100 years ago, Soviet scout and saboteur Ivan Kudry was born.
They were young, beautiful, they wanted love and happiness. They met in safe houses and feared betrayal.
Only 20 years after the end of the war, Ivan Kudryu and his group were posthumously removed from the underground. Why so long silent?
The author of this article managed to look through several interesting documents from the archives of the former KGB and the materials of the archive of the CC CP (b) U, which were kindly presented by the historian Tatiana Yevstafyeva. Read again, they, I hope, will shed light on some questions that have not yet been clarified. Perhaps put new.
“Residents (all persons) are forbidden to go out from 18 to 5 hours German time. Violators of this order will be shot. .
"Commandant of Kiev"
(“Ukrainian Word” newspaper, September 29, 1941)
"IVAN, NOT LOOKING FOR THE ADVICE, HAVE BEEN LEARNED ... I LOVED THE ARTISTIC PARADISE"
Raisa translated her watch two hours ago. She could go out after 18. Like all artists, she received a special permit. Otherwise, how would she come back home from performances? However, as a rule, officers of the Kiev Opera will take Raisa Okipnaya to the house.
|Ivan Kudrya (operational pseudonym Maksim) led an underground group in occupied Kiev. Died in the dungeons of the Gestapo in July 1943|
She was favored by the head of the Ukrainian police, Colonel Grib, the chief of the city police, Major Shtunde, the deputy head of the General Commissariat for the Kiev region, von Bolhausen. In the theater, they were gossiping that a Hungarian general made her a marriage proposal and she promised to think.
Ivan Kudrya visited Rai's performances when she took out a ticket or a pass-label, more often simply presented her with a bouquet at the service entrance. Once, sitting in the hall, he made up in his mind a plan for the explosion of a theater during a large meeting of the Ukrainian and German elite. At the last moment the meeting was canceled.
The lovers did not want to part, and they, if they had some serene minutes, would go where the couples usually go, to Naddniprovsky Park. Past the ruins of Khreshchatyk, past the gallows creaking across from the Bessarabian market, past German patrols. A few months in the rear of the enemy, balancing on the edge of the blade did their job, they have dulled the sense of danger.
Dmitry Sobolev, another Chekist, left, like Kudrya, in occupied Kiev for reconnaissance and sabotage work, saw everything and grumbled: “Earn!”. Did not listen. When he found out that they had been arrested, he opened a school notebook, which he asked for from the daughter of a friend of the underground worker, and by the light of the candle end (only Germans used electricity) wrote:
“Ivan, despite the advice, behaved carelessly. Met and walked through the parks, ex. under the constant supervision of the Gestapo. Fell in love with the actress - Paradise. I walked with her in parks and squares every day, met her at the theater, accompanied her home, offered bouquets of flowers. ”
|Opera prima Raisa Okipnaya enjoyed success with German connoisseurs of high art.|
This was one of the points of the Sobolev report on the reasons for the failure of the Curls group. He wrote in case he suddenly failed. Someone will find a notebook, find out how it was. Dmitri Sobolev himself was a few years older than Ivan Kudri, more cautious and prudent, so he lasted eight months longer.
And what if Sobolev wrote something that he only suspected, but did not know for sure? From various testimonies about the relations of the scouts left in Kiev, one gets the impression that they, perhaps without realizing it, were competing with each other in boldness, courage, and luck. Is it because Sobolev's notes about Kudra are sinned by aloof severity?
But here we find another direct evidence in the case - Lydia Miroshnichenko, one of Raisa Okipnaya’s friends:
"Ivan Danilovich often met with Paradise, they were connected not only by underground work, but also by mutual deep respect, which turned into mutual love."
“HEAVEN HAVE BROUGHT SHOES BEFORE ARREST AND HAVE DON'T GIVE MONEY TO ME”
Raisa Okipnaya's closest friend was Yevgenia Bremer. Despite the significant difference in age (Rae was 41 years old at 41, Zhenya was 41 years old), they were mentally close. The daughter of a prominent Bolshevik, a Russian German, Eugene, at the age of 20, volunteered to join the Red Army, married the KGB officer, and after his execution she spent a year in prison as the wife of an “enemy of the people”.
