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UPD: 01/28/2014 Eating area. Who feeds whom in Ukraine

Зона проедания. Кто кого кормит в Украине


Only six regions of Ukraine could live on self-sufficiency. The rest receive more from the state budget than they give.

When the Investgazeta correspondent tried to talk to the employees of the Berkut during the dismantling of the barricades on the Lutheranskaya street of the capital, they said in response: “We don’t want to listen to you, you don’t pay us salaries anyway - you are all from subsidized western regions.”

This statement is not the invention of police political hands. The thesis that the eastern regions of Ukraine are fed by the western ones has been repeatedly repeated by many representatives of the authorities, from the mayor of Donetsk, Alexander Lukyanchenko, to the ex-minister of social policy, Mikhail Papiev.

Region

Total transferred to the state budget, billion UAH

Total received from the state budget, billion UAH

Surplus / deficit, billion UAH

Surplus / deficit per capita, UAH

Poltava

9.60

4.12

5.48

3757

Kharkov

10.38

3.48

6.90

2520

Dnepropetrovsk

15.03

8.85

6.19

1878

Sumy

2.61

1,63

0.98

865

Cherkasy

2.18

1.97

0.21

168

Lviv

4.70

4.34

0.36

140

Rivne

1.96

1.97

-0.01

-7

Zhytomyr

3.24

3,54

-0.30

-235

Chernivtsi

0.82

1,08

-0.26

-284

Khmelnitsky

0.97

1.42

-0.45

-343

Kherson

1.00

1.40

-0.40

-376

Odessa **

1.85

3.30

-1.46

-609

Chernihiv

1.73

2,52

-0.78

-731

Kiev

2.16

3.49

-1.33

-770

Zaporizhzhya

1.77

4.07

-2.30

-1297

Vinnitsa

1,63

3.98

-2.35

-1452

Nikolaev

0.80

2.82

-2.02

-1727

Autonomous Republic of Crimea

1.94

5.72

-3.78

-1919

Kirovograd

0.23

2.24

-2.01

-2032

Donetsk

3.85

13.09

-9.25

-2126

Lugansk

4.35

9.42

-5.07

-2262

Ivano-Frankivsk

0.27

3.41

-3.14

-2272

Volyn **

1.47

4.32

-2.85

-2738

Ternopol

0.92

4.36

-3.45

-3207

Transcarpathian

0.98

5.51

-4.53

-3604

Kiev city

50.63

62.27

-11.74

-4072

As the calculations of Investgazeta show, this statement is hopelessly outdated.

In the first six months of 2013, the Donetsk region received UAH 9.2 billion from the state budget. allocations, grants and subventions more than paid for it. The result - 25th place in the overall ranking of twenty-six. Only payments to the budget accounted for only Kiev - more than 11 billion (26th place). But Lviv region was in sixth position: according to the results of six months, it transferred UAH 356 million to the state budget. more than I got from it. However, this is far from a record. The best budget balance among all regions was demonstrated by Kharkiv Oblast - for six months, almost 7 billion UAH of net income came to the budget from here.

Зона проедания. Кто кого кормит в Украине


Зона проедания. Кто кого кормит в Украине


However, the absolute numbers are not entirely indicative - at least they do not take into account the size of the regions. Here it is more appropriate to compare the budget balance per capita. This changes the picture, but by no means radically.

Зона проедания. Кто кого кормит в Украине


For example, for one Donetsk citizen for six months of last year, 2126 UAH., Transferred to the region from the state budget, which corresponds to the 20th place. Lviv - with an indicator of 140 UAH. transfers to the central budget - remained on the sixth. Kiev residents also retained 26th place - the amount of subsidies and subsidies from the state budget per capita was 4072 UAH. This is the worst indicator of all regions. (It is worth noting that Kiev has a negative balance, because all taxes on personal incomes are taken from the budget, unlike other cities. If this did not happen, there would be a surplus of 4-5 billion, - Censor. NO. ) But in the first place unexpectedly was the Poltava region. The region transferred UAH 3757 to the budget. per capita.

Population equalization

The most paradoxical thing is that the size of net revenues from regions to the state budget is practically independent of the size of the regional gross product. In most cases, these incomes correlate with only one indicator - the population of the region. In other words, the main sources of revenue are personal income tax and consumption taxes, the same VAT. Incomes of industrial and other enterprises often "go away" at the place of registration of the head office - to the capital or offshore.

In our assessment, we did not take into account how much the customs of this or that region bring to the state budget.

On the one hand, 20 “unprofitable” regions are heavily subsidized by revenues from customs. On the other hand, imported goods that cross the border at the Odessa port or in Chop are more or less evenly distributed throughout Ukraine (import consumption is perhaps slightly higher in the border regions due to the short transport distance). But in general, import taxes are essentially paid by end-users - evenly across the country. True, Kiev and other large cities are knocked out of this picture, at least for large purchases like cars, (in particular, this applies to car imports). But this does not affect the general picture of the distribution of funds.

