Review of Soviet personal computers
Operation manual "LVOV"
- -Processor: KR580VM80A
- - High-speed performance: 500 thousand op. / Sec.
- -Memory: RAM - 48 KB, ROM - 16 KB
- -In ROM interpreter BASIC
- -Display character-graphic on the basis of a household color TV, the number of characters displayed on the screen is 32? 24 points 256? 256, the number of colors of the image - 4. The amount of video memory - 16 KB.
- -External memory: household tape recorder
- -Keyboard: 79 keys
- - Power consumption: 35 W
Please note, the amount of memory was then calculated not in megabytes, but in kilobytes! And these kilobytes were enough, at that time, for practically everything.
It was slightly weaker than the "Lviv", but had one very big advantage; an adapter for connecting a PC to any TV via an antenna input was supplied with the "Microshells".
At that time, even a b / w monitor was in short supply.
When buying my first b / w monitor, I had to stand in line for 2 (!) Days.
Screenshots of games from Mikroshi
- - Microprocessor: KR580VM80A at a clock frequency of 1.77 MHz, speed - 300 thousand op / s
- -Memory: RAM - 32 KB, ROM - 2 KB
- -Output device: antenna input through the modulator unit (supplied in the kit)
- - Display mode: monochrome, 25 lines of 64 characters each, character generator contains pseudographic characters, which allows you to simulate a graphic mode 128? 50 points
- -Keyboard: 68 keys
- * External memory: household tape recorder, read / write speed - 1200 bps
- * Ports: "Interface 1", "Interface 2", "Internal Interface"
- * Power: 220V external power supply (42V in the school version), output - + 5V,? 5V, + 12V, power consumption - not more than 20 W
- * Dimensions: system unit - 390? 230? 55 mm, power supply - 160? 100 ? 100 mm, modulator - 100? thirty ? 40 mm
BK is a family of Soviet 16-bit home and training computers.
Produced in series since January 1985. In 1990, the retail price for BK 0010-01 in the network of electronics stores was 650 rubles, which was 2-3 times higher than the wages of an engineer.
A home black-and-white or color TV or, rarely, a special monitor was used as a display, and a domestic cassette tape recorder served as external memory.
Under the brand "BK" models were released: 1.1 BK-0010; BK-0010.01; BK-0010Sh and BK-0010.01Sh; 1.4 BK-0011; BK-0011M
- -Processor: K1801VM1 with a clock frequency of 3 MHz -Operative memory: 32 KB, of which 16 KB is reserved for programs and data, and another 16 KB - for video memory -Keyboard: film, 92 keys; controller K1801VP1-014 -Video: text mode, black and white 512? 256 dots, 4-color 256? 256 points; K1801VP1-037 controller - Programming language - Fokal language interpreter in ROM - Power supply for protection against interference was placed in a separate package - Standard data storage device was a tape recorder with control function for a tape drive mechanism, or without it - Parallel 16-bit programmable input port - output allowed to connect printer and other peripherals
Printers for the BC existed, but they were rarely marketed and were a big deficit.
BK-0011- Appeared in 1990. Differences from BK-0010:
- - a large amount of RAM - 128 KB, page-by-page organization of memory, two pages of memory could be alternately displayed on the screen, which provided an instant redrawing of the screen - the processor began to work at 4 MHz - screen palettes appeared - the drive controller began to be included in the standard package
Agate is the first Soviet serial universal 8-bit personal computer, was developed in 1981-1983. Produced from 1984 to 1990. Lianozovo Electromechanical Plant (as well as Volzhsky and Zagorsk plants).
- -Processor: 8-bit SM630R, worked at a clock frequency of 1 MHz, the declared performance is 500 thousand op. / S, the address space is 64 kb. - Memory: RAM - technical minimum - 32 kb (Agat-7 without additional memory modules), 96 kb (Agat-7 with two additional memory modules) - standard equipment, 128 kb (Agat-9 without additional memory modules) - standard equipment , 256 kb (Agat-9 with additional memory module). The modular architecture of the computer allowed to increase memory by installing additional modules almost to a megabyte. -Keyboard: 74 keys (original from the Agat computer, later the MS-7004 keyboard was included) -Monitor: MS6105 (monochrome), “Electronics 32VTTs 101/201/202” (color), monitor based on the TV “Youth- 404 "(color). - External storage device: floppy disk EC-5088 (140 Kb), EU-5323 (840 Kb); NML (home cassette tape recorder) - Overall dimensions of the system unit: 500? 351? 195 mm - Mass of the system unit: 9 kg
Corvette - 8-bit personal computer. Developed by employees of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University. It has been mass-produced since 1988 at the Baku Production Association “Radiostroyenie”, at the Moscow Experimental Computer Center ELEKS GKVTI and in the cooperative ENLIN, at Kamensk-Uralsky PO “October”
Initially, the computer was intended to automate the control of the installation of remote measurement of low-temperature plasma parameters by laser spectroscopy methods, as well as to process the received information and theoretical calculations, maintain an archive of data and a number of other needs. Development began in late 1985.
