Metro: description, explanation, scheme in section
Metro (from the French metropolitain, short of the metropolitain chemin de fer metropolitain), the metro (fr. Metro, English underground, amer. English subway) is, in the traditional sense, the urban railway with the route trains for the transport of passengers, engineering separated from any other transport and pedestrian traffic (off-street).
In the general case, the subway is any off-street urban passenger transport system with route trains running on it (for example, a city monorail). The movement of trains in the metro is regular, according to the schedule. Subway has a high route speed (up to 80 km / h) and carrying capacity (up to 60 thousand passengers per hour in one direction). Metro lines can be laid underground in tunnels, on the surface and on racks (this is especially true for urban monorails).
The largest metros in the world:
- by number of stations and routes - New York (468 stations, 24 routes)
- along the length of the lines - Shanghai (548 km) and Beijing (527 km)
- by annual passenger traffic - Tokyo and Seoul
- daily passenger traffic - Beijing and Moscow
The smallest metros: in Venezuelan Valencia, Brazilian Salvador, Indian Gurgaon and Italian Catania.
Lausanne, Brescia and Rennes are the smallest cities of the world that have metro.
Countries where there are subways
A light green color indicates countries with a ground metro, city rail or light metro.
Section of the Kiev subway station deep-laid
The basis of the conditional (that is, with a number of significant changes) station "University" Svyatoshinsko-Brovary line.
Section of the Moscow metro station
The devices and signs used in the metro are constantly caught by the eyes of millions of passengers, but their purpose and meaning for most remain a mystery.
In the very first hours of operation of the world's first metro, opened in London on January 10, 1863, the main advantages and problems of this new type of transport appeared. "Pipe", as Londoners called the metro, transported people at an unprecedented speed. But passengers were suffocating from locomotive smoke and froze in carriages without roofs, and the central station could not cope with the flow of people and closed three hours after the grand opening. The lesson was taken into account when creating all the subways in the world, including Russian. First of all, they got rid of smoke and soot, replacing coal with electricity.