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Earnings recipes: an online skirt shop, gardening and a maze of fear

Organizing your company, any entrepreneur wants to invest a minimum, and get the maximum. As the experience of readers of the Facts newspaper shows, it’s quite possible to create a business worth several million from a penny. The main thing is to understand that it’s not even the product that matters, but how many buyers will be able to sell it. Just like in stories about billionaires selling bubble gum or powder drinks. So first of all, you need to find a promising product or service.

Applications for posting your ideas are accepted for publication!

“We bring plastic boxes to the client, he fills them, moves, and then calls the company to pick up the boxes”
Мы привозим клиенту пластмассовые ящики, он сам их наполняет, переезжает, а потом звонит в фирму, чтобы мы забрали коробки

“Hello, FACTS.” Your reader from Canada writes Paul Bergoyne. Our family are immigrants from Ukraine, therefore, although we have been living in Canada for many years, we never forget about our roots and really love our distant homeland. Almost all of us are engaged in the family business that my uncle Doug Bergoyne created. I think that his savvy and entrepreneurial talent will serve as an example for Ukrainian businessmen. Uncle came up with an original way, how to earn millions on a cheap product, plastic boxes. Yes, you can do serious business on simple boxes for moving.

So, lived in Vancouver Doug Bergoyne - an ordinary immigrant guy who dreamed of breaking out into people. But what can you earn if all the niches are already taken? The idea arose during the move, when needed boxes for things. The arc just dawned: his company will specialize in boxes. Moreover, plastic, reusable. And they will not be sold, but given for rent - for the duration of the move.

The business turned around at lightning speed. Boxes Doug went with a bang. Today our company sells plastic containers in batches of 25, 35, 50 or 70 pieces for a period of one day to three weeks (depending on how long it takes to move). The principle of the service is simple: a person orders boxes through the website or by phone. A truck arrives with plastic boxes, unloads. The client fills them himself, moves, and then calls the company so that we pick up our boxes.

Reusable containers will last a long time. They are conveniently folded one into another, they do not get wet, they do not need to be tied with a rope or wrapped with tape. Boxes are easy to wash (if something leaks), easy to carry, leaflets with information, for example, with a list of things, can be glued on them. And most importantly, the containers do not pollute the environment (unlike ordinary cardboard boxes, which always have to be thrown away after use). Moreover, our containers are made from recycled plastic. * Such reusable containers will last a long time, they are easy to wash and convenient to carry

For several years, Doug has opened over 20 branches in Canada and the United States. Firms operate on a franchise basis: each pays Doug royalties - 7 percent of gross income per month. And now we think: multiply 20 branches by 7 percent. This is a solid income, and not a penny local business. I’ll tell you about plans for the future: by 2015 we want to open branches in 150 cities of North America.

Of course, Canada or the United States are not like Ukraine. But very many Western developments quickly took root in the CIS countries - payment terminals, post offices, storage services ... That is, if you want, you can earn money on almost anything. So look at the plastic boxes. ”

“Created a maze of fear where a person can experience real horror. The business turned out to be quite profitable. ”
Создал лабиринт страха, где человек может испытать настоящий ужас. Бизнес оказался довольно прибыльным

“People need fear as air,” says businessman from Kiev Igor Lazey. - And you can make good money on this human weakness. Please note: all children love different horror stories, horror films and computer games with monsters and vampires. And all because in life they lack adrenaline. Children are surrounded by parental care, take care of them, make sure that they do not take a step to the side, do not stumble, do not fall ... Meanwhile, for normal development, a person needs both sweet and bitter, and pleasant, and terrible.

So I had the idea to open an attraction of fear. All sorts of 5D cinemas and other technological inventions were immediately noted because of their high cost. But I remembered amusement parks with rooms of fear. Here it is, our wonderful option, economical and at the same time giving free rein to the imagination, I decided and opened a labyrinth of fear where a person can experience real horror, unexpected and unpredictable.

