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100 years ago, Soviet intelligence and saboteur Ivan Kudrya was born

100 лет назад родился советский разведчик и диверсант Иван Кудря

They were young, beautiful, they wanted love and happiness. We met in safe houses and feared treason.

Only 20 years after the end of the war, Ivan Kudryu and his group were posthumously taken out of the underground. Why were they silent for so long?

The author of this article managed to look through several interesting documents from the archives of the former KGB and the materials of the archive of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (b) U, kindly presented by the historian Tatyana Evstafieva. Re-read, they hopefully shed light on some still unexplained issues. Perhaps they will put new ones.

“Residents (all persons) are forbidden to go out from 18 to 5 hours German time. Violators of this order will be shot. .

"Commandant of Kiev"
(The newspaper "Ukrainian Word", September 29, 1941)

“Ivan, despite his advice, led himself careless ... I fell in love with an artist - paradise”

Raisa moved her watch two hours ago. She could go out after 18. Like all artists, she received special permission. Otherwise, how would she return home from the performances? However, as a rule, I will accept the Kiev opera Raisa Okipnaya officers accompanied by the house.

Ivan Kudrya (operational pseudonym Maxim) led an underground group in occupied Kiev. He died in the dungeons of the Gestapo in July 1943.

She was sympathized with by the head of the Ukrainian police, Colonel Grib, the chief of the city police, Major Stunde, deputy chief of the general commissariat for the Kiev region, von Bolhausen. It was gossiping at the theater that a Hungarian general had offered her a hand and heart, and she promised to think.

Ivan Kudrya visited Rai’s performances when she took out a ticket or a backlit, more often she simply presented her with a bouquet at the service entrance. Once, while sitting in the hall, in his mind he made a plan for a theater explosion during a large meeting of the Ukrainian and German leaders. At the last moment, the meeting was canceled.

The lovers did not want to part, and if they had serene minutes, they went to where the couples usually walk, to the Dnieper park. Past the ruins of Khreshchatyk, past the gallows creaking across from the Bessarabian market, past German patrols. A few months behind enemy lines, balancing on the edge of the blade did their job, they dulled a sense of danger.

Dmitry Sobolev, another Chekist left, like Kudrya, in occupied Kiev for reconnaissance and sabotage work, saw and grumbled everything: “Get it!”. Did not listen. When he learned that they were arrested, he opened a school notebook, which he begged for from the daughter of a friend of the underground, and in the light of the cinder (only Germans used electricity), he wrote:



“Ivan, despite the advice, behaved inadvertently. Met and walked through the parks, ex. under the constant supervision of the Gestapo. Fell in love with the artist - Paradise. He walked with her in parks and squares daily, met her at the theater, accompanied her home, brought bouquets of flowers. ”


Opera prima Raisa Okipnaya was a success with German connoisseurs of high art

This was one of the points in the report of Sobolev on the reasons for the failure of the Kudri group. He wrote in case he suddenly failed. Someone will find a notebook, find out how it was. Dmitry Sobolev himself was several years older than Ivan Kudri, more cautious and prudent, so he lasted eight months longer.

But what if Sobolev wrote what he only suspected, but did not know for sure? From various evidence of the relations of the scouts left in Kiev, one gets the impression that they, perhaps without realizing it, competed with each other in impudence, courage, and luck. Is this why Sobolev’s records of Kudra sinned by detached severity?

But here we find in business yet another direct evidence - Lydia Miroshnichenko, one of the friends of Raisa Okipnoy:



"Ivan Danilovich often met with Paradise, they were connected not only by underground work, but also by mutual deep respect, which turned into mutual love."
“PARADISE TAKE ME'S SHOES BEFORE ARREST AND MONEY SO DIDN'T GIVE IT”


The closest friend of Raisa Okipna was Eugene Bremer. Despite the significant difference in age (Paradise in the 41st turned 27 years old, his wife - 41 years old), they were mentally close. The daughter of a prominent Bolshevik, a Russian German, Eugene, 20 years old, volunteered for the Red Army, married a KGB officer and, after his execution, spent a year in prison as the wife of an “enemy of the people”.

