Vampires of the nations of the world
A vampire in European mythology was considered a dead man, who rises from the grave and in the shape of a bat sucks blood from sleeping people. And what other people represented vampires?
Dahanavar (Ancient Armenian mythology)
Dahanavar in ancient Armenian mythology was called a vampire who lived in the mountains of Ultish Alto-tem. He was generous to the inhabitants of his lands and never killed them, but he mercilessly dealt with strangers by drinking their blood. There is a story, allegedly written in 1854 by a certain baron August von Aksausen, which tells about two travelers who fell into the possession of Dahanawar. Knowing about the "tricks" of a vampire, travelers fell asleep in such a way that their legs were planted under each other's heads. Discouraged by the sight of a strange creature with two heads and no legs, Dahanavar left these lands, and they heard nothing more about him.
Vetalah - a vampire-like evil spirit (India)
In Indian mythology, there are legends about the Vetals, vampire-like evil spirits that are part of the retinue of Lord Shiva. Vetals enter the dead and make them act like living ones. The corpse at the same time ceases to decompose and walks the world like a zombie. All this is necessary for the vetalam not to feed on the blood, brain and other organs of human flesh, but ... out of envy.
Chian-shi - the ossified corpse (China)
Translated from the Chinese "chian shi" means "ossified corpse." His nails are black, long and sharp as a razor. They became such because chian shi long ago died and was buried. The muscles of the arms are also numb, so chian shi walks with arms outstretched. The muscles of the legs after death are hardened, so the monster is difficult to walk. Chian-shi moves in strange jumps. They say that chian shi travel alone or in groups all over China, sometimes they have to walk hundreds of miles to return to their hometown. Chian shi, like zombies, are dead bodies that move and hunt people. These creatures feed on blood and can not get enough. They kill people and drink the blood flowing from them. Chian-shi's brain is dead, so they cannot think, see and speak. They track their prey by smell or by breath. If you meet with one of these monsters, you need to hold your breath, then you can get rid of him.
Lamiam, Empuse and Lemur (Rome)
In Rome, ghosts sucking blood were called lamy, empuse, and lemur. Among them is the night bird Strix, which fed on human blood and flesh. It is from the name of this bird that the Romanian word striga formed, as did the Albanian Shtriga. Although the myths about these creatures themselves are mostly of Slavic origin.
Romanian "version" of the vampire
Already mentioned strigoi - the Romanian "version" of the vampire. He looks like a ghoul, including the fact that he was born in a shirt or with some flaw, for example, with a tail or an extra nipple. In addition, he could be born too early or die a "wrong" death. Recognize a vampire by holes in the ground, an undecomposed corpse with a red face, or the position of one of the feet, if it is in the corner of the coffin. Therefore, the graves were often opened (for example, after the death of a child for another three years), so that the deceased could be tested for tendency to vampirism.
Kali - Tsigansky vampire
The most famous vampire-like creature in gypsies is called Kali. In fact, this is an Indian deity with fangs, hung with garlands of corpses and skulls and having four hands. The temples of Kali are located near the places where they are cremated.
Empus - man with donkey legs (Greece)
Empus, a man with donkey legs, was walking on the roads, attacking late travelers, but he never came into the houses. Lamia is a woman with a snake-covered body and goat hooves on her legs. She was interested only in children. The reason is. that she herself once was the queen of Libya and the mother of a large family. But her children all died to one during the epidemic, and inconsolable Lamia cursed the gods and the whole human race. Angry gods turned the beautiful queen into a monster. Since then, Lamia goes hunting every night, kidnaps children and drinks their blood.
Kapp - the vampire (Japan)
Kapp is a water vampire. Kappa became drowned children. They were covered with green skin, they grew membranes between the fingers and the turtle shell on the back. Several rows of sharp teeth appeared in the mouth. Kapp by the legs pulled swimmers to the bottom and drank blood, biting a vein under the knee or through the anus.
Aswanga - creature (Philippines)
Aswanga - a creature in which the murdered young girl is disfigured. Happy Asvangi look like beautiful girls with flowing hair, in wreaths of flowers. They lure young hunters and children into the forest thicket, where the rays of the sun do not fall, where they bind their prey with vines and drink its blood. At night, Asvangi turn into big black birds. They sit on the roof of houses and run into the chimney a long and hollow tongue like a proboscis near a mosquito. With this tongue, they pierce a vein in sleepers and suck their blood.