Zhenya and Raya lived in the same house on Chkalov Street, 32. Together, they rescued several Red Army soldiers who had fallen into the Darnitsky prisoner of war camp. They called themselves their relatives and took them home. Sometimes this trick took place. Eugenia helped her status Volksdeuyche.
|A close friend of Okipnaya, Evgenia Bremer, was the daughter of a prominent Bolshevik, a Russian German. At the age of 20 she voluntarily enrolled in the Red Army, married a security officer, and after his execution she spent a year in prison as the wife of an “enemy of the people”|
Often, friends for a couple were flirting with German connoisseurs of Kiev Opera and other officers who were interested in the underground. From a letter to Lydia Miroshnichenko:
Once a woman, seeing Paradise on the other side of the street, almost with tears in her eyes rushed to her, hugged, kissed. She said that she remembers her in the Vinnitsa theater, on the steps of which Raisa shone before the war, and how great that they met again. Okipnaya did not recognize the compatriot, but she was so sincere, and Paradise was so yearning for the past that they reached the theater together and quickly became friends.
The woman's name was Natalia Frantsevna, for the first German husband - Grunwald. She was nicknamed in the operetta manner Nanette. She touched Paradise with a story about a second husband who is suffering in a Gestapo prison.
Raya told about Nanette to Ivan, and he decided that a new acquaintance might be interesting to the underground. First of all, the fact that the head of the laboratory in the hospital at Trekhsvyatitelskaya, means that she has access to chemicals. Kudra often had to forge documents and display old data on them. In addition, by introducing into the group a worker at the Karl Marx confectionery factory, he decided to poison the candies. This alone gives an idea of the terrible reality in which these people existed. Probably, Kudrya justified his decision to go on such a diversion by the fact that mostly Germans and policemen enjoyed sweets.
When Raya presented Nanette Ivan as her fiance, she threw another hook: lovers can come to her five-room apartment on Kirov Street. She, they say, all day at work, make yourself at home, do not hesitate.
“Ivan Danilovich (Kudrya. -Avt.) Told Gene and Raia to meet the Germans and they came to their house. On the same day, Zhenya and Raya were at the bazaar and met the German railway workers, they began to visit their home. Eugene often said: "I can not see them." But Ivan Danilovich said that we must endure and show that you are satisfied. "
|The closest assistant and, in fact, the deputy of Ivan Kudri, the Ukrainian security officer Dmitry Sobolev|
The tempting offer made the underground workers forget about caution. In the apartment on Pushkinskaya, 37, Maria Gruzdova, whose husband, according to legend, was Ivan, was still her mother, mother-in-law (mother of her first husband, Gruzdeva, who was executed in 37) and their son. At home, Raya’s parents are always mom and dad-priest, who returned from the Stalin’s camp as an invalid.
Here it is necessary to make a small digression and say that for the first time about the group of Ivan Kudri began to speak publicly in 1963. The KGB General-Major Viktor Drozdov, one of the colleagues of the chief chief of the Soviet intelligence officers and saboteurs Pavel Sudoplatov, was dedicated to the affairs of the KGB Chekist underground. After the shooting of Beria and the arrest of Sudoplatov as an “accomplice of Beria”, Viktor Drozdov was sent into retirement. But he gained a second wind, managing the public reception of the popular weekly newspaper. The 20th anniversary of the Victory was approaching, and Drozdov suggested that the newspaper print the material he had collected about his dead colleague Ivan Kudra. The documentary story “Two Years Over the Abyss” was a huge success, Dovzhenko’s studio staged a film of the same name on it.
So Raisa Okipnaya thought about Vinnitsa before meeting with Nanette. Kudrya began to receive reports that the Germans were sending special troops there, plotting some kind of secret construction, preparing for the arrival of high ranks. He decided to explore what was happening. Raya volunteered to go there as if to visit the theater, began to bother about permission to go in front of her German fans.
