Form, type of cutting, licensing, information on semi-precious stones and gems
Faceted is a stone with flat polished surfaces - faces. The degree of brilliance and "game" of a stone depends on the optical properties of the mineral and the relative position of the faces. A stone with a higher refractive index gives off light much better than a stone with a lower refractive index, provided that it is properly cut. In any faceted stone, the corners, under which the faces are located, are chosen in such a way as to give it maximum brilliance, and these are not random corners. It is at this stage that the professionalism of the cutter plays an important role. If the individual optical properties of the raw materials are not taken into account when cutting gem stones, the quality of the cut can greatly affect the cost.
Analyzing the cross-section of three cut stones, demonstrating the effects of cut, it can be determined that not only the correct proportions of the stone are important for the quality of cut, but also the ideal angles, that is, the corners of the crown and the pavilion, which ensure maximum brilliance. These angles are always given in the cutting tables. In transparent cut stones, good gloss is achieved at crown angles of 40-50 degrees and pavilion angles of 39-43 degrees.
Smaller angles are recommended for stones with a higher refractive index, and larger ones are recommended for stones with a lower index. For stones, the proportions of which are chosen so that they provide maximum brilliance and "play", the site is calculated as 50 percent of the stone's diameter. In the case of a rectangular stepped cut, it is 50 percent of the width. The height of the top is 1/3 of the height of the stone, the height of the pavilion is 2/3 of the total height. For large stones, correct proportions are seldom observed, not only because of an increase in the yield of useful raw materials, but also because of the impossibility to fix too high stones in the frame.
In assessing the quality of cut gemstone, polishing the surface is of great importance. Good polishing on the one hand ensures that the maximum amount of light enters the stone, and on the other, it contributes to maximal light penetration into the eyes after it is reflected from the back edges, which creates the impression of sparkling stone.
The most popular and advertised stone on Earth is diamond. The remarkable properties of diamond - its exceptional hardness, high refractive index, amazing play of colors - put the diamond in an exceptional place among other minerals. The most valuable are colorless or bluish-white diamonds. A diamond has extraordinary power. According to legends, he should bring good luck to his owner, conveying his own qualities - strength, strength and purity.
- 1 - light passes through the crown
- 2 - reflected back through the crown
- 3 - the pavilion is too small
- 4 - the pavilion is too deep
The form and type of gem cutting should ensure its external beauty, a high degree of “play” and brilliance. A good cut can best represent the color of the stone, while a bad one can make the gem look too dark or too light. When assessing the quality of cut, colored stone does not separately single out defectiveness and quality of processing.
The sale of cut stones, for example, in the USA, taking into account the quality of faceting, is made according to the following classification (proportions, symmetry and quality are taken into account):
- EX is great
- VG is very good
- G is good
- F - not bad,
- P is bad.
The prices of faceted colored stones take into account the gradations of the quality of processing colored stones:
- Very Good - very good
- Good is good
- Poor is bad.
We remind you that almost all natural minerals and crystals come with inclusions, cracks and veils, many natural stones are opaque or partially translucent, have irregularities and defects in coloring, natural cracks, inclusions and irregular forms. Many stones value their special structure with a reasonable minimum of processing or a unique color. This in no way speaks of their "danger" or "unsuitability" for lithotherapy, jewelry or crafts needs - they are very dangerous and unsuitable for use ONLY radioactive and poisonous stones (especially soluble imitation stones), even if they look visually attractive. . Perfect transparency in 99.97% of cases speaks of counterfeiting - “perfect” - pure and transparent stone gems raw materials are actively used in industry and production today, and small and inexpensive products (rare) can be made from its waste. Glass and composite glass materials are the most common, convenient and objectively inexpensive and practical material for fakes and imitations of stones, especially clear and transparent or with bright and catchy effects.