The business is inexpensive at the start and quite profitable. It is necessary to find a room (preferably a basement in the city center) - this will take the most money. Further equipping the maze does not require significant costs. Monster dolls are used in the attraction and, if desired (but this is not necessary at all), several people are attracted who run around the visitors and ... tickle them with a feather. The atmosphere of fear is also created by music, the croaking of a raven and the roar of chains. In principle, nothing complicated, because the cost of tickets should be low - only 10-15 hryvnia. Profit depends on the number of visitors. The more of them, the richer you are. Be sure to complete all the documents, do not try to play the Cossack robbers with the tax, so as not to have problems in the future. At the initial stage, the income will amount to 7-15 thousand hryvnias per month, well, and then get untwisted, open a souvenir shop, think of something else ...

You can organize thematic tours (tickets, of course, should cost more), for example, to Halloween. And you income, and at the same time let the local actors, artists and directors earn extra money. So act. "

“A year ago, she opened an online store of fluffy skirts in the style of the 50s. Demand for them is constantly growing. ”
Год назад открыла интернет-магазин пышных юбок в стиле 50-х. Спрос на них растет постоянно

“I suddenly found an idea for business on the Internet,” writes Olga Pasko from Makeevka. - I was looking for an outfit for my daughter and accidentally wandered into the site of a store of magnificent American skirts. What a beauty! These skirts are now popular all over the world, but you will not find them with us during the day with fire. So, you need to fix the situation. I went through the Internet, learned the whole history of fashionable skirts. It turns out that they were invented in the United States back in the 50s of the last century. Then these skirts were called poodle skirts. * Fluffy skirts are now enjoyed by even the smallest fashionistas

The fashion for fluffy skirts returned to America in 2010-2012 thanks to designer Candy Lightner. Teenagers and even very small women of fashion began to wear skirts ... And most importantly, tailors began to sew custom-made skirts. Why am I worse? Yes, I'm better!

And for a year now I own an online store of lush American skirts and tutu dresses (from the French tutu - ballet tutu). Demand for these beautiful things is constantly growing, and offers in Ukraine are still very few. Therefore, my business is developing. Skirts and dresses for the store are custom-made by dressmakers (I also found them on the Internet - on the forums and on the VKontakte network). Dressmakers work in their cities, and finished things are sent directly to customers. Everything works very quickly, without spending on rental premises and courier delivery.

Here are the ready-made mechanisms for remote business: in my case, sewing and selling clothes. According to this scheme, you can bake cakes to order, write computer programs, sew shoes ... All success! ”

“In Moscow, for only two months I was engaged in the nowadays modern gardening of walls in offices and brought to Kiev 124 thousand hryvnias”
В Москве я всего два месяца занималась модным нынче озеленением стен в офисах и привезла в Киев 124 тысячи гривен

“I want to talk about a new promising direction in floristry,” writes Kiev resident Irina, a floral artist. - Now the popularity of landscaping walls in offices, shopping centers, hotels, public places, private homes is growing. The so-called phytowalls are ordered in large cities, where there are many shopping and business centers. For example, this fall I was in Moscow and for two months I managed to earn 500 thousand rubles on phytowalls! This is about 124 thousand hryvnia. Although the business started from scratch.

Now about technology. The basis of the wall is the frame on which the irrigation system in the form of tubes is placed. Also on the frame are fixed boxes with soil into which plants are planted. Each such drawer is supplied with a watering tube. Water is supplied either from a water supply system or from a special tank. For the success of the case, it is enough to master the technology of mounting the wire frame, find suppliers of irrigation systems and advertise on Internet search engines.

Agree, this is an interesting, simple and environmentally friendly business. And most importantly - a lot of money, because the main customers of phytowalls are legal entities. In my opinion, this is a promising area for existing flower companies, but perhaps the idea will help someone start a business and earn their first million. "

“Left without a job during the crisis, she created a needlework training center where both children and adults can practice”
Оставшись в кризис без работы, создала центр обучения рукоделию, где могут заниматься и дети, и взрослые

“I have always been a practical person,” writes Lviv woman Irena Solasco. - Well, what should be the financial director of a large company? The working day passed quickly - documents, numbers, meetings, meetings ... And I liked it. Even on maternity leave with tears, she could not imagine herself a housewife. While I was engaged in a newborn daughter, my company closed, unable to withstand the shocks of the crisis. And I was completely sad. After all, I understood that everything would have to start from scratch - to look for work, to gain authority again ...