Kudrya could not have known that it was a question of building the rate of Hitler, and did not appreciate the degree of risk. It was then that a particularly secret agent, Nanette, appeared. She was an extraordinary actress and beat both singer Raisa Okipnu and scout Ivan Kudryu.
General Drozdov wrote about Nanette like this:
“... her husband is dying in prison - a Ukrainian journalist, a communist, an underground worker, and at this time the Gestapo Sharm comes to meet her - the very one who tortures her husband during interrogations. Soon she will become a particularly trusted agent for the SD in Vinnitsa, and then in the Sudetenland. ”
In the literary rendition of the story “Two Years Over the Abyss,” General Drozdov was helped by the journalist Yevseyev. Together, they spotted Nanette, who was convicted, but released at liberty after the amnesty, which, by the way, was very outraged, and raised before the prosecutor's office the question of her returning to the barbed wire.
|Ivan Kudri's mother Anisia Zakharyevna raised her son without a husband; Ivan did not remember her father|
In their report, Drozdov and Yevseyev said that when the Curls group was defeated, the chief and lover of Nanette Charm gave her a confrontation with Raisa. When she saw the opera house beaten to black bruises, Nanette shed tears. Charm asked, did she feel so sorry for the partisan? She replied: humanly pitiful, but not as an enemy.
Drozdova and Yevseyev Nanette described how Okipnaya looked like during interrogation: “The clothes are torn. She had my shoes on her feet ... Raya took my shoes before the arrest and never gave me any money. ”
The reference to the traitress is found in the Chronicle of Current Events: “Nataliya Frantsevna Grunwald, born in 1912, was sentenced to 25 years. Her son, sentenced one by one to her case, is in the 35th camp of the Perm camps. ” And in another issue of the Chronicle: “Natalie Frantsevna Grunwald is the heroine (should be said, antiheroine. -Auto.) Of the film“ Two Years Over the Abyss. Arrested in the 40s, sentenced to 25 years, pardoned in the 56th year, but on the personal order of the Prosecutor General Rudenko in the 62nd year returned to the camp. She does not plead guilty to the charges brought against her. ”
Somewhere in the gulag wilds, the traces of Nanette were lost.
“THE CHALLENGE HAS BEEN TAKEN IN ME - TO BE A WIFE OF T. COUDREY”
“In 1937, her husband, Yaruta N. S., a teacher at Kiev University, was arrested and shot (posthumously rehabilitated)”.
That year, another woman lived next to Ivan Kudrey - Maria Gruzdova. As determined by the legend with which he was left in Kiev, not the bride, not the wife. According to the same legend, he was a teacher of the Ukrainian language, Kondratyuk, the son of a repressed priest from the town of Meref, and came to Kiev to Gruzdova.
By the beginning of the war for four years, Maria was the widow of a teacher at the Kiev State University. From a certificate signed on December 30, 1963 by the chairman of the Ukrainian KGB, V. Nikitchenko:
|After the arrest, the Germans tortured Raisa Okipnuyu with special cynicism, avenging their former raptures|
The mention of Nikanor Yarut can be found in the so-called "Stalin's lists" of people who were shot on the personal instructions of Stalin or his closest associates. The sentence against N. Yaruta was executed on June 26, 1937.
Some researchers believe that Maria Gruzdova did not know about the execution of her husband and hoped to work with the authorities to ease his fate in the camp. But in the help of V. Nikitchenko it says: “I willingly agreed to stay in Kiev to complete the task”.
General Drozdov supported this opinion: “They say that when she (Maria Gruzdova. - Auth. ) Was asked to take Cudri to the apartment, she began to cry - not from fear, but from the consciousness that she, the wife of a man punished by the Soviet authorities, was trusted with such an important task, as the protection of the life of our intelligence. "
Two years later, after the defeat of the group, Gruzdova will reach the mainland and present a report on the Kiev underground, which will be transferred to the National Security Commissar for Vsevolod Merkulov. In her report she told:
“I was entrusted with the task of being the wife of Comrade Curls and penetrating into society in any way, using my acquaintances, and drawing Comrade Curdrew into this environment in order to disguise it, as well as conducting a study of people who stayed in Kiev when the Germans joined ".