Buy natural or do not overpay for glass and other synthetic materials that also cost money (malachite, turquoise, cat's eyes, aventurine with sparkles, drilled rhinestones of painted, colorless or tinted glass, etc.) !!! All colorless and color imitators of high-value jewelry raw materials (industrial pure quartz, cubic zirconia, synthetic corundum, garnets, etc.) are subject to the state monopoly. No stones drilled through should not be used in industrial jewelery - there are effective methods for setting unfixed stones through. All non-drilled through rhinestones and any glass imitations, including mass-colored glass imitations of stones, including faceting (facets, cabochon and fancy cut), any complex stones using glass and stones ennobled with the use of glass, since they are the most favorite tool of fraudsters and speculators "from cutting and jeweler."
Attention - the sale, exchange and other operations with jewelry and other products made of precious metals from one piece with production sample and industrial probing stamp from one piece and above (except for private individuals as end users of products in any quantity for personal use) are subject to mandatory licensing . ). All tested (serial) jewelry must have an official sealing with a sealer with a label attached ONLY to the sample wire (threads, fishing line and other non-standard materials are prohibited for serial production of jewelry).
Any parts, fasteners, wires, grains and other components of jewelry made from any materials are not tested, provided that they will be used by third parties for products that are not strictly subject to licensing (the responsibility for their use lies entirely with third parties). Putting standard probing stamps on any non-standard products (including small batches and hand-made folk crafts - made individually and manually) and registration of the article for them is prohibited (protection of these products is carried out on the basis of the Law on the Protection of Copyright without Patenting including through departments and registers of masters and scientists with personal and departmental author codes of related specialties - providing copies of a citizen passport and a diploma of a profession from a master on required).
Any operations with precious stones, both separately (from one piece and above), and in any products (both individual and industrial and industrial) in a standard machine cut, which strictly meet the requirements of official technical standards, must be licensed; they must be at least specified in GOST, TU and other official instructions of the size, strictly from the gemstone materials described in these instructions, not to have any cracks and inclusions visible to the eye (under a 10x magnifying glass), to be evenly colored (opals, ulexites, chalcedony, jade, adulera and other matte stones with a cryptocrystalline structure) or pure transparent and monotonous (defect-free diamonds, topazes, rubies, sapphires, aquamarines, amethysts, citrines and other transparent "canonical" crystals with a pronounced crystal lattice). The seller does not have the right to refuse to the buyer the legitimate sale of the product if it is licensed and stamped, and also has no right to refuse the legal sale of any licensed stone with a certificate of conformity.
All licensed stones, probed precious metals and licensed stone-colored raw materials must be hardware-diagnosed with almost 99.7% accuracy, any doubts in the diagnosis (including expert ones) require that these stones and metals be excluded from the licensed list, since the product may be undetectable . Diagnostics objectively is very expensive and is a strictly necessary condition for licensing activities in the market of precious stones and precious metals.
The use of a simple peer-review for ANY licensed gems in standard cut and licensed gemstones without standardized laboratory research methods is prohibited .
It is also forbidden to place probing marks on precious metals without their hardware laboratory diagnostics. For any bone, leather, food, wool, earth, clay products and similar materials, wood, stones, glass, money, paper, paint, nuggets, monuments, copper, bronze, brass, non-jewelery alloys, banking and industrial metals and alloys , living objects, illiquid assets, waste and similar materials (including composite, thin, too small, especially large and not subject to a license) probing stamps are not put .
It is prohibited to sell and exchange any stones and any products with them (especially with stamped stamps) with the use and indication of the license, if these stones and products do not meet the standards and licensing requirements and are not met (this can be interpreted as a deliberate misrepresentation and fraud). A complete and reliable indication of the use of all methods of refining for licensed stones and products is strictly necessary (for ordinary stones, ordinary and planned expert checks and standard state checks for radioactivity and the absence of poisons in stones are sufficient).
Storage conditions dragsarya and dragons - special safe enhanced security with an alarm and a button displayed on the central police station or a licensed security structure. The sale condition is a guarded premises with an alarm system and a button displayed on the central console (a state security service or a self-supporting company with a strict state license). The current inventory of licensed stones and products is strictly required. It is desirable to have insurance (as the seller and the customer).