Eugene and Paradise lived in the same house on 32 Chkalova Street. Together they rescued several Red Army soldiers who were in the Darnitsky prisoner of war camp. They called themselves their relatives and took them home. Sometimes such a trick passed. Eugenia was helped by her Volksdeutsche status.

Close friend Okipnoy Eugene Bremer was the daughter of a prominent Bolshevik, a Russian German. At the age of 20, she voluntarily enlisted in the Red Army, married a KGB officer and, after his execution, spent a year in prison as the wife of an “enemy of the people”

Often girlfriends flirted for a couple with German connoisseurs of Kiev opera and other officers interested in the underground. From a letter to Lydia Miroshnichenko:

Once, a woman, having seen Paradise on the other side of the street, almost with tears in her eyes rushed to her, hugged, kissed. She said that she remembers her in the Vinnitsa theater, on the stage of which Raisa shone before the war, and how great it was that they met again. Okipnaya did not recognize her countrywoman, but she was so sincere, and Raya was so yearning for the past that they together reached the theater and quickly became friends.

The woman's name was Natalya Frantsevna, according to her first German husband Grunwald. She was nicknamed by the operetta Nanette. She touched Paradise with the story of her second husband, who is suffering in the Gestapo prison.

Raya told Ivan about Nanette, and he decided that a new acquaintance could be interesting underground. First of all, the fact that she manages the laboratory at the hospital on Trekhsvyatitelskaya means that she has access to chemicals. Kudra often had to forge documents and display old data on them. In addition, introducing the employee of the confectionery factory named after Karl Marx into the group, he decided to poison the sweets. This alone gives an idea of ​​the terrible reality in which these people existed. Probably, Kudrya justified his decision to go on such a diversion by the fact that mainly Germans and policemen enjoyed the sweets.

When Raya introduced Nanetta Ivan as her fiance, she threw another hook: lovers can come to her five-room apartment on Kirov Street. She, they say, all day at work, be at home, do not be shy.

“Ivan Danilovich (Kudrya. -Avt.) Told Zhenya and Raya to get to know the Germans and they would go into their house. On the same day, Eugene and Paradise were at the bazaar and met the Germans, railway workers, they began to be in their house. Eugene often said: "I can not see them." But Ivan Danilovich said that we must endure and show that you are satisfied. "


The closest assistant and in fact deputy Ivan Kudri Ukrainian security officer Dmitry Sobolev

A tempting offer made the underground forget about caution. In the apartment on Pushkinskaya 37, with Maria Gruzdova, whose husband, according to legend, was Ivan, her mother, mother-in-law (the mother of Gruzdeva’s first husband, who was shot in the 37th) and their son also lived. There are always parents at Raya’s house - a mom and a dad priest, who returned from a Stalinist camp as an invalid.

Here we need to make a small digression and say that for the first time on the group of Ivan Kudri publicly spoke in 1963. Major General of the KGB Viktor Drozdov, one of the colleagues of the chief chief of the Soviet intelligence and saboteurs Pavel Sudoplatov, was dedicated to the affairs of the Kiev KGB underground. After the shooting of Beria and the arrest of Sudoplatov as “Beria’s accomplice”, Viktor Drozdov was retired. But he found a second wind, managing the public reception of the popular newspaper "Week". The 20th anniversary of the Victory was approaching, and Drozdov invited the newspaper to print the material he had collected about his deceased colleague, Ivan Kudra. The documentary story “Two Years Over the Abyss” was a huge success; Dovzhenko’s studio directed the film of the same name.

So Raisa Okipnaya before meeting with Nanetta was thinking about Vinnitsa. Kudrya began to receive reports that the Germans were transferring special troops there, starting some kind of secret construction, and preparing for the arrival of high ranks. He decided to scout what's what. Paradise volunteered to go there to visit the theater, began to bother about permission to travel in front of her German fans.