Pretty, seemingly defenseless blonde, Maria was not lost under any circumstances. Not once did she fall into a scrape, in which others would disappear headlong, and she would go dry.
She found the necessary connections and became a house manager on Kuznechnaya Street (now Gorky), 4/6, where the Abwehr recruiting station was located. It was led by Major Mayer. His men selected agents mainly from the Ukrainian policemen, prisoners of war, Red Army deserters, sometimes from young, naive and hungry. By signing a contract, each received a thousand rubles (1 mark was 10 rubles), sausage, eight kilograms of flour, four kilograms of sugar and cereals, after which Mayer sent them to the Poltava spy school. Three months later, new saboteurs were thrown into the Soviet rear.
Over time, it turned out that Mayer was a recruited German spy, a native of the Kiev region, a graduate of the Kiev polytechnic, and that his name was Anton Milchevsky, before the war. In 1936, he was convicted of espionage, but in 1940, thanks to a treaty with Germany, he was exiled to exchange prisoners. Very soon he returned to his former homeland in the Major's uniform. The KGB archives keep the interrogation report of Milchevsky-Meier dated August 28, 1952, in which he acknowledges his recruiting and intelligence activities in Kiev.
The windows of the apartment, where Maria Gruzdova kept her house management economy, looked out onto the windows of Mayer's safe flat. As a husband of the house manager, Ivan Kudrya often visited the building at Kuznechnaya and soon became aware of many of his visitors. After the war, the lists compiled by Kudray helped to find most of them. Maria became so credible to Mayer that he almost sent her to the Poltava intelligence school.
Somehow Kudrya, desperate to get in touch with the Center, decided to cross the front line and personally report the situation to the authorities. On the way, he was arrested and locked up in the Darnitsky camp. Ivan managed to drop a note and pass it on with some boy to Maria. She rushed over and rescued him.
Maria was near when on the street he confronted head-on with his former prisoner Stepan Usati, who became a translator for the field gendarmerie. Despite the attempt to change the appearance of Curls - he grew a mustache, wore embroidery and bryl - Usatiy recognized him. But he did not surrender Cudrew to the Gestapo, but, on the contrary, Cudry recruited Usatii, and he began to bring information about traitors to Cudre. This Mustache belongs to the first mention of the suspicious activity of the Germans near Vinnitsa. Subsequently, Usaty, according to some data, was shot by the Gestapo, according to others - he left with the field gendarmerie upon its redeployment.
Thanks to the story Gruzdova episode with Mustache entered in the revised form in the movie "The feat of intelligence" (with Kadochnikov in the lead role). In the famous stage on the steps of the Ars cinema, the main character encounters a German intelligence officer, formerly under investigation by the NKVD, blackmails him and forces him to give out German secrets.
It seems that Maria deeply entered the role of bodyguard and wife of her boss, Ivan Curls. In the Moscow report, she dropped the phrase in her heart:
"Although I had with him (with Kudray. -Auto.) There were terrible personal troubles, but this personal remains personal, and the general is common, and I never mix it up."
Are there any notes of stung vanity here? Maybe Mary was jealous?
"THERE ARE MY GROUP WHICH DIVERSION ACTS DONE IN KYIV, WHICH ARE CERTAINED TO SOME WORKERS OF OUR BODIES"
When preparing Kudri for the underground, the leadership was interested not so much in Gruzdov as in its apartment in the 12-storeyed “Lev Ginzburg skyscraper”, the highest in the Russian Empire. From the windows of the house on Institutskaya Street, 16 (now there is the Ukraine Hotel), there was an excellent overview of Kreshchatik.
The apartment was packed with weapons, ciphers, money, false documents and forms, clothing and food.
