Metro: description, explanations, sectional diagram
Metro (from French metropolitain, abbreviated from chemin de fer metropolitain - “metropolitan railway”), metro (French metro, English underground, American subway) - in the traditional sense, urban railway with routes running along it trains for the transportation of passengers, engineering separated from any other transport and pedestrian traffic (outside).
In the general case, the metro is any off-street city passenger transport system with block trains running along it (for example, a city monorail). Trains in the subway are regular, according to the timetable. The subway is characterized by high route speed (up to 80 km / h) and carrying capacity (up to 60 thousand passengers per hour in one direction). Metro lines can be laid underground in tunnels, on the surface and on overpasses (this is especially true for urban monorails).
The largest subways in the world:
- by the number of stations and routes - New York (468 stations, 24 routes)
- along the lines - Shanghai (548 km) and Beijing (527 km)
- by annual passenger traffic - Tokyo and Seoul
- for daily passenger flow - Beijing and Moscow
The smallest subways: in Venezuelan Valencia, Brazilian Salvador, Indian Gurgaon and Italian Catania.
Lausanne, Brescia and Rennes are the smallest cities in the world with a subway.
Countries in which there are subways
Light green highlighted countries with a ground metro, urban railways or light metro.
Section of the Kiev metro station deep
The basis is conditionally (that is, with a number of significant changes) taken by the University station of the Svyatoshinsky-Brovarsky line.
Section of a Moscow metro station
The devices and signs used in the metro are constantly catching the eye of millions of passengers, but their purpose and meaning remains a mystery to most.
In the very first hours of the world's first underground, opened in London on January 10, 1863, the main advantages and problems of this new mode of transport were revealed. The Pipe, as Londoners called the metro, transported people at an unprecedented speed. But the passengers were suffocated by locomotive smoke and froze in cars without roofs, and the central station could not cope with the flow of people and closed three hours after the grand opening. The lesson was taken into account when creating all the subways in the world, including Russian ones. First of all, we got rid of smoke and soot, replacing coal with electricity.