Kudra could not know that it was a question of building Hitler’s headquarters, and did not assess the degree of risk. Just then, the particularly secret agent of Nanett's diabetes appeared. She was an outstanding actress and outplayed the singer Raisa Okipnaya and the scout Ivan Kudryu.

General Drozdov wrote about Nanetta like this:



“... her husband dies in prison - a Ukrainian journalist, a communist, an underground activist, and at this time the Gestapo officer Sharm comes to see her - the one who tortures her husband during interrogations. Soon she will become a particularly trusted agent of the SD in Vinnitsa, and then in the Sudetenland. ”


In the literary editing of the story “Two Years Over the Abyss”, General Drozdov was assisted by journalist Evseev. Together they tracked down Nanetta, who was convicted, but went free after the amnesty, which, incidentally, were very outraged, and raised before the prosecutor the question of her putting her back behind the barbed wire.

The mother of Ivan Kudri Anisia Zakharyevna raised a son without a husband, Vanya did not remember his father

In their report, Drozdov and Evseev said that when Kudri's group was defeated, the boss and lover Nanetta Sharm arranged a confrontation with Raisa. Seeing the prima of the opera house beaten to black bruises, Nanetta burst into tears. Charm asked if she really felt sorry for the partisan. She replied: humanly sorry, but as an enemy - no.

Nanetta described Drozdova and Evseeva how Okipnaya looked during interrogation: “The clothes were torn. "She had my shoes on her feet ... Paradise took the shoes from me before the arrest and did not give back the money."

We find the mention of the traitor in the Chronicle of current events: “Natalya Frantsevna Grunwald, born in 1912, sentenced to 25 years. Her son, sentenced in the same case, is in the 35th camp camp of Perm camps. ” And in another issue of the Chronicle: "Grunwald Natalya Frantsevna is the heroine (it should be said, antiheroine. -Avt.) Of the film" Two years over the abyss. " Arrested in the 40s, sentenced to 25 years, amnestied in the 56th year, but by personal order of the Prosecutor General Rudenko in the 62nd year returned to the camp. She pleads not guilty to the charges against her. ”

Somewhere there, in the gulag wilds, Nanetta’s traces were lost.



“THE MEANING WAS BEEN PUT TO ME - TO BE WIFE T. KUDRI”
"In 1937, her husband N. Yaruta, a teacher at Kiev University, was arrested and executed (posthumously rehabilitated)."


In that year, another woman lived next to Ivan Kudrey - Maria Gruzdova. As it was determined by the legend with which he was left in Kiev, either the bride or the wife. According to the same legend, he was a teacher of the Ukrainian language Kondratyuk, the son of a repressed priest from the town of Merefa and came to Kiev to Gruzdova.

By the beginning of the war, for four years, Mary was the widow of a lecturer at Kiev State University. From the certificate signed on December 30, 1963 by the chairman of the Ukrainian KGB V. Nikitchenko:

After the arrest, the Germans tortured Raisa Okipnaya with special cynicism, taking revenge for their former enthusiasm.

Mention of Nikanor Yarut can be found in the so-called “Stalinist lists” of people shot on personal orders from Stalin or his inner circle. The verdict against N. Yaruta was carried out on June 26, 1937.

Some researchers believe that Maria Gruzdova did not know about the execution of her husband and hoped, by working with the authorities, to facilitate his fate in the camp. But the certificate of V. Nikitchenko says: "She willingly agreed to stay in Kiev for the assignment."

General Drozdov supported this opinion: “They say that when she (Maria Gruzdova. - Auth. ) Was asked to take Kudryu to her apartment, she burst into tears - not from fear, but from the knowledge that she, the wife of a man punished by the Soviet regime, was trusted with such an important mission, as the protection of the life of our scout. "

Two years after the defeat of the group, Gruzdova will get to the mainland and present a report on the Kiev underground, which will be handed over to the state-security narcotics Vsevolod Merkulov. In her report, she said:



“The task was assigned to me - to be Comrade Kudry’s wife and to infiltrate the society in any way, using my friends, and to draw Comrade Kudryu into this environment in order to disguise him, as well as to study people who remained in Kiev when the Germans entered ".