I saw, probably, Ivan Kudrya and Maria Gruzdova, as on September 19, 1941, the first column of Germans marched along Khreshchatyk. The very next day after the invasion, the first order of the German military commandant hung on the doors of the “Ginzburg house”, like all other Kiev buildings:
“All citizens of the city of Kiev and its environs immediately, within 24 hours, hand over firearms, receivers and gas masks to the commandant's office. For non-fulfillment - execution! ”
The line to the Detsky Mir store, where the receivers received from the public were stored, did not run out for several days. It is believed that his receiver, filled with explosives, Kudry brought into the back room on September 24. Historian Tatyana Yevstafieva says that in his first report to Moscow, Ivan Kudrya reported on the explosion of the Children's World.
It was enough to break out to the Children's World, as the explosives, which had been put in the building of the commandant's office, which was on the opposite corner, were detonated. They said that the blast wave made the commandant through the window and smashed against the asphalt.
However, the honor of the demolition men (now it seems to someone - the honor of a gerostratus, and then they thought - Kiev cleaned the face to the Nazis, showed that entering the city does not mean taking possession of it) was claimed by another group of security officers left in Kiev.
It was a group of Viktor Kartashov, in close connection with which was Dmitry Sobolev. Sitting in a prison in Kiev in 1946 on suspicion of treason, Kartashov wrote to his leader, Pavel Sudoplatov, who personally sent him on a mission:
“I affirm and prove that it was my group that carried out the acts of sabotage in Kiev, which some employees of our bodies ascribed to themselves”.
After the war, Viktor Kartashov was convicted of treason, sentenced to 25 years in the camps, but did not serve his term because in 1950, at the age of 43, he died in prison.
Supporters of the two versions of the authorship of the Khreshchatyk explosion could have been reconciled by the suggestion that there were two, and perhaps more, receivers filled with explosives - according to the number of underground groups. But Maria Gruzdova wrote in her report:
"Sobolev said that it was like their work ... I wasn’t in Lavra, but I heard that there were explosions there."
Did Kudry hide her involvement in such a loud action from her?
So, "Children's World" and the commandant's office flew into the air. Following this, the Start cinema located nearby exploded. There, the German soldiers were culturally rested. On Khreshchatyk thundered real cannonade. Eyewitnesses said that stunned by the roar of pigeons flew up and immediately fell dead, roasted with the tongues of multimeter flame.
The next day the Ginzburg House was blown up. Maria Gruzdova told in her report:
“I do not know how it happened, but the house was mined. All products, documents, weapons, forms of passports, etc., were lost, since we simply could not bear it all. Why? Because the Germans expelled from the house to a single person, surrounded the entire area and did not allow anyone to the house for a day. The Germans did not enter the house either, since they had accurate information that the house was mined. ”
Curiously, the Germans "had accurate information that the house was mined," and the Kiev security officers did not! Otherwise, who had the idea to create a safe house for his resident in a house destined for destruction? Or vice versa - how could they have mined the house where their intelligence officers are based? And one more thing: how did Gruzdova know that the Germans "had accurate information"?
“SOMETHING ARE GOING TO FUNEROUS WAITS”
Not only did Kudrya, Gruzdova and her family lose their homes, livelihoods and connections, the radio, which was left for the group in Yevgeny Linkevich’s house, very soon stopped working. The basement, where it was hidden, was damp, and the batteries were out of order. In addition, two radio operators serving the radio, attracted the attention of the police. I had to send them to the mainland.
Gruzdova made use of her connections, and he and Kudrei settled in an apartment on Pushkinskaya. He specifically chose the top floor so that in an extreme situation it was possible to escape on the roof. To divert German eyes, Maria got him a certificate from the medical institute, where he allegedly was enrolled as a student. Somehow the problem with money was solved. Judging by her testimony, they even had royal gold coins.
Surprisingly, very quickly Kudry gathered a new group. Then Zhenya Bremer and Raya Okipnaya got into it. But the walkie-talkie and radio operators were nowhere to take.
