Review of Soviet personal computers
Operation manual "LVOV"
- -Processor: KR580VM80A
- -Speed: 500 thousand op./sec
- -Memory: RAM - 48 KB, ROM - 16 KB
- -Baseic interpreter in ROM
- -Display is character-graphic based on a household color TV, the number of characters displayed on the screen is 32? 24, points 256? 256, the number of image colors - 4. The amount of video memory - 16 KB.
- -External memory: household cassette recorder
- -Keyboard: 79 keys
- Power Consumption: 35 W
Please note, the amount of memory was then calculated not in megabytes, but in kilobytes! And these kilobytes were enough, at that time, for almost everything.
It was a bit weaker than Lviv, but it had one very big advantage - an adapter for connecting a PC to any TV through the antenna input was supplied with the Mikrosha.
At that time, even a b / w monitor was in short supply.
When buying my first b / w monitor, I had to stand in line for 2 (!) Days.
Screenshots of games from Mikrosha
Operation manual "Microshi"
- Microprocessor: KR580VM80A at a clock frequency of 1.77 MHz, speed - 300 thousand op / s
- -Memory: RAM - 32 KB, ROM - 2 KB
- -Output device: antenna input through the modulator block (supplied)
- - Display mode: monochrome, 25 lines of 64 characters, character generator contains pseudo-graphic characters, which allows you to simulate 128 graphic mode? 50 points
- -Keyboard: 68 keys
- * External memory: household cassette recorder, read / write speed - 1200 bit / s
- * Ports: “Interface 1”, “Interface 2”, “Internal interface”
- * Power: external power supply 220V (in the school version - 42V), output - + 5V,? 5V, + 12V, power consumption - no more than 20 W
- * Dimensions: of the system unit - 390? 230? 55 mm, power supply - 160? 100 ? 100 mm, modulator - 100? thirty ? 40 mm
BK is a family of Soviet 16-bit home and school computers.
It has been mass-produced since January 1985. In 1990, the retail price for BK 0010-01 in the chain of Electronics stores was 650 rubles, which was 2-3 times higher than the salary of an engineer.
A black-and-white or color television or, less commonly, a special monitor was used as the display, and a household cassette recorder served as external memory.
Under the brand name "BK" the following models were released: 1.1 BK-0010; BK-0010.01; BK-0010Sh and BK-0010.01Sh; 1.4 BK-0011; BK-0011M
- -Processor: K1801VM1 with a clock frequency of 3 MHz -RAM: 32 KB, of which 16 KB is reserved for programs and data, and another 16 KB is for video memory -Keyboard: film, 92 keys; K1801VP1-014 controller -Video: text mode, black and white 512? 256 dots, 4-color 256? 256 points; K1801VP1-037 controller - Programming language - Fokal language interpreter in ROM - The power supply unit for protection against interference was placed in a separate case - The standard storage device was a tape recorder with or without tape drive control function - A parallel 16-bit programmable input port - output allows you to connect a printer and other peripherals
Printers for the BC existed, but rarely went on sale and were in great short supply.
BK-0011- Appeared in 1990. Differences from BK-0010:
- - a large amount of RAM - 128 KB, paging, two pages of memory could be displayed alternately on the screen, which provided instant redrawing the screen - the processor began to work at a frequency of 4 MHz - screen palettes appeared - the drive controller began to be included in the standard package
Agate is the first Soviet serial universal 8-bit personal computer; it was developed in 1981-1983. It was produced from 1984 to 1990. Lianozovsky Electromechanical Plant (as well as Volzhsky and Zagorsky factories).
- -Processor: 8-bit СМ630Р, worked at a clock frequency of 1 MHz, the declared performance is 500 thousand opt./s, the address space is 64 kb. -Memory: RAM - technical minimum - 32 kb (Agat-7 without additional memory modules), 96 kb (Agat-7 with two additional memory modules) - standard equipment, 128 kb (Agat-9 without additional memory modules) - standard equipment , 256 kb (Agat-9 with an additional memory module). The modular architecture of the computer made it possible to increase memory by installing additional modules up to almost a megabyte. -Keyboard: 74 keys (original from the Agat computer, later the MC-7004 keyboard was included) -Monitor: МС6105 (monochrome), “Electronics 32ВТЦ 101/201/202” (color), monitor based on the “Youth- 404 "(color). -External storage device: NMD EC-5088 (140 Kb), EU-5323 (840 Kb); NML (household cassette recorder) - Overall dimensions of the system unit: 500? 351? 195 mm - Weight of the system unit: 9 kg
Corvette - 8 bit personal computer. Developed by the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University. It has been mass-produced since 1988 at the Baku Production Association Radiostroenie, in the Moscow Experimental and Computing Center ELEKS GKVTI and in the cooperative ENLIN, at the Kamensk-Uralsky October Industrial Complex
Initially, the computer was intended to automate the control of a facility for the remote measurement of low-temperature plasma parameters using laser spectroscopy methods, as well as for processing received information and theoretical calculations, maintaining a data archive and some other needs. Development began at the end of 1985.
