test and industrial punchmark from one piece and above are subject to compulsory licensing (with the exception of the purchase by individuals as final consumers of products in any quantity for personal use ) All tested (serial) jewelry must be officially sealed with a sealer with a label fixed ONLY on the test wire (threads, fishing line and other non-standard materials are prohibited for serial production jewelry).
Any details, fasteners, wire, grain and other components of jewelry made of any materials are not sampled , provided that they will be used by third parties for products strictly not subject to licensing (the responsibility for their use lies entirely with third parties). The installation of standard test marks on any non-standard products (including small lots and handicrafts of folk artists in the style of handmade made by piece and by hand) and registration of the article for them is prohibited (protection of these products is carried out on the basis of the Copyright Law without patenting including through departments and registers of masters and scientists with personal and departmental copyright codes of related specialties - providing copies of a citizen’s passport and a diploma confirming that a master of construction has a profession on required).
Any operations with precious stones are subject to licensing, both separately (from one piece and above), and in any products (both individual and industrial and production) in standard machine cuts that strictly meet the requirements of official technical standards: they must be at least the size specified in GOST, TU and other official instructions, strictly from the gemstone raw materials described in these instructions, do not have cracks and inclusions visible under the eye (under a 10x magnifying glass), be uniformly colored (opals, ulexites, chalcedony, jade, adularia and other opaque stones with cryptocrystalline structure) or pure transparent and plain (defect-free diamonds, topazes, rubies, sapphires, aquamarines, amethysts, citrines and other transparent "canonical" crystals with a pronounced crystal lattice). The seller does not have the right to refuse the buyer the legal sale of the product if it is licensed and branded, and also does not have the right to refuse the legal sale of any licensed stone with a certificate of conformity.
All licensed stones, tested precious metals and licensed gemstone raw materials must be hardware-diagnosed with almost 99.7% accuracy, any doubts in the diagnosis (including expert ones) require the removal of these stones and metals from the licensed list, since the product may not be diagnosed . Diagnostics objectively is very expensive and is a strictly necessary condition for licensing in the market of precious stones and precious metals.
The use of a simple peer review for ANY licensed gemstone in standard cut and licensed gemstone raw materials without standardized laboratory research methods is prohibited .
It is also forbidden to put test marks on precious metals without their hardware laboratory diagnostics. For any bone, skin, food, wool, earth, clay products and similar materials, wood, stones, glass, money, paper, paints, nuggets, monuments, copper, bronze, brass, non-jewelry alloys, banking and industrial metals and alloys , living objects, illiquid assets, waste and similar materials (including composite, thin, too small, especially large and not covered by the license) test marks are not put .
It is forbidden to sell and exchange any stones and any products with them (especially with stamped test marks) using and indicating a license, if these stones and products do not meet the standards and license requirements and are not satisfied (this can be interpreted as a deliberate misrepresentation and fraud). A complete and reliable indication of the use of all refinement methods for licensed stones and products is strictly necessary (for ordinary stones, ordinary and planned expert checks and standard state tests for radioactivity and for the absence of poisons in stones are sufficient).
Storage conditions for precious raw materials and precious stones - a specialized safe with increased security with an alarm and a button displayed on the central police station or a licensed security structure. The purchase and sale condition is a guarded premises with an alarm system and a button displayed on the central control panel (the public law enforcement service or a self-supporting company with a strict state license). An up-to-date inventory of licensed stones and products is strictly required. It is desirable to have insurance (both seller and client).
All safe (i.e. non-toxic, insoluble in water with the formation of toxic compounds, non-vaporizing with the formation of toxic vapors and gases and non-radioactive) clouded and fractured stones of any chemical composition and crystal structure, all stones with veils, bubbles, cracks, color, visible to the eye transitions and patterns (especially pronounced), too small, flat or very high, very large or obvious non-standard shape, any processed stones of a deliberately asymmetric shape, all stones with visible defects cuts and even without cuts (not falling under the category of “raw materials for standard cutting”), all stones with obvious visible traces of the enclosing rock, all stones drilled under beads, all chemically and physically (including radiation) safe for health and life production defects and “selection” and other illiquid gemstone waste are NOT subject to licensing . They can be sold, purchased by private individuals and used in some other illegal way in limited quantities (including imitation of faceted and other cuts, as well as drilled through holes) and can be found in non-serial, “non-standard” and “experimental” products (especially handmade or in small batches, in educational and student work, etc.) of any unprocessed metals, provided that these products do not have standard PRODUCTION and INDUSTRIAL test marks! !! Sealing is allowed.
The sellers of such stones and products with them are not responsible for the presence of structural features and defects in these stones visible to the eye that are safe for human life and health, if the stones were mined, processed, if necessary delivered, cleared, donated, transferred or sold legally. At the same time, it is not customary to use soluble and evaporating stones, like very soft and color-losing stones, in jewelry and similar practice and in the work of craftsmen, just for reasons of common sense, rationality and expediency (such stones are usually worn for reasons of originality, extravagance and other internal motives).
For all non-standard stones, standard certificates of conformity of raw materials and faceted precious stones are not issued - it is only possible to conduct a gemological examination on a commercial basis, as well as issue a full or written expert opinion (without the use of devices), the reliability of which usually does not exceed 92-97% and is often found in limits 75-80%. In this case, the buyer has the right to refuse the purchase, and the seller - from the sale in case of any doubt. The seller also has the right to use any trade and common names of stones , provided that the price of stones and products is not increased . The seller has the right to admit that he does not know the correct name of the companion stone, cannot determine it or doubts a specific stone, even if he is a professional geologist or mineralogist - it is desirable that at least 75% of the gemstone assortment is correctly diagnosed. No license required !!!