But export duties, according to the president of the Center for Market Reforms Vladimir Lanovoy, have almost no effect on the state budget: they apply only to leather goods, scrap metal and several other small commodity groups. But in the near future Ukraine has pledged to cancel these payments.

Breadwinners

Excluding imports, Ukraine is essentially “fed” by three regions: Kharkiv, which produces oil and gas, Dnepropetrovsk, where iron ore is mined, and especially Poltava, where mining of both the one and the other is developed. They provide the budget with significant amounts of rental payments and subsurface use fees.

By the way, Vladimir Lanovoi notes that the Poltava region is also a leader in the generation of added value. The oil refining, automotive and other enterprises located on its territory were built relatively recently - almost all of them have maintained workable production since Soviet times.

In addition to these three regions, only Sumy, Cherkasy and Lviv worked as a plus in the first half of the year, while the income and expenses of Rivne were almost equal. But here, as can be seen from the calculations, good results are explained not so much by the high level of generated budget revenues, but by the relatively low amount of assistance from the center per capita.

Unprofitable

Unlike oil, gas or ore, coal mining in Donbass does not bring profit to the budget - rental payments are not levied due to the loss-making of the industry. On the contrary, the state spends 12-14 billion UAH annually. to support coal miners, mainly compensating for the difference between the selling price of coal and its cost. It is interesting that the same amount will come out if we add the negative balance of payments to the state budget of nine western and northern regions.

Coal subsidies account for approximately 30% of all state budget revenues in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. But even if they are not taken into account, these regions remain deeply subsidized. Firstly, recently huge investments have been made here on various “projects of national importance” such as road construction. Secondly, the tax authorities are particularly favored by the Donbass. For the studied half a year, 6.7 billion UAH were received from the Donetsk region in the state budget. value added tax, and 8.7 billion UAH was reimbursed. This is an absolute record for all regions.

At the same time, per capita donation of Donbass is less than in some western regions - such as Transcarpathian, Ternopol, Volyn and Ivano-Frankivsk. However, only in the last region the negative balance is due to significant subsidies covering the loss-making of local budgets. The remaining three were at the end of the list due to the large number of budget organizations - the main volume of payments from the state budget is made up of allocations for protected items, for example, salaries.

Very specific indicators in Kiev. On the one hand, the city generates about 40% of the state budget revenues (excluding customs), since it is here that many Ukrainian enterprises are registered and pay taxes. On the other hand, subventions and subsidies for fulfilling the functions of the capital, targeted payments for the construction of the metro, bridges and roads, as well as allocations to numerous budgetary organizations more than cover revenues and turn Kiev into the most subsidized region out of the twenty-six considered.

To earn yourself

Subsidizing some regions at the expense of others is a common situation in world practice. “Ukraine is a unitary state, which means that it is absolutely normal for it to have a constant distribution of resources between regions,” explains Oleg Ustenko, executive director of the Blazer International Foundation.

True, there is one “but”. The fact is that practically all over the world budgetary subsidies are aimed at boosting the economy of depressed regions and in the future reducing their need for subsidies. For example, in Mexico, traditionally earned money industrial and oil-producing regions, concentrated on the east coast and near Mexico City. But over the past two decades, most of the financial assistance from the center has been systematically invested in the development of agriculture and tourism - this helped the country a lot when the state oil sector a few years ago was on the verge of crisis.

In Ukraine, everything happens exactly the opposite. With rare exceptions, the amount of subsidies is determined not by structural projects, but by momentary political conditions. A simple example: according to Oleg Ustenko, when his fund conducted a similar study in 2010, the results were completely different: subsidies from the state budget per capita were minimal in the eastern regions. And the maximum - in the western, except perhaps Lviv.

Completely getting rid of subsidization is unrealistic. Decentralization of the budget could reduce subsidies and give an incentive to the development of the economy. At the very least, oblasts would not need to send most of their income to the center first, in order to later expect them to return. “This reform is necessary. But only gradually, creating incentives for the regions to learn to earn more, because the earned money will remain at their disposal, ”explains Vladimir Lanovoi. According to him, in world practice, the regions are usually left with exactly those taxes that are levied locally. At the same time, payments made to the budget upon import, for example, import duties or excise taxes, go to the central treasury.

Over the past 20 years, such projects have been discussed dozens of times in BP. However, not one of them even reached the second reading. Which is not surprising. Indeed, when funds move first from the region, and then to the region, one can always make good money on such a “movement”. In addition, such a “movement” is a good tool for additional control of the regions by the center. In any case, during the recent protests, Prime Minister Mykola Azarov allowed himself to directly threaten to block the payments of the State Treasury to the western regions - if they continue to protest rallies.