Gul is an unpleasant creature (Arabian Peninsula)
A ghoul is an unpleasant creature that a black sorcerer turns into after death. During the day, the ghouls hide in dark caves and crevices of rocks and at night go hunting. Attacks travelers, tears their throats and drinks blood. If you can catch a child, eat it, leaving only bones. If the gul is not lucky in hunting, he will not disdain to dig a corpse from the grave and gnaw off a hefty piece.
Tlahuelpuchi (Central America)
Along with the "classic" vampires there is also tlahuelpuchi. In contrast to the "undead", tlahuelpuchi is quite even alive. They are born in families that are descended from the priests of the ancient bloody cults. Bloodlust is manifested somewhere from thirteen. Blood is required one to four times a month. On the hunt, tlahuelpuchi fly out in the form of a giant bat. Tellingly, all the victims of tlahuelpuchi necessarily die - the vampire drinks all the blood to the drop.
If you believe the Slavic myths, the vampire (vampire ghouls began to be called “with the light hand” of Pushkin, who wrote the poem of the same name in 1836) could be anyone who was born in a “shirt”, with teeth and tail, who was conceived on certain days, who he died a "wrong" (unnatural, premature) death, who was excommunicated and over whom wrong funeral rituals were performed. In order for the dead man not to become a vampire, a crucifix should be put in his coffin, and an object should be put under his chin (so that the dead would not eat the funeral shroud). You could also pry the clothes of the deceased to the coffin or put sawdust there. It is believed that vampires terribly love something to recount, therefore, until the awakened dead man recounts each of these sawdust, he simply dies. In addition to this, it is possible to pierce the body of a dead man with thorns or stakes (hence the tradition to drive a stake into the grave), thus nailing it to the ground. Garlic is another sure and well-known anti-vampire remedy.
GERMANY AND VAMPIRES
As with the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe, vampires have a long history in Germany, and the German vampire is very similar to the Slavic vampire. By the 10th century, Slavic expansion reached the lands along the Yates River and swept the eastern part of Germany. Slavic and Germanic populations mixed. Mixed and their myths. Thus, the mythical vampire of these peoples has acquired many similarities. The most famous of the German vampires was the Nachttserer, or "night thief" - a vampire in northern Germany. Equivalent to him in southern Germany (Bavaria) was blutzauger, literally "bloodsucker". This term in common parlance called unpleasant people. In literary sources, the vampire appears under the names "Nakhtotter", "Knight of the Night", "Noyntoter" or "Killer of Nine." Like the Slavic vampire, the nachttserer was again returned (recently dead, returning from the grave to attack the living, usually family and acquaintances).
As well as the Slavic vampire, the Nachtserer caused unusual circumstances associated with death. A man who died suddenly as a result of suicide or an accident was a vampire candidate. Like in Poland, a child born in a cap (a membrane that covered the face of some children) was sentenced to become a vampire, especially if that cap was red. Nachtserer also associated with epidemic diseases. When a group of people died of the same disease, the observers often recognized the one who died first, the cause of the death of the others. There was a belief that if you don’t remove a person’s name from a funeral garment, he will return as a vampire.
Nachtcerera were known to have the habit of chewing their own limbs in a grave (faith probably arose from finding bodies that were prey-victims after burial in shallow graves without a coffin). So, their faces were untouched, and their hands and other limbs were missing or torn to pieces. Vampire activity in the grave continued until he stopped eating his own body and his clothes. Then the vampire rose and, like a vampire, ate the bodies of others, often in the company of a woman who died in childbirth. Their activity could be identified by the sucking sound attributed to the woman who feeds the child. When their coffins (those who were sufficiently well-buried in one) were opened, they were found lying in puddles of blood, because the vampires blotted themselves out to such an extent that they could not keep all the blood they consumed.
To protect themselves from the attack of a vampire, people took various measures. Some put a lump of earth under the vampire's chin, others - a coin or a stone in his mouth, while others firmly tied a handkerchief around his neck. In the most extreme cases, people cut off the head of a potential Nahtcerer and stuck a needle into his mouth in order to attach his head to the ground or fix his tongue.
Some faith in a vampire has been preserved in rural Germany. Affons Schweigert investigated blutzauger in Bavaria in the 80s. He found that belief in a vampire not only continues to exist, but that there are also some unique aspects of this belief. In appearance, the blutzauger was pale and resembled a zombie. In Bavarian folklore, people became vampires because they were not baptized (Bavaria is part of Germany, where the Roman Catholic Church prevailed), engaged in witchcraft and goals immoral way of life or committed suicide. They could also become vampires, eat meat or eat an animal that was killed by a wolf. During the burial, if the animal jumped over the grave, it could also lead to the return of the deceased as a vampire. The same outcome was if a nun was advancing on the grave.