Once I got to the exhibition of the Kiev artist. And I really liked her work from felt. At the vernissage, I learned that this mistress holds master classes, teaching everyone who wants to felting. For a lesson it was necessary to pay 200 hryvnias. At that time, the amount was not small, but, it seemed to me, fair, because the participants in the master class were provided with all the materials necessary for the lesson. And I signed up. I not only liked felting, at this master class I thought about my business. I realized that I need to open a training center where both children and adults can master needlework. She wrote a business plan, calculated everything, found the craftswomen and organized an advertising campaign. In addition, I downloaded video tutorials from the Internet on which I improved my felting technique. She learned to make handbags and brooches, beads and cases for mobile phones, toys, shawls, napkins and even coasters for beer mugs.

Today I continue to practice felting and teach this technique in my creativity center. We can also master decoupage and embroidery. These courses are taught by two famous Lviv craftswomen. One lesson lasts about two hours. I do not make large groups, a maximum of eight people. Usually classes are held at a nearby school, where I agreed on a rental. Sometimes I invite students home, this gives the workshops a special atmosphere. I have children's groups, the visit of which costs 300 hryvnia per month.

In the near future I plan to expand my business and offer culinary master classes. Judging by the television shows, now it has become fashionable to be able to cook. So you can make money on it. It remains to find a decent chef and arrange with some cafe about renting a kitchen.

I deliberately do not write about my income. I can only say that everything is fine with me, which I also wish you. And yet, organizing your company, be sure to fill out all the documents.

“Once he offered a joke to his classmates:“ Well, who wants to get married? I can help ... "Wanted everything!"
Однажды предложил в шутку своим однокурсницам: „Ну, кто хочет выйти замуж? могу помочь...“ Захотели все!

“I want to tell you how the habit of joking with others made me the head of a marriage agency,” says Igor Pavlyuk. - The story began four years ago when I studied at one of the Kharkov universities. There were mostly girls at the faculty, and all my classmates dreamed of princes. Naturally, I laughed at them with a few male classmates. Once I read an article in a magazine about how popular marriage agencies are in the West. There they are supposedly not marrying at all without a match. He jokingly suggested to his classmates: “Well, who wants to get married? I can help ... ”I did not expect such a violent reaction: EVERYONE wanted! Even those who were married. But a small nuance: they wanted an exclusively wealthy foreigner. They even promised to thank for mediation. Young ladies persistently besieged me. They opened the hunt directly. It was then that I realized that women should not be joked.

Where to look for these foreigners? In our city, there are only Chinese who sell at “Barabashka” (wholesale market in Kharkov. - Auth.). After three hours of searching on the Internet, I found a site on which I could subscribe to receive a printed catalog of Western men with addresses and phone numbers. Subscribed, and soon received a catalog. He brought it to classes and showed it to the girls. Furor! The catalog was almost torn ... There are more than a hundred profiles. You won’t see everything quickly. The girls began to tearfully ask for copies for them. For reward. And they set the price themselves - 15 hryvnias.

In an hour I received about 20 orders. Each young lady wanted to have her own copy. The next day, group leaders came up to me and ordered 25-30 catalogs at once. And we have five faculties ... In the first month I got about 300 subscribers.

Why followers? It turned out that the catalog is updated weekly, and the girls want to receive the latest information. There I already set the price myself - 25 hryvnias per month for updates.

Then the young ladies began to ask for help to write and send their letters, and then get an answer, and then translate ...

By that time I already had money, and I was able to sign up for a paid training course for owners and managers of marriage agencies on the same site. Officially, its duration is almost a month, but I needed to quickly, and I managed to get the full course immediately in the form of a file by e-mail.