All safe (i.e., non-toxic, water-insoluble with the formation of toxic compounds, non-evaporating with the formation of toxic vapors and gases and non-radioactive) turbid and fissured stones of any chemical composition and crystalline structure, all stones with visible veils, bubbles, cracks, color transitions and drawings (especially pronounced), too small, flat or very high, very large or of an explicit non-standard form, any processed stones of obviously asymmetrical shape, all stones with visible defects cut and even without cut (not falling under the category of “raw materials for standard cut”), all stones with obvious visible traces of the host rock, all stones drilled under beads, all chemically and physically (including radiation) safe for health and life manufacturing defect and "selection" and other illiquid stone-colored waste is NOT SUBJECT TO LICENSED . They can go on sale, be bought by private individuals and be used in another unlawful way in limited quantities (including in imitation of a facet and other faceting, as well as drilled through a through hole) and be in non-serial, "non-standard" and "experimental" products (especially handmade or in small batches, in educational and student work, etc.) from any unproved metals with the obligatory condition that these products do not carry standard INDUSTRIAL and INDUSTRIAL probing marks! !! Their sealing is allowed.
Sellers of such stones and products with them are not responsible for the presence of structural features and defects that are visible to the eyes and are safe for human life and health if the stones were mined, processed, delivered if necessary, cleared, donated, transferred or sold legally. At the same time, in jewelry and similar practices and in the work of craftsmen, it is not customary to use easily soluble and evaporating stones, as well as very soft and losing color stones, simply for reasons of common sense, rationality and expediency (such stones are usually worn for reasons of originality, extravagance and other internal motives).
For all non-standard stones, standard certificates of conformity of dragsry and cut stones are not issued - it is only possible to conduct gemological examination on a commercial basis, as well as issuing a valid or written expert opinion (without the use of instruments), the accuracy of which usually does not exceed 92-97% and is often in within 75-80%. In this case, the buyer has the right to refuse to purchase, and the seller - from the sale in case of ANY doubt. The seller also has the right to use any trade and common names of stones , provided that prices of stones and products are not exceeded . The seller has the right to admit that he does not know the correct name of the concreting stone, cannot determine it or doubts a particular stone, even if he is a professional geologist or mineraologist - it is desirable that at least 75% of the gemstone will be correctly diagnosed. No license required !!!
Any safe stones, metals and their alloys, used by man as jewelry, are not licensed, if they are not raw materials for the jewelry and cutting industry and do not meet strict state standards, which can be found in official state production facilities and in specialized state educational institutions, who train cutters and jewelers. These standards exist, they are written down on paper and are exhaustive. As raw materials for the standard licensed cut, raw materials mined from dumps are not used by prospecting in a non-prohibited place in a non-prohibited way, subject to the mandatory delivery of ALL cut button raw materials to state reception centers in full according to state prices.
Gem and other industrial wastes (including quartz, corundum, fianits, carborundum, carbonado, etc.) are illiquid and therefore cannot be used for standard licensed industrial cut and jewelery production. All stone semi-illiquid assets are subject to processing in full, including all production wastes (dust, dust, non-standards, etc.). It is forbidden to lower the cost of stones in the course of their processing, regardless of the presence or absence of a license and the desire of the cutters - the fundamental and priority are scientific goals and state economic and political priorities of Ukraine .
If non-counterfeit metals for products are not probed with state stamps and are non-toxic and non-radioactive, sellers and owners are not responsible for their chemical composition, its conformity or non-compliance with state standards, provided that these metals are not subject to state monopoly (for example, especially valuable rare lands, high-tech or potentially hazardous isotopes of any chemical elements). The seller is obliged to warn the buyer, upon his request, that these products from non-counterfeit metals are unprobeable and are not subject to industrial and production probing, since no standard samples and stamps are installed on any non-standard alloys and native metals. It is prohibited to install gems in any such products that are subject to any standards. Rhinestones of any origin and glass imitations of dragons are not recommended for aesthetic reasons.