A pretty, seemingly defenseless blonde, Maria was not lost under any circumstances. Not once she got into trouble, in which others would have disappeared with her head, and she went out dry.

She found the necessary connections and became the housekeeper on Kuznechnaya Street (now Gorky), 4/6, where the Abwehr recruiting office settled. It was led by Major Mayer. His people selected agents mainly from Ukrainian policemen, prisoners of war, Red Army deserters, sometimes from young, naive and hungry. By signing the contract, each received a thousand rubles (1 mark equaled 10 rubles), sausage, eight kilograms of flour, four kilograms of sugar and cereals, after which Mayer sent them to the Poltava spy school. Three months later, newly minted saboteurs were thrown into the Soviet rear.

Over time, it became clear that Mayer was a recruited German spy, a native of the Kiev region, a graduate of the Kiev Polytechnic, and that his name was Anton Milchevsky before the war. In 1936, he was convicted of espionage, but in 1940, thanks to an agreement with Germany, he was sent to exchange prisoners. Very soon he returned to his former homeland in major uniforms. The KGB archive contains the report of the Milchevsky-Mayer interrogation of August 28, 1952, in which he acknowledges his recruitment and intelligence activities in Kiev.

The windows of the apartment, where Maria Gruzdova kept her household management, looked just at the windows of Mayer's safe house. As the husband of the house, Ivan Kudrya often went into the building on Kuznechnaya and soon began to have information about many of his visitors. Lists compiled by Kudrey helped to find most of them after the war. Maria became so trusted in Mayer that he almost sent her to the Poltava intelligence school.

Once Kudrya, desperate to get in touch with the Center, decided to cross the front line and personally report to the authorities the situation. On the way, he was arrested and locked up in the Darnitsky camp. Ivan managed to write a note and pass it with some boy Maria. She rushed over and helped him out.

Maria was nearby when on the street he ran head-on-head with his former investigative Stepan Usaty, who became an interpreter in the field gendarmerie. Despite Kudri’s attempt to change his appearance — he grew a mustache, wore an embroidered shirt and bryl — Mustachio recognized him. But he didn’t surrender Kudryu to the Gestapo, but, on the contrary, Kudry turned over Mustache, and he began to bring information about the traitors to Kudra. This Usatomy belongs to the first mention of the suspicious activity of the Germans near Vinnitsa. Subsequently, Usatii, according to some sources, was shot at the Gestapo, according to others, he left with the field gendarmerie during its redeployment.

Thanks to Gruzdova’s story, the episode with Usatyi was reworked in the movie “Scout's Feat” (starring Kadochnikov). In the famous scene on the steps of the Ars cinema, the protagonist encounters a German intelligence officer, a former NKVD investigator, blackmailing him and forcing him to reveal German secrets.

It seems that Mary deeply entered the role of bodyguard and wife of her boss Ivan Kudri. In a Moscow report, she dropped the phrase in her hearts:



"Although I had terrible troubles of a personal order with him (with Kudrey. -Avt.), But this personal remains personal, and the general is common, and I never mix this."


Are there any notes of wounded pride? Maybe Mary was jealous?



“It was my group that made those sabotage acts in Kiev, which were attributed to some of the workers of our bodies”


When preparing Kudri for the underground, the leadership was not so much interested in Gruzdov as in her apartment in the highest in the Russian Empire 12-story “Leo Ginzburg skyscraper”. An excellent view of Khreshchatyk was opened from the windows of the house on Institutskaya Street 16 (now the Ukraine Hotel there).

The apartment was packed with weapons, ciphers, money, false documents and forms, clothes and food.

