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UPD: 28/01/2014 The zone of eating. Who feeds whom in Ukraine

Зона проедания. Кто кого кормит в Украине


Only six regions of Ukraine could live on self-sufficiency. The rest receive from the state budget more than they give.

When during the dismantling of the barricades on the capital's Lutheran street, the correspondent of Investgazeta tried to talk to the employees of the Berkut, they responded by saying: "We do not want to listen to you, you still do not pay wages - you are all from the subsidized western regions."

This statement is not its own invention of militia political hands. The thesis that the eastern regions of Ukraine are fed western, repeatedly repeated by many representatives of the authorities, from the mayor of Donetsk Alexander Lukyanchenko and ending with the ex-minister of social policy Mikhail Papiev.

Region

Total transferred to the state budget, bln. UAH.

Total received from the state budget, bln. UAH.

Surplus / deficit, bln. UAH.

Surplus / deficit per capita, UAH.

Poltava

9.60

4.12

5.48

3757

Kharkivska

10.38

3.48

6.90

2520

Dnepropetrovsk

15.03

8.85

6.19

1878

Sumy

2.61

1.63

0.98

865

Cherkasy

2.18

1.97

0.21

168

Lviv

4.70

4.34

0.36

140

Rivne

1.96

1.97

-0,01

-7

Zhytomyr

3.24

3.54

-0.30

-235

Chernivtsi

0.82

1.08

-0.26

-284

Khmelnitskiy

0.97

1.42

-0.45

-343

Kherson

1.00

1.40

-0.40

-376

Odesa **

1.85

3.30

-1.46

-609

Chernihiv

1.73

2.52

-0.78

-731

Kievskaya

2.16

3.49

-1.33

-770

Zaporozhye

1.77

4.07

-2.30

-1297

Vinnytsia

1.63

3.98

-2.35

-1452

Mykolayiv

0.80

2.82

-2.02

-1727

Autonomous Republic of Crimea

1.94

5.72

-3.78

-1919

Kirovograd

0.23

2.24

-2.01

-2032

Donetsk

3.85

13.09

-9.25

-2126

Luganskaya

4.35

9.42

-5.07

-2262

Ivano-Frankivsk

0.27

3.41

-3,14

-2272

Volynsky **

1.47

4.32

-2.85

-2738

Ternopil

0.92

4.36

-3.45

-3207

Transcarpathian

0.98

5.51

-4.53

-3604

City of Kyiv

50.63

62.27

-11.74

-4072

As the calculations of Investgazeta show, this statement is hopelessly outdated.

For the first half-year of 2013 Donetsk region received from the state budget for 9.2 billion UAH. Appropriations, subsidies and subventions more than it paid. The result is the 25th place overall rating of twenty-six. More payments from the budget had only to the share of Kiev - more than 11 billion (26th place). But Lviv region was on the sixth position: according to the results of the half-year, she transferred to the state budget for 356 million UAH. More than it received. However, this is far from a record. The best budget balance among all regions was demonstrated by the Kharkiv region - for six months from here almost 7 billion UAH were received into the budget clean.

Зона проедания. Кто кого кормит в Украине


Зона проедания. Кто кого кормит в Украине


However, the absolute figures are not quite indicative - at least they do not take into account the size of the regions. It is more appropriate to compare the budget balance in terms of per capita. It changes the picture, but it is by no means cardinal.

Зона проедания. Кто кого кормит в Украине


For example, one person in Donetsk for six months of last year had 2126 UAH., Listed areas from the state budget, which corresponds to the 20th place. Lviv - with an indicator of 140 UAH. Transfers to the central budget - remained at the sixth. Kiev also retained the 26th place - the volume of subsidies and subsidies from the state budget per capita amounted to 4,072 UAH. This is the worst indicator in all regions. (It is worth noting that Kiev has a negative balance, because all taxes on the incomes of natural persons are taken to the budget, unlike other cities, if it did not, there would be a surplus of 4-5 billion, - Censor. ) But in the first place was unexpectedly Poltava region. The region transferred to the budget of 3757 UAH. Per capita.

Equity on the population

The most paradoxical thing is that the amount of net revenues from the regions to the state budget is practically independent of the size of the regional gross product. In most cases, these revenues correlate only with one indicator - the population of the region. In other words, the main source of income is the personal income tax and consumption taxes, the same VAT. The incomes of industrial and other enterprises often "go" at the place of registration of the head office - in the capital or offshore.

In our assessment, we did not take into account how much the customs of this or that region bring to the state budget.

On the one hand, due to the revenues from customs, 20 "unprofitable" regions are largely subsidized. On the other hand, imported goods that cross the border in the Odessa port or in Chop are more or less evenly distributed throughout Ukraine (import consumption is perhaps slightly higher in the border areas due to a short transport shoulder). But in general, taxes on imports are, in fact, paid for by end-users - evenly across the country. True, from this picture, at least for large purchases like cars, Kiev and other big cities are being beaten (in particular, this concerns the import of cars). But this does not affect the overall picture of the distribution of funds.