Any safe stones, metals and their alloys used by humans as jewelry are not licensed if they are not raw materials for the jewelry and polishing industry and do not meet the strict state standards that can be found in official state-owned factories and in specialized state educational institutions, who train cutters and jewelers. These standards exist, they are written on paper and are comprehensive. The raw materials extracted from dumps are not used as raw materials for standard licensed cuts in a mining method in an unauthorized place by an unauthorized method, provided that the TOTAL cut raw materials are required to be sent to state reception centers in full at state prices.
Gemstone and other industrial wastes (including quartz, corundum, cubic zirconia, carborundum, carbonado, etc.) are illiquid and therefore cannot be used for standard licensed industrial cutting and jewelry production. All gemstone illiquid assets are fully recyclable, including all production waste (dust, crumbs, non-standards, etc.). It is forbidden to lower the cost of stones in the process of their processing, regardless of the presence or absence of a license and the desire of the cutters - the scientific goals and state economic and political priorities of Ukraine are fundamental and primary.
If non-counterfeit metals for products are not tested by state marks and are non-toxic and non-radioactive, sellers and owners are not responsible for their chemical composition, its compliance or non-compliance with the requirements of state standards, provided that these metals are not objects of state monopoly (for example, especially valuable rare lands, knowledge-intensive or potentially dangerous isotopes of any chemical elements). The seller is obliged to warn the buyer at his request that these products from non-counterfeit metals are not tested and are not subject to industrial and industrial testing, since standard samples and brands are not established for any non-standard alloys and native metals. It is prohibited to install gemstones that fall under any standards into such products. Rhinestones of any origin and glass imitations of precious stones are not recommended for esthetic reasons.
It is forbidden to insert into licensed jewelry, which bear the industrial test mark, stones and minerals, which are not covered by the license for precious stones. In particular, it is forbidden to insert into industrial products made of gold, silver and platinum (even made in a single copy) any stones that do not meet the standards of jewelry raw materials and cuts and do not fall under the state license - this is interpreted as a fraud of the buyer, which means fraud . For example, it is forbidden to install any non-standard stones and even precious stones (sapphires, rubies, emeralds and diamonds) of objectively different colors in one piece of jewelry or in their set (earrings, headsets, etc.), if this is accompanied by the installation of a test mark.
The mark can only be set on finished jewelry with precious stones that strictly comply with state standards. Otherwise, the stigma and probing is prohibited. It is forbidden to use any non-standard methods of fixing precious stones in products with test marks (an innovative setting of stones or an innovative type of cut is first subject to a preliminary application for standardization, is patented, and only then put into production on the basis of a patent on the invention and documents on the adoption of these standards by the state).
Any stones (including diamonds, sapphires, emeralds and other stones of natural and synthetic origin and ennobled), extracted from any jewelry and other products (from new, used, production or storage), are automatically considered used, defective (illiquid assets) and cannot be reused in ANY production cycle even if they have no defects visible to the eye or they are redistributed and repolished (issuing any used stones, especially from the licensed category, for new to any persons of the products being sold in any form falls under the category of "fraud").
It doesn’t matter how sales, exchanges or barter operations are carried out with licensed products and stones - from one piece, "in bulk" or in the size of any consignment - through warehouses, post-bids, factories, shops, pawnshops, exhibitions, "by hand", "from under the floor" or through any Internet sites, as these operations are STRICTLY licensed activities. Licensed are all services for warehousing and storage of licensed stones and licensed products that are not located at the final consumer, from one piece up to the state monopoly (for example, state reserves, state funds and customs warehouses), and any storage of these products is carried out as safekeeping with mandatory state appraisal and inventory regardless of the purpose of storage (including storage for the purpose of transportation and delivery of these products from one piece or more).
Sale of licensed products without a license by individuals and others from one piece or more (up to a consignment or in bulk, including used or stored ones) is possible only through a system of certified pawnshops and collection points licensed to purchase these products (including to the state reserve and other responsible funds and authorized officials who appoint mandatory state and other independent examination of the product, set the purchase price and may refuse to purchase the product on any preliminary stage without collateral).
Licensed operations and even objects of a state monopoly are any operations with all potentially and really dangerous stones and zones that may be radioactive (a radioactivity check should be performed in state metrology), there are toxic soluble surpluses or restrictions on their use (mandatory special warnings in the instructions, labeling and color of the packaging), are toxic, hazardous fumes, hazardous solutions and other biological individuals hazardous to life and health are formed in the compound. For example, the evaporation of sulfur sources is dangerous, blue celestine is dangerous if it is not used for crystallography and is mistakenly used in lithotherapy for infusion of water (the water-soluble compound of strontium is a doublet combination of poison and radiation with isotopes difficult to remove from the body).
Red cinnabar is a dangerous compound of mercury, and silver arsenopyrite is a dangerous compound of arsenic (especially for children). Poisonous green conichalcite, all arsenates and arsenides are dangerous. Many zircons are radioactive and dangerous, especially with a damaged crystal lattice and rare earths (purchased only for scientific purposes). Heliodorus beryls containing uranium isotopes cannot be irradiated. Charoite and eudialyte containing rare earths in high concentrations are also dangerous (require verification with standard dosimeters). Particularly dangerous are ores of uranium, thorium and other metals used for "nuclear" devices and reactors, scientific purposes and other needs of the state monopoly. Professional activity without a documented profession (especially requiring higher and especially scientific education) is prohibited in Ukraine and can be interpreted as fraud.
The state of Ukraine actively and really cares about the life, health and safety of citizens, having the necessary legislative framework, state apparatuses, power, metrological, scientific and other structures. From 2010-2016, in Ukraine, any science and all scientific research are objects of state monopoly and the strictest state control, including from the state metrological institutions and the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine with its divisions (n. Aut. K.305, Ukraine, . Kharkov).