He gave an advertisement to a newspaper. There were so many who wanted that I had to rent an office and hire a secretary-translator. I registered a marriage agency, opened an account, invited a good photographer to partners, in general I did everything as it is written in the manual ... There was a lot of work, and I was glad that everything happens in the summer, on vacation.

Now I have about 1,200 regular subscribers to the catalog ... I have long ceased to need money. Honestly, I even wanted to leave the university, but then I decided to get a diploma, for prestige.

I give a brief layout of the costs of organizing such a marriage agency. My initial expenses: registration in the catalog - $ 5, subscription to the basic printed catalog of grooms - $ 10, a business training course - $ 60.

Ongoing expenses: subscription for monthly updates ($ 5-10), the cost of a copy of the printed catalog - about $ 2 (I make at least 1,500 copies), monthly advertising - almost 800 hryvnias, renting a small office - $ 150-200 per month, secretary’s salary - a translator - 350-400 dollars, an accountant - 500 dollars, two agents - 200 dollars plus interest, for security I pay 700 hryvnias.

The revenues are not space, but the business is developing: each catalog brings 5 ​​dollars of profit, I earn another 4-5 thousand dollars on translation services. Well, minus taxes, I work officially.

“Cartoon songs help young children learn English, and me - to earn an apartment”
Песни из мультфильмов помогают маленьким детям учить английский язык, а мне — зарабатывать на квартиру

- Today we are experiencing a boom in learning English. And it’s simply a sin not to make money on this, ”says Mikhail Kuryshov from Yampol (Vinnytsia region). - I am a student, studying in Dnepropetrovsk. I did not get a dorm room, so I had to rent an apartment. Immediately the question arose of where to get money to pay for housing. And then I gave an ad to the newspaper, saying that I am teaching English to children from five years of age and older.

Many adults want to learn English, but even more they want to teach their children a foreign language. As a rule, there are no problems with teenagers. But how to make a child of seven years old engage? What about a five year old baby? Teaching them in the usual way, like at school, is not worth it. It's boring. I developed my own technique - song.

What a child does not like to sing and dance to the disc of a fashionable singer! This is cool and fun! Therefore, in the first lesson, I ask the children what compositions they like, and then based on the words of the songs I build training. These can be cartoon characters (especially good good Disney ones) or popular foreign performers. You make out the words and when you come across nouns, just translate them, and when verbs, you also tell how they change, and so on. The child is interested. And if suddenly he forgets a word, then associations pop up in his head, and the phrase comes back to itself. After some time (you need to look at the situation), add to your songs watching movies in English.

So songs from cartoons and films help young children learn English, and me - to earn an apartment. I’ve been teaching for three years, and all this time my students (12 of them) have been pleased with their parents with excellent marks. And I not only solved the issue of paying for an apartment, but also send money to my family.

“This year has expanded the business. Now I have a whole team of cleansing roads and yards from drifts "
В нынешнем году расширил бизнес. Теперь у меня целая бригада чистит дороги и дворы от заносов

“Once Willy Tokarev sang the song of the cloakroom attendant, where there were such words:“ I love winter, as the Uzbek heat ”. I also really like this time of year, because cleaning snow and icicles is my business, ”writes Igor Gontar from Mironovka (Kiev region). - The idea to earn extra money on snowdrifts arose by chance. Not far from my house, wealthy people built a cottage and asked me to look after their house when they leave for Kiev. I agreed, it’s easy for me. But autumn is one thing, and winter is another. Our neighbors decided to celebrate the New Year in their cottage, they arrived, but they can’t enter the yard. Everything is visible, the gates do not open ... Of course, I came to help. We quickly threw back the snow and cleared the road. And then I had to help with the inclusion of heating, and other work was found on the housework. In a word, after the “community work day” a neighbor offered me a bonus. As I remember now, 800 hryvnia! At that time it was more than $ 100. But I refused money, because I helped from the heart so that people would get home as soon as possible ...