PC "Corvette" was adopted by the Ministry of Education of the USSR as the base for teaching computer science at school. On the basis of the Corvette PC, a complex of educational computer equipment (KUVT) was produced, which included the teacher’s workplace (PK8020, equipped with a hard drive) and up to 15 students' workstations (PK8010) connected to the local network. However, the serial production of PCs was fraught with a number of difficulties, which is why the computer was "late" and did not receive the expected wide distribution.
- -Processor: КР580ВМ80А at a clock frequency of 2.5 MHz, speed 625 thousand opt./s. -Memory: RAM - 64 KB, ROM - 8-24 KB, Memory - 48 (3 layers of 16k) x 1 page / 192 (3 layers x 16k) x 4 pages, ACSU - 1 KB (16x64) - Output device: monitor or TV, text mode 16 lines of 64 characters, graphics mode 512? 256, 16 colors (text and graphics are displayed in parallel) - Sound generator - Keyboard: 80 keys - External interfaces: a Centronics standard parallel port for connecting a printer (usually - Epson FX800); serial port - RS-232C and "current loop", you can connect a mouse, up to two analog joysticks, connect to a local network; connector for connecting external modules; connector for diagnostic equipment - External memory: household cassette recorder (2400 bit / s)
Computers "Corvette" could be combined into a local network, up to 16 machines on the network.
The first ZX Spectrum appeared in the USSR in the late 1980s and quickly gained popularity due to color, musical capabilities and, most importantly, an abundance of games. They most likely came to the USSR from Poland, at least the first games and documentation came with notes in Polish.
Games for ZX Spectrum
The standard ZX Spectrum 48 had 16 KB of ROM (subsequent models and clones could have more), into which the very successful (for computers of this class) “Oxford” dialect of the BASIC language, the so-called Sinclair BASIC, was flashed. The same ROM program provided basic input-output and user interface. There was no BIOS as such, system procedures (for example, printing on the screen) could be used from machine code only by calling them at absolute addresses. In this regard, computer architects adopted a policy not to change the ROM program, even with the aim of correcting errors (of which there were many). In addition, the matter was complicated by the fact that the ROM code was developed by a third-party firm Nine Tiles Ltd. Nevertheless, many “clones” had a modified “firmware” - in particular, with a Russified keyboard. There were even options with switchable "on the fly" (the so-called "shadow") ROM. The location of such an "operating system" and a programming language in read-only memory ensured a computer reboot in less than a second.
Screenshots from the games "ZX Spectrum"
The keyboard deserves a separate description. A characteristic feature of the ZX Spectrum was the versatility of each key (despite the fact that all the keys in the standard version are only 40). Each key had up to five values selected by one of the cursor modes. These modes were: L - to enter lowercase letters; C - to enter capital letters; K - to enter the main BASIC keywords; E - to enter additional keywords and operators; and G - for entering pseudographic, control characters and user-defined characters. The mode was displayed directly in the cursor cursor and switched both automatically and using the Caps Shift and Symbol Shift control keys. For example, at the beginning of a set BASIC is waiting for a command, because the cursor is in K. Once pressing the “G” key in this mode will automatically enter the GO TO statement. After that, the cursor will switch to L mode and allow you to type a number, the name of the variable by letters or a mathematical expression (including using mode E). The location of the language operators by the keys and cursor modes was thought out so that it was difficult to enter a syntactically incorrect expression. Despite the apparent complexity, with some skill, typing programs could be very fast. Later models (having 128 Kb of memory or more) allowed, as an alternative, to type language commands spell (only in advanced mode).
The assembly of simple home (household) computers was not only done by former state enterprises in search of orders in the new market conditions. Small specialized cooperatives opened specifically for these products. It makes no sense to list all the released models and variants of the Spectrum. I’ll name only the most uncommon ones: Delta, Moscow, Pentagon, Dubna, Profi, Composite, Scorpio, The Hobbit, Nafanya
PC "DELTA" based on ZX Spectrum