PC "Corvette" was adopted by the Ministry of Education of the USSR as a base for teaching computer science at school. On the basis of the Corvette PC, a complex of educational computing equipment (KUVT) was produced, which included a teacher’s workplace (PK8020, equipped with GPS) and up to 15 student workplaces (PK8010) connected to a local network. However, the mass production of PCs was associated with a number of difficulties, because of which the computer was “late” and did not receive the expected wide distribution.
- -Processor: KR580VM80A at a clock frequency of 2.5 MHz, the speed of 625 thousand op. / S. -Memory: RAM - 64 KB, ROM - 8-24 KB, GZU - 48 (3 layers for 16k) x 1 p. / 192 (3 layers x for 16k) x 4 pg., ATSZU - 1 KB (16x64) - Output device: monitor or TV, text mode 16 lines of 64 characters, graphic mode 512? 256, 16 colors (text and graphics - displayed in parallel) - Sound generator - Keyboard: 80 keys - External interfaces: Centronics parallel port for connecting a printer (usually - Epson FX800); serial port - RS-232C and “current loop”; mouse connection is possible; up to two analog joysticks; connection to a local network; connector for connecting external modules; connector for diagnostic equipment - External memory: household tape recorder (2400 bps)
The Corvette computers could be connected to a local network, up to 16 machines on the network.
The first ZX Spectrum appeared in the USSR in the late 1980s and quickly gained popularity due to their color, musical abilities and, most importantly, an abundance of games. Most likely they came to the USSR from Poland, at least the first games and documentation came with notes in Polish.
ZX Spectrum Games
The standard ZX Spectrum 48 had 16 KB of ROM (subsequent models and clones could have more), in which a very successful (for computers of this class) "Oxford" dialect of the BASIC language, the so-called Sinclair BASIC, was flashed. The same ROM program provided basic I / O and user interface. The BIOS as such was not; system procedures (for example, printing on a screen) could be used from machine code only by calling them at absolute addresses. In this regard, the computer architects adopted a policy not to change the ROM program, even with the purpose of correcting errors (of which there were many). In addition, the case was complicated by the fact that the ROM code was developed by a third-party company Nine Tiles Ltd. Nevertheless, many "clones" had a modified "firmware" - in particular, with a Russified keyboard. There were even options with switchable "on the fly" (the so-called "shadow") ROM. The location of such an “operating system” and programming language in the permanent memory ensured the reboot of the computer in less than a second.
Screenshots from the games "ZX Spectrum"
The keyboard deserves a separate description. A characteristic feature of the ZX Spectrum was the versatility of each key (despite the fact that all the keys in the standard version only 40). Each key had up to five values selected by one of the cursor modes. These modes were: L - to enter lower case letters; C - to enter capital letters; K - to enter the main keywords BASIC; E - to enter additional keywords and operators; and G - for inputting pseudographic, control characters and user-defined characters. The mode was displayed right in the cursor cursor and switched both automatically and with the help of the Caps Shift and Symbol Shift control keys. For example, at the beginning of a set, BASIC waits for a command, because the cursor is in the K mode. Pressing the G key once in this mode will automatically enter the GO TO operator. After that, the cursor will switch to L mode and allow you to type in a number, spell a variable name, or a mathematical expression (including using E mode). The location of the language operators according to the keys and cursor modes was thought out in such a way that it was difficult to introduce a syntactically incorrect expression. Despite the apparent complexity, with some skill it was possible to type programs very quickly. Later models (with 128 Kb of memory and more) allowed, as an alternative, to type commands of the language by letters (only in the advanced mode).
Not only former state-owned enterprises were engaged in assembling unpretentious home (household) computers in search of orders in new market conditions. Opened and small specialized cooperatives, focused on these products. It makes no sense to list all produced models and variants of the Spectrum. I will name only the most non-distributed: “Delta”, “Moscow”, “Pentagon”, “Dubna”, “Profi”, “Composite”, “Scorpion”, “Hobbit”, “Nafanya”
PC "DELTA" based on ZX Spectrum