If blutzauger appeared in the community, residents were advised to stay at home at night and paint garlic on doors and windows and also hang hawthorn around the house. If someone had a black dog, then it was necessary to watch her, draw on her another pair of eyes, from which a vampire would run. To finally kill the vampire, they advised to pierce his heart with a stake, and put garlic in his mouth.
The beliefs and customs relating to vampires in Germany and Eastern Europe were the subject of several books as early as the 17th century (although no one used the term “vampire” in these texts). Notable writings were: “De Masticatione Mortuorum” (1679) by Philip Rohr, who discussed the habits of Nachtserer, and “De Miraculis Mortuorum” by Christian Frederick Harman (1670). At the beginning of the 18th century, a whole stream of reports of vampires from Eastern Europe began to leak into Germany. An active debate in the universities. Although Germany could not avoid vampire hysteria (its epidemics were recorded in East Prussia in 1710, 1721 and 1750), the vampire problem seems to have originally arisen due to widespread newspaper reports about the investigation of vampirism in Serbia in 1725 and, especially investigating the case of Arnold Paul in 1731-1732. The popularized version of the Arnold Paul affair became a bestseller at the Leipzig book fair in 1732.
Arnold Paul (or Paole) was the hero of one of the most famous vampiric incidents in the 18th century. It arose in the midst of a wave of vampire attacks that swept through central Europe from the end of the 17th century to the middle of the next century. These cases in general and the case of Paul in particular, were the main reason for the lively interest in vampires in England and France at the beginning of the 19th century.
Paul was born in the beginning of 1700 in the Bears, in the region of Serbia, located north of Belgrade, which later became part of the Austrian Empire. He served in the army in those areas that were called "Turkish Serbia", and in the spring of 1727 he returned to his hometown. Paul bought several acres of land and settled on it, running a farm. He liked a young woman from a nearby farm, was engaged and was about to marry. He had a good temper, was honest, and the townspeople gladly welcomed him upon his return. However, a certain gloom prevailed in his personality. Finally, Paul told his betrothed that his problem was connected with the war. In Turkish Serbia, he was attacked by a vampire. In the end, he killed the vampire, following him to his grave. He also ate some earth from the grave of a vampire and washed his wounds with the blood of a vampire to cleanse himself of the effects of his attack. However, he is still in fear of being "spoiled" by this attack. A week later, Paul was the victim of an accident that led to his death. He was immediately buried.
Three weeks after his funeral, reports of Paul’s appearances spread. Four of the people who reported this died, and panic ensued. The community leaders decided to act to suppress panic. On the 40th day after the funeral, the grave was opened. Two ex-surgeons were present at the exhumation. They made a conclusion about the unnatural decomposition of the body - the body looked as if he had just died. It seemed that under the old skin there is a new one, and the nails continued to grow. The body was pierced, and blood gushed from it. Those who were present decided that Paul was a vampire. When he pierced, he made a loud moan. Paul's head was cut off, and his body was burned. But this is not finished. Those four who died after telling that they saw Paul were subjected to the same ritual in order to avoid their return as vampires.
In 1731, in the same area, about 17 people died from the symptoms of vampirism within three months. The townspeople hesitated to act until one girl complained that a man named Milo, who had recently died, had not attacked her in the middle of the night. The news of the second wave of vampirism reached Vienna, and the Austrian emperor ordered an investigation of the field field surgeon Johannes Flakinger. Appointed on December 12, Flakinger traveled to Bearish to collect eyewitness accounts. Milo's body was dug up and found to be in the same condition as Arnold Paul’s body. Body pierced and then burned. How is it possible that vampirism, which was eradicated in 1727, is back again? It was found that Paul infected several cows. By order of Flakinger, the townspeople continued to dig up the bodies of all those who had died in recent months. Forty of them decayed, and 17 were in the same condition as Paul’s body. They were all stabbed and burned.
Flakinger wrote a full account of his activities, which he presented to the emperor in early 1732. Soon his report was published and became a bestseller. By March 1732, reports about Paula and Medvezhiya's vampires went through periodicals of France and England. Due to the status of documentary evidence, they became the object of future studies and reflections on vampires, and Arnold Paul became the most "famous" vampire of the era. The case of Paul was the reference point in the studies of the House of Augustine Calmet and Giuseppe Davanatz - two Roman Catholic scholastics who prepared books on vampirism in the middle of the same century. (according to the materials of JG Melton "The Encyclopedia of Vampires").