Moscow, which was very interested in the activities of Curls, sent Lydia and Anatoly Trusov of paratroopers to Kiev in October 1941. A radio operator was flying with them, but when the landing was unsuccessful, he crashed. It was not possible for Trusov to deliver intact the walkie-talkie. On the other hand, they met many members of the Curls group and, on their return, made a report on everything they saw.
From what Kudra managed to do, the Trusovs noted the creation of seven sabotage groups, the production and distribution of leaflets, the collection of material for analyzing the economic situation in Kiev and the surrounding areas, as well as:
“There is an absolutely complete picture of all fortifications and mines, the presence of military schools and the location of the largest military headquarters and institutions, the mood and internal struggle of individual groups ... The group penetrated the highest German circles through Zoya (meaning Raisa Okipnaya. -Auto .), who owns a beautiful voice, and her friend - German Zhenya.
In turn, Kudrya asked the Center to hand over to him the necessary things - “walkie-talkie, miniature hellish cars” for throwing pockets, devices for killing individuals without sound, passport forms, occupation stamps ”.
Ivan added to the list:
"Good stuff or outfits for actress Zoe (Rai. -Autob.)." He wanted to give his beloved not only flowers.
The report of the liaison is silent about whether he conveyed greetings to the Great Land for his real wife.
The famous scene from "Seventeen Moments of Spring" in the cafe "Elephant" symbolized the unshakable loyalty of Maxim Maximovich Isaev-Stirlitz to his wife and Motherland. Ivan Danilovich Kudri (the operational pseudonym - Maxim), it turns out, also had a family, and somewhere far to the east came his mushroom rains of memory.
On November 17, 1938, in the questionnaire column “Marital Status”, he reported in telegraph style:
“Married. Koshkina Kapitolina Ivanovna, home address: Hotel "Select", room number - 25 ".
In the hotel they lived well, so on May 29, 1941, he added his autobiography:
“I have a wife and two children. Wife - an employee of the NKVD.
In his personal file, there was evidence that Kapitolina Kudrya was four years younger than her spouse and that a year before the war she bore him Arkasha, and in the year when the war began, Boria.
Raisa Okipnaya was also married. Her maiden name is Kapshuchenko. Raya married when she studied at the music college, from which she was miserably expelled because of the arrest of her father-priest. Nothing is known about the fate of the young wife of Pavel Okipny.
The theme of the underground love of a married communist intelligence officer and a married underground singer was not welcome. The closest military friend of Ivan Kudri portrayed Maria Gruzdova.
THE MOTHER DIVIDED THE PACKAGE AND SEEN THE RAIN SHOCK, AND IN HIM IT IS HUMAN AND HEMPOSTED HAIR
In the apartment of Nanette, Ivan and Raya not only met, but also listened to programs from Moscow, recorded front-line reports and printed leaflets on them. They brought their typewriter there, the location of which was changed all the time. They also took risks because they could easily be searched and arrested on the street.
In his notebook, Dmitry Sobolev continued to list the reasons for the failure of Ivan Curls:
“Dedicated to Nata in the course of his work. He left her a typewriter, a watering can (camera. —Avt.), And others. He talked a lot. Meanwhile, he knew that there were Gestapo employees in her apartment and that, according to her, many owls were hiding in her apartment. answer. workers (apparently, she handed them over) ... In the house in which she lives, there are many apartments of the Gestapo men. ”
The resident’s mistake was that, having relied on Raisa’s recommendations, he didn’t give Nanette a check. He was not tormented by suspicions even when he decided to invite underground friends to his luxurious apartment in Grunwald - Zhenya Bremer and Georges Dudkin.
In fact, the day of his 30th birthday was two days later, but for some reason Ivan decided to celebrate it on July 5th. This party cost them their lives.
From the diary of Dmitry Sobolev:
“I began to arrange meetings with Paradise with her (Nanette. -Avt.) At the apartment. Arranged his birthday day. Zhenia and Zhora invited their ... On July 5, Ivan and Paradise took a typewriter from Nata and after 15 minutes on the way were arrested ... The next day, not knowing about the arrest of Rai and Vanya, Zhenya and Zhora went to Nate to the polyclinic and together headed for a walk. Near the house Korolenko, 33 Nat disappeared. They did not expect her, knowing that she would find them. A few minutes later, Nat really approached them, and at the same moment they were arrested. Zhore managed to escape on the way to the Gestapo ”.
