Metro: description, explanations, sectional diagram
Metropolitan (from the French metropolitain, abbreviated to chemin de fer metropolitain - "metropolitan railway"), metro (metro, English underground, american English subway) - in the traditional sense of the city railway with coursing it route trains for the carriage of passengers, engineering separated from any other transport and pedestrian traffic (out-of-town).
In general, the subway is any extra city public passenger transport system with itinerary trains (for example, the city monorail). The movement of trains in the subway system is regular, according to the traffic schedule. The metropolitan is characterized by a high route speed (up to 80 km / h) and carrying capacity (up to 60 thousand passengers per hour in one direction). Metro lines can be laid underground in tunnels, along the surface and on overpasses (especially in urban monorails).
The largest metro in the world:
- by the number of stations and routes - New York (468 stations, 24 routes)
- along the length of the lines - Shanghai (548 km) and Beijing (527 km)
- by annual passenger traffic - Tokyo and Seoul
- on daily passenger traffic - Beijing and Moscow
The smallest subway: in Venezuelan Valencia, Brazilian Salvador, Indian Gurgaon and Italian Catania.
Lausanne, Brescia and Rennes are the smallest cities in the world with a metro.
Countries in which there are subways
Light-green countries are identified with a land subway, city railways or light metro.
Section of the Kiev subway station is deep
As a basis conditionally (that is, with a number of significant changes), the station "University" of the Svyatoshinsko-Brovarsky line was taken.
Section of the Moscow metro station
The devices and signs used in the metro constantly come to the attention of millions of passengers, but their purpose and meaning for the majority remains a mystery.
In the very first hours of operation of the world's first metro, opened in London on January 10, 1863, the main advantages and problems of this new mode of transport emerged. "Pipe", as the London Underground called, carried people at an unprecedented speed. But the passengers were choking with the smoke of the locomotive and freezing in wagons without roofs, and the central station could not cope with the human flow and closed three hours after the grand opening. The lesson was taken into account when creating all the subways in the world, including Russian ones. First of all, they got rid of smoke and soot, replacing coal with electricity.