It is forbidden to insert into licensed jewelry, on which the industrial probing stamp is put, stones and minerals that are not covered by the license for precious stones. In particular, it is forbidden to insert into industrial products made of gold, silver and platinum (even made in a single copy) any stones that do not meet the standards of raw jewelery and cutting and are not subject to a state license - this is interpreted as deception of the buyer, which means - fraud . For example, it is forbidden to install any non-standard stones and even precious stones (sapphires, rubies, emeralds and diamonds) of objectively different shades into one piece of jewelery or into their set (earrings, headsets, etc.), if this is accompanied by insertion of the probing stamp.
The stamp can only be installed on the finished jewel with precious stones that strictly comply with state standards. Otherwise it is prohibited to install the stamp and probing. It is forbidden to use any non-standard methods for setting precious stones in products with probing stamps (innovative setting of stones or an innovative type of cutting is first subject to a preliminary application for standardization, patented, and only then put into production on the basis of a patent about the invention and documents on the adoption of these standards by the state).
Any stones (including diamonds, sapphires, emeralds and other stones of natural and synthetic origin and ennobled), extracted from any jewelry and other products (from new, used, manufactured or stored), are “automatically” used, defective (illiquid) and cannot be reused in ANY production cycle, even if they have no eye defects or they have been re-cut and repolished (issuing any used stones, especially from the licensed category, for new ones Enzymes in any form fall under the category of "fraud").
It doesn’t matter how the sale, exchange or barter operations with licensed products and stones are carried out - from one piece, in bulk, or in the size of any consignment - through warehouses, postage, production, shops, pawnshops, exhibitions, "with hands", "from under the floor" or through any Internet sites, since these operations are STRICTLY licensed activity. All services for storing and storing licensed stones and licensed products that are not at the end user are licensed, from one piece, up to the state monopoly (for example, state reserves, state funds and customs warehouses), and any storage of these products is carried out as responsible storage with mandatory state appraisal and inventory, regardless of the purpose of storage (including storage for the purpose of transportation and delivery of these products from one piece and above).
The sale of licensed products without a license by private and other persons from one piece and above (up to the consignment or "bulk", including used or stored) is possible only through a system of certified pawnshops and receiving points licensed to purchase these products (including state reserves and other responsible funds and authorized officials who prescribe mandatory state and other independent expertise of the product, charge the purchase price and may refuse to purchase the product on any preliminary stage without collateral).
Licensed operations and even objects of the state monopoly are any operations with all potentially and really dangerous stones and zones that may be radioactive (radioactivity should be checked in state metrology), there are toxic soluble primishi or restrictions on use (mandatory special warnings in the instructions, marking and color of the package) are poisonous, hazardous vapors, hazardous solutions and other biological substances dangerous to life and health are formed in the compound. For example, evaporation of sulfur sources is dangerous, blue celestine is dangerous if it is not used for crystallography and is mistakenly used in lithotherapy for infusion of water (water-soluble strontium compound - duplet combination of poison and isotopes from the body).
Red cinnabar , a soluble mercury compound, is dangerous, and silver arsenopyrite is a dangerous arsenic compound (especially for children). Poisonous green conichalcite, all arsenates and arsenides is dangerous. Many zircons are radioactive and dangerous, especially with damaged crystal lattice and rare earths (purchased only for scientific purposes). You can not irradiate beryl heliodor, which is composed of uranium isotopes. Charoite and eudialyte are dangerous, containing rare earths in high concentrations (they should be checked at regular dosimeters). Especially dangerous are the ores of uranium, thorium and other metals used for "nuclear" instruments and reactors, scientific purposes and other needs of the state monopoly. Professional activity without a documented profession (especially requiring higher and especially scientific education) is prohibited in Ukraine and may be interpreted as fraud.
The state of Ukraine actively and realistically cares about the life, health and safety of citizens, having the necessary legal framework, state apparatus, power, metrology, scientific and other structures. From 2010-2016 in Ukraine, any science and all scientific research are objects of state monopoly and the strictest state control, including from state metrological institutions and the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine with its subdivisions (n. K.305, Ukraine, Ukraine). . Kharkov).