Probably, Ivan Kudrya and Maria Gruzdova saw how the first German column marched along Khreshchatyk on September 19, 1941. The very next day after the invasion, the first order of the German military commandant hung on the door of the "Ginzburg House", like all other Kiev buildings:



“To all citizens of the city of Kiev and its environs immediately, within 24 hours, surrender firearms, receivers and gas masks to the commandant’s office. For non-compliance - execution! ”


The line at the Detsky Mir store, where the receivers received from the public were stored, did not run out for several days. It is believed that his receiver, stuffed with explosives, Kudry brought into the back room on September 24. Historian Tatyana Evstafyeva says that in his first report to Moscow, Ivan Kudrya reported on the explosion of Detsky Mir.

As soon as the Children's World broke out, the explosives laid in the building of the commandant’s office located on the opposite corner detonated. It was said that a blast wave carried the commandant through the window and smacked on the asphalt.

However, another group of Chekists left in Kiev claimed the demolition honor (now it seems to someone - a Herostratic honor, and then it was believed that Kiev had cleaned the face of the Nazis, showed that entering the city did not mean to take possession of it).

It was a group of Viktor Kartashov, in close connection with which was Dmitry Sobolev. Sitting in 1946 in a Kiev prison on suspicion of treason, Kartashov wrote to his leader Pavel Sudoplatov, who personally sent him on a mission:



“I affirm and prove that it was my group that carried out the acts of sabotage in Kiev, which some employees of our bodies attributed to themselves.”


After the war, Viktor Kartashov was found guilty of treason, sentenced to 25 years in the camps, but he did not serve time, because in 1950, at the age of 43, he died in prison.

Supporters of two versions of the authorship of the Khreshchatyk bombing could reconcile the assumption that there were two, or maybe more, receivers filled with explosives in terms of the number of clandestine groups. But here Maria Gruzdova wrote in her report:



"Sobolev said that it was as if their work ... I was not in the Lavra, but I heard that there were explosions."


Did Kudrya hide from her her involvement in such a high-profile action?

So, the "Children's World" and the commandant's office flew into the air. Following this, the nearby Start movie theater exploded. German soldiers were just resting there culturally. A real cannonade thundered on Khreshchatyk. Eyewitnesses said that the pigeons stunned by the roar took off and immediately fell dead, fried by the tongues of a multi-meter flame.

The next day, the Ginzburg House was blown up. Maria Gruzdova said in her report:



“I don’t know how it turned out, but the house was mined. All products, documents, weapons, passport forms, etc., died, because we simply could not bear it all. Why? Because the Germans drove out of the house to a single person, surrounded the entire area and for a day did not allow anyone to the house. The Germans did not enter the house either, since they had accurate information that the house was mined. ”


It is curious: the Germans "had accurate information that the house was mined," but the Kiev security officers did not! Otherwise, who had the idea to create a safe house for his resident in a house intended for destruction? Or vice versa - how could they mine the house where their scouts are based? And one more thing: how did Gruzdova know that the Germans “had accurate information”?



“SOMETHING FAR MUSHROOM RAINS”


Not only did Kudrya, Gruzdova and her family lose their shelter, livelihoods, and communications, the walkie-talkie left for the group in the house of Yevgeny Linkevich also stopped working very soon. The basement where they hid it turned out to be damp, and the batteries were out of order. In addition, two radio operators serving the radio caught the attention of the police. I had to send them to the mainland.

Gruzdova activated her ties, and they and Kudrey settled in an apartment on Pushkinskaya. He specifically chose the top floor, so that in an extreme situation, you could leave on the roof. To avert German eyes, Maria got him a certificate from the medical institute where he was allegedly enrolled as a student. Somehow the problem with money was solved. Judging by her testimony, they even had royal gold coins.

Surprisingly, Kudrya quickly assembled a new group. Then Zhenya Bremer and Raya Okipnaya got into it. But there was nowhere to take the radio and radio operators from.

Moscow, which was very interested in the activities of Kudri, sent in October 1941 to Kiev paratroopers Lidia and Anatoly Trusov. A radio operator flew with them, but with an unsuccessful landing, he crashed. Failed Trusov to deliver safe and sound. But they met many members of the Curls group and, on their return, compiled a report on everything they saw.