Mary Gruzdova miraculously escaped arrest. From a letter from the head of the Ukrainian headquarters of the partisan movement Timofey Strokach to the people's commissar of state security Vsevolod Merkulov on May 27, 1943:
“With all the materials, in particular, with the transcripts of Gruzdova, who had the task to inform the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) U about the state of the party’s underground in Kiev, he was fully informed about comrade. Khrushchev N. S.
Due to a number of suspicious circumstances in these materials, in particular about the presence of a direct task from Ivan Kucherenko, who is currently conducting provocative and treacherous work among the party underground in Kiev, comrade. Khrushchev expressed great suspicion regarding Gruzdova and the information she submitted. ”
Over time, however, the suspicions of Maria Gruzdova were removed. To the 20th anniversary of the Victory, among other members of Maxim's group, she was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War I degree.
Maria married the former Kiev underground fighter Nikolay Slobodenyuk, with whom she left Kiev and got into the partisan Popudrenko squad, from where she was sent to Moscow. Historian Tatyana Evstafieva told that she had once met with Nikolay Slobodenyuk. Maria Gruzdova was no longer alive, and he complained that she was not allowed to teach at school after the war. Probably, they did not believe to the end.
About the last days of Ivan Kudri, who in the Gestapo prison said that he was a student of Kondratyuk, there is only one testimony. Ivan Kucherenko, secretary of the underground Kiev regional committee and the Komsomol city committee, who miraculously managed to survive and who was considered a traitor because of this, ended up in the same cell with Kudrey. From the report of Maria Gruzdova:
“Once in the afternoon or in the evening (he just doesn’t remember) a literally inanimate person was thrown into his cell. This man lay for two days, did not eat anything, did not drink, and blood flowed from his arms. Kondratyuk was already sitting there for the third month, and they continued to torture him all the time. When he was thrown into Kucherenko’s cell, he was in such a state that he could not speak, but only moaned ... The next time he was interrogated, the torture continued. He was hung up and pricked with needles under the toes and hands. This was done in the presence of Kucherenko. ”
After the war, there were several women who were sitting with Zhenya Bremer in the same cell, then with her mother, who was killed after her daughter. Neighbors said that Zhenya did not lose self-control until the last days. As an ethnic German she was given an improved ration, and some women were jealous.
Then Okipnoy and Bremer arranged a confrontation. The next morning, Zhenya was dragged into the cell, and for a few more days she suffered without sleep, because the disfigured body would not allow her to sit or lie down.
There was order in the prison - they were shot on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. One day the prison commandant opened the door to his cell and, looking at Zhenya, shouted: “Shnell!”. He always screamed when he was taken to execution. In the same way, he stole Paradise from the next chamber. It was Friday, November 6th. And the day of the execution of Ivan Curls is unknown.
Without a shudder it is impossible to read the story of the mother Raisa Okipnoy published in one of the Kiev newspapers. The actress, apparently, the Germans tortured with special cynicism, avenging their former enthusiasm. One day, a Gestapo employee brought Okipna package to her parents. Mother turned him around and saw Rai's sock, and in her - her matted and bloody hair.
That fateful evening of July 5, 1942, when Ivan Kudryu and Raisa Okipnaya were arrested, the Gestapo men searched his apartment in Pushkinskaya. In the drawer of Ivan’s desk, they found a photograph of Rai in the role of Carmen.
PS The website shram.kiev.ua is grateful to the editorial office of “Gordon Boulevard” and is grateful for the assistance in writing the article to Stanislav Fedorovich Vinnik - the former head of one of the units of the 9th service of the KGB of the Ukrainian SSR who in 1965 took part in the preparation of materials for the government award of Ivan Kudri and members of his group.
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