USA AND VAMPIRES
In the spring of 1866, the American ship Atlantic sailed in search of whales in the waters of the Indian Ocean. It was a fairly large whaler with a displacement of 290 tons.
A team of 30 people was engaged in the usual work of cleaning and tying the baleen and preparing barrels for fat. AND....
May 23 was a sunny day and a light breeze was blowing. Cock named James Brown was cleaning the griddle while sitting on the deck. The 25-year-old Portuguese was not tall, but athletic with thick dark hair and brown eyes. His body was abundantly covered with tattoos in the form of anchors, eagles, hearts pierced by an arrow. It often happened that the sailors swore and even fought among themselves. It was a common thing, because the ship went to sea for a year and the sailors had time to annoy each other to death. So on this day, James Foster, stepping onto the deck, hooked Brown with his sharp tongue. A fight ensued. No one even tried to separate them. Foster pulled out a knife and wounded a coca in the chest. It was only after this that the nearby James Gardner and John Soares separated the fighters and dragged the wounded Brown into the cockpit. Fortunately, the wound was shallow and soon the cook was able to resume his duties again.
Once on the ship, two sailors Foster and Gardner disappeared. They were not seen on deck, and they did not come out for dinner either. Late in the evening the whole team began to search for them. Captain Benjamin Ving, taking the lantern, went down to the hold where the finished products were stored - the whale oil barrels and the whalebone bundles. The terrible picture horrified him - Brown leaned over the lifeless body of Gardner and greedily sucked blood from a wound in his throat. Foster's dead body lay next to ... completely bloodless.
The captain ordered the sailors to grab Brown, who was very strong, and the team had a lot of effort to tie him up and lock him in a closet. On examination, the victims found huge wounds in the neck made with a knife, and it became obvious that James Brown sucked blood from them! The captain forced the sailors to pacify, ready to throw the vampire overboard. Whaler Atlantic headed for Boston’s home port.
The trial of the vampire took place on November 13, 1866, in which James Brown was convicted of a double premeditated murder. During the trial, he was calm, without saying a word to justify himself. The court passed the verdict: the death penalty by hanging, but on January 3, 1867, he received a pardon from US President Johnson, who replaced the sentence with a life sentence. Brown was imprisoned in Charleston Prison for a long 22 years.
The prison, which is a gloomy granite building, was located in Massachusetts. It was not possible to escape from there. The cells with high ceilings had small windows, from where the prisoners saw only a piece of the sky. The courtyard, where occasionally detained life prisoners were taken, was surrounded by high walls.
At first, Brown was placed in a common cell, but because of the constant fights with cellmates, he was transferred alone. Once for one day he had to be hooked up by a robber and a murderer, who was also sentenced to life imprisonment. Brown dealt with a full-time criminal, and just like the sailors from the "Atlantic", sucking blood from the victim. The vampire was again judged, so he received another life sentence.
Brown delivered a lot of trouble to the guards, and in 1889 he was sent to an even stricter and better guarded prison in Ohio. But here, too, the vampire did not miss the moment to pounce on the guards. His violent behavior, bouts of rage, attempts to cling to any teeth in the throat, argued that the prisoner had broken his mind. On this basis, he was transferred to an insane asylum in Washington. After nothing is known about him, it is believed that he died there. However, for unknown reasons, there is no record of the death of James Brown in the archive.
In those days, American newspapers were full of headlines about Brown, like a real vampire who was deprived in prison of the opportunity to drink the blood that served him food and so he went crazy.
The real case of vampirism was recorded in Rhode Island in 1892. Interestingly, the vampire from Exciter was also called Brown, only George. Newspapers wrote that his family - his wife and two adult daughters died suddenly. The reasons for their death were not established, so after a while it was decided to exhume the bodies buried in the local cemetery. On March 17, a specially created commission ascertained the fact of Hilda’s nineteen-year-old daughter's death from bleeding; this was indicated by red marks from the bites on the girl’s neck, and, having died two months ago, she did not completely decompose. Against George Brown, they were going to open a criminal case on the fact of the murder of their relatives. But, without waiting for the arrest, the vampire disappeared without a trace. It remains a mystery how he did it, because the guard was on duty at his house.
Stories about vampires of the same name have been retold hundreds of times in print. On the American continent, there were more and more notes that some people manifest pathology - the desire to drink human blood. Austrian psychiatrist Richard von Kraft-Ebing, who attributed them to the category of sexual disorders, studied similar perversions.