From what Kudra managed to do, the Trusovs noted the creation of seven sabotage groups, the issuance and distribution of leaflets, the collection of material to analyze the economic situation in Kiev and surrounding areas, as well as:



“There is an absolutely complete picture of all the fortifications and mining, the presence of military schools and the whereabouts of the largest military headquarters and institutions, the mood and internal struggle of individual groups ... The group penetrated into the higher German circles through Zoya (meaning Raisa Okipnaya. -Avt .), owning a beautiful voice, and her friend, a German, Zhenya. ”


In turn, Kudrya asked the Center to give him the necessary things - “a walkie-talkie, miniature infernal cars” for tossing into pockets, devices for destroying individuals without sound, passport blanks, occupation stamps. ”

Ivan added to the list:



“Good stuff or outfits for actress Zoe (Rai. -Avt.).” He wanted to give not only flowers to his beloved.


About whether he conveyed greetings to the mainland for his real wife, the report of the liaisons is silent.

The famous scene from "Seventeen Moments of Spring" in the cafe "Elephant" symbolized the unwavering loyalty of Maxim Maximovich Isaev-Shtirlits to his wife and homeland. It turns out that Ivan Danilovich Kudri (the operative pseudonym is Maxim) also had a family, and somewhere far in the east his mushroom rains of memory went.

On November 17, 1938, in the questionnaire “marital status”, he announced in telegraphic style:



“Married. Koshkina Kapitolina Ivanovna, home address: hotel "Select", room number - 25. "


They lived well in a hotel, so on May 29, 1941, he added his autobiography:



“I have a wife and two children. My wife is an employee of the NKVD. ”


In his personal file, evidence appeared that Kapitolina Kudrya was four years younger than her husband and that a year before the war she gave birth to Arkasha, and in the year the war began, Boria.

Raisa Okipnaya was also married. Her maiden name is Kapshuchenko. Paradise got married when she studied at the music school, from which she was expelled miserably due to the arrest of her father-priest. Nothing is known about the fate of the young spouse Pavel Okipny.

The theme of the underground love of a married scout-communist and a married underground singer-singer was not welcomed. The closest fighting friend of Ivan Kudri was portrayed as Maria Gruzdova.



MOTHER DEPLOYED THE PACKAGE AND SAWED RAI'S SOCKS, AND IN HER - HER TURNED AND BLOODY HAIR


In Nanetta’s apartment, Ivan and Raya not only met, but also listened to programs from Moscow, recorded front-line reports and printed leaflets on them. They brought there their typewriter, the location of which was constantly changing. They also took risks, because on the street they could easily be searched and arrested.

In his notebook, Dmitry Sobolev continued to list the reasons for the failure of Ivan Kudri:



“I dedicated Natu to the course of his work. He left her a typewriter given to him, a watering can (camera. -Avt.) And others. Chatted a lot. Meanwhile, he knew that there were Gestapo workers in her apartment and that, in her words, many owls were hiding from her. answer. workers (apparently, she handed them over) ... In the house in which she lives there are many Gestapo apartments. ”


The resident’s mistake was that, having trusted Raisa’s recommendations, he didn’t arrange a check for Nanette. He was not tormented by suspicion even when he decided to invite his underground friends, Zhenya Bremer and Georges Dudkin, to the magnificent apartment of Grunwald.

Actually, the day of his 30th birthday was two days later, but for some reason Ivan decided to celebrate it on July 5th. This party cost them their lives.