But export duties, according to the president of the Center for Market Reforms Vladimir Lanovoy, do not affect the state budget at all: they apply only to leather goods, scrap metal and several other small commodity groups. But in the near future Ukraine undertook to cancel these payments.

Survivors

After deduction of imports, Ukraine is essentially "fed" three areas: Kharkiv, producing oil and gas, Dnipropetrovsk, where iron ore is mined, and especially Poltava, which is the mining of both, and the other. They provide the budget with significant amounts of rent payments and payments for the use of subsoil.

By the way, Vladimir Lanovoi notes that the Poltava region is also a leader in the generation of value added. Located on its territory, refineries, motor vehicles and others were built relatively recently - almost all of them have kept a workable production since Soviet times.

In addition to these three areas, in the first half of the year only Sumy, Cherkassy and Lvivska worked, while in Rivne the income and expenses are almost equal. But here, as can be seen from the calculations, good results are due not so much to the high level of generated state budget revenues, but rather to the relatively low volume of aid from the center per capita.

Loss-making

Unlike oil, gas or ore, coal mining in the Donbas does not bring the budget - rental payments are not levied because the industry is unprofitable. On the contrary, the state annually spends 12-14 billion UAH. On the support of coal miners, mainly offsetting the difference between the price of coal sales and its cost. It is interesting that the same amount will be issued if the negative balance of payments with the state budget of nine western and northern regions is added up.

Coal subsidies account for approximately 30% of all revenues from the state budget in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. But even if they are not taken into account, these regions remain deeply subsidized. Firstly, huge investments have been made recently for various "projects of state significance", such as the construction of roads. Secondly, the tax departments are particularly favored by the Donbas. For the analyzed half-year in the state budget from Donetsk region received 6.7 billion UAH. Value added tax, and it was reimbursed 8.7 billion UAH. This is an absolute record for all regions.

At the same time, in terms of per capita, Donbass's subsidies are smaller than in some western regions, such as Transcarpathian, Ternopil, Volyn, and Ivano-Frankivsk. However, only in the last region the negative balance is due to significant subsidies covering the loss-making of local budgets. The remaining three were at the end of the list due to the large number of budgetary organizations - the main volume of payments from the state budget here are provisions for protected items, for example - salaries.

Very specific indicators for Kiev. On the one hand, the city generates about 40% of the state budget revenues (without customs), since many Ukrainian enterprises are registered and pay taxes there. On the other hand, subventions and subsidies for the performance of the capital's functions, targeted payments for the construction of metro, bridges and roads, as well as allocations to numerous budget organizations, more than cover revenues and turn Kiev into the most subsidized region of the twenty-six considered.

To earn themselves

The subsidization of some regions at the expense of others is a common situation for world practice. "Ukraine is a unitary state, which means that it is absolutely normal for it to constantly allocate resources among the regions," explains Oleg Ustenko, executive director of the International Blazer Foundation.

True, there is one "but". The fact is that practically all over the world budgetary subsidies are aimed at tightening the economy of depressed regions and in the future to reduce their need for subsidies. For example, in Mexico, money traditionally earned industrial and oil-producing regions concentrated on the east coast and near Mexico City. But in the past two decades, most of the money from the center has been systematically invested in the development of agriculture and tourism - this has greatly helped the country, when the state oil sector a few years ago was on the verge of a crisis.

In Ukraine, everything is exactly the opposite. With rare exceptions, the volume of subsidies is determined not by structural projects, but by a momentary political conjuncture. A simple example: according to Oleg Ustenko, when his fund conducted a similar study in 2010, the results were completely different: grants from the state budget per capita were minimal in the eastern regions. And the maximum - in the western, except perhaps Lviv.

Completely get rid of subsidy is unrealistic. Reduce the subsidies and give an incentive to economic development could decentralize the budget. At least, the regions would not need to first send most of their income to the center, then to wait for their return. "It is necessary to carry out this reform. But only gradually, creating incentives for the region to learn to earn more, because the money earned will remain at their disposal, "- explains Vladimir Lanovoy. According to him, in the world practice, the regions are usually left with the taxes that are levied locally. At the same time, payments made to the budget during import, for example, import duties or excises, go to the central treasury.

Over the past 20 years, similar projects have been discussed dozens of times in BP. However, none of them even reached the second reading. Which is not surprising. After all, when the funds move first from the region, and then to the region, on such a "movement" one can always make good money. In addition, this "movement" is a good tool for additional control of regions by the center. In any case, during the last protests, Prime Minister Mykola Azarov himself allowed himself to be threatened with blocking the payments of the State Treasury to the western regions - if they continue protest rallies.