From the diary of Dmitry Sobolev:



“I began to arrange meetings with Paradise at her (Nanetta. -Avt.) Apartment. Arranged the day of his name day. He invited his Zhenya and Zhora ... July 5, Ivan and Raya took a car from Nata and were arrested 15 minutes later ... The next day, not knowing about the arrest of Raya and Vanya, Zhenya and Zhora went to Nata's clinic and together headed for a walk. Near the house of Korolenko, 33 Nata disappeared. They did not expect her, knowing that she would find them. A few minutes later, Nata really approached them, and at the same moment they were arrested. Zhora managed to escape on the road to the Gestapo. ”


Maria Gruzdova miraculously managed to avoid arrest. From a letter from the head of the Ukrainian headquarters of the partisan movement, Timofei Strokach, to the narcotics of state security Vsevolod Merkulov on May 27, 1943:



“With all the materials, in particular, with the transcripts of Gruzdova, who had the task of informing the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine (b) U about the state of the party underground in Kiev, I was thoroughly acquainted with Comrade Khrushchev N.S.




In view of the whole series of suspicious circumstances present in these materials, in particular the existence of a direct task by Gruzdova from Ivan Kucherenko, who is currently conducting provocatively treacherous work among the party underground in Kiev, comrade. Khrushchev expressed great suspicion regarding Gruzdova and the information she provided. ”


Over time, however, the suspicions with Maria Gruzdova were removed. On the 20th anniversary of the Victory, among other members of the Maxim group, she was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War of the 1st degree.

Maria married the former Kiev underground Nikolai Slobodenyuk, with whom she left Kiev and ended up in the partisan detachment Popudrenko, from where she was transported to Moscow. Historian Tatyana Evstafieva said that she had once met with Nikolai Slobodenyuk. Maria Gruzdova was no longer alive, and he complained that his wife was not allowed to teach at school after the war. Perhaps they did not believe it to the end.

About the last days of Ivan Kudri, who in the Gestapo prison insisted that he was a student of Kondratyuk, there is only one evidence. Ivan Kucherenko, secretary of the underground Kiev regional committee and city committee of the Komsomol, who miraculously managed to survive and who was considered a traitor because of this, was in the same cell with Kudry. From the report of Maria Gruzdova:



“Once in the afternoon or in the evening (he doesn’t remember exactly) a literally inanimate person was thrown into his cell. This man lay for two days, didn’t eat or drink anything, and blood flowed from his hands in streams. Kondratyuk was already sitting for the third month, and they continued to torture him all the time. When Kucherenko was thrown into the cell, he was in such a state that he could not speak, but only moaned ... The next time, during interrogation, the torture continued. He was hung up and pricked with needles under the toes and hands. This was done in the presence of Kucherenko. "


After the war, several women were found sitting with Zhenya Bremer in the same cell, then with her mother, who was killed after her daughter. Neighbors said that Zhenya did not lose her temper until the last days. As an ethnic German, she was given improved rations, and some women were envious.

Then Okipnoy and Bremer staged a confrontation. The next morning, Zhenya was dragged into the cell, and for several days she was tormented without sleep, because the mutilated body did not allow either to sit down or lie down.

There was order in the prison - they were shot on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Once the commandant of the prison opened the door to the cell and, looking at Zhenya, shouted: “Shnel!”. He always yelled like that when he led him to execution. He led Paradise out of the neighboring cell in the same way. It was Friday, November 6th. And the day of the execution of Ivan Kudri is unknown.

Without a shudder, it is impossible to read the story of Raisa Okipnoy's mother published in one of the Kiev newspapers. Apparently, the Germans seemed to torture with special cynicism, avenging their previous enthusiasm. Once a Gestapo employee brought her parents an Okipniy package. Mother turned him around and saw Raya's sock, and in it her tangled and bloodied hair.

On that fateful evening on July 5, 1942, when Ivan Kudrya and Raisa Okipnaya were arrested, the Gestapo officers ransacked his apartment on Pushkinskaya. In the drawer of Ivan's desk, they found a photograph of Rai as Carmen.

PS The site shram.kiev.ua is grateful to the editors of Gordon Boulevard and expresses gratitude for the assistance in writing the article to Stanislav Fedorovich Vinnik, the former head of one of the units of the 9th service of the KGB of the Ukrainian SSR, who took part in preparing materials for the government award of Ivan Kudri in 1965 and members of his group.