When the holidays were over and the neighbors gathered in Kiev, the head of the family offered me to work with him: to clean the snow and icicles in the yard, to heat the house, to keep order. And I appointed a normal salary. So I got a second job. Then the crisis came, and this additional activity became the main one ... * For cleaning the territory (depending on the area), usually pay from 500 to 2500 hryvnia. Photo by Sergey Datsenko, “FACTS”

And this winter I expanded my business. When snowfall began in December, he went to Kiev, walked through garage cooperatives and offered his services in cleaning snow and icicles. And you know, everywhere I was glad, they did not refuse a single cooperative. In a day I found seven objects! For cleaning the territory (depending on the area) agreed to pay from 500 to 2500 hryvnia. Agree, decent earnings. I returned to Mironovka, hired two more workers. Now we go to Kiev for three days a week, clean up the objects, get the money and go home. We share the salary equally, about 2 thousand hryvnias each go.

So if you are sitting without hope of employment, this is a great way to quickly and honestly earn decent money. Here's something else for the summer to come up with ... "

“We cook sausages, home-made mayonnaise, cheese and butter to order. Everything is from organic products And without any chemical additives ”
Готовим на заказ колбасы, домашний майонез, сыр и масло. Все — из экопродуктов И без каких-либо химических добавок

“Dear FACTS, last year I read you an article about a woman who pickles cucumbers and tomatoes, ferments cabbage and sells in the capital market. This story has changed the life of our large family. And all the changes for the better, ”says Anna Radzievskaya from Kalush (Ivano-Frankivsk region). - For almost a year we have been doing eco-food on order. For our customers, we prepare absolutely natural, without any harmful impurities and additives, dishes, as well as supply green cereals, vegetable and butter, flour, sugar.

Our company works like this. Husband and son-in-law are miners. They go to farms and buy milk, cereals and meat. We only cooperate with environmental enterprises: now many farmers in our country produce products for export without the use of chemicals.

The female half of our family prepares different dishes from the delivered raw materials. We specialize in the production of sausages and boiled pork, homemade mayonnaise and dairy products: cheese, cottage cheese, butter, sour cream and real condensed milk. We cook on weekends, and on Monday we deliver orders to customers. Our prices are slightly higher than store prices: a kilo of boiled pork costs 85 hryvnias, sausages we sell at 65-100 hryvnias per kilo, cottage cheese - at 30 hryvnias, hard cheese - at 80-100 hryvnias, a half-liter can of condensed milk costs 16 hryvnias, and 200- a gram jar of mayonnaise - in 18 hryvnia. For products to be in demand, cooking is even better than for home use. After all, close people will always forgive you for some mistakes, and the client will leave.

For the holidays, the daughter prepares various cakes, pies, rolls and gingerbread cookies. Our traditional multilayer cakes, dough and gingerbread are in greatest demand. It is baking that brings the largest revenues. Judge for yourself, the cost of a kilogram of cake is about 25 hryvnia, and they are sold at 100-120 hryvnia per kilogram. The cost of gingerbread is a maximum of 20 hryvnias per kilo, and before St. Nicholas Day, “mykolaychiki” (150-200 grams) were bought out at 15-20 hryvnias apiece.

Well, the chip of our company is diet food. The idea was spied in a program about Hollywood stars. Every morning there, firms bring their wards food sorted out by their wards to their wards. Everything is signed: breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, kefir or yogurt for the night. It is very convenient, and lunch is scheduled, and health is normal, and no one eats. We have two families who order such a diet menu. To transport food you will have to purchase cooler bags (about 200 hryvnias apiece). As for the cost of lunch-dinners, focus on the average prices in the restaurants of your city.

In a word, feeding people is always profitable, and working for yourself is also nice. Just when organizing your grocery company, remember that you will have to work hard. "

“Having sold two woven bead cases for a mobile phone at an online auction, I decided it was time to open my own business”
Продав два сплетенных из бисера чехла для мобильного телефона на интернет-аукционе, я решила, что пора открывать свое дело

“A few years ago, when I was still studying at the institute, I needed to come up with a birthday present for my friend,” writes Inna Pavlyuk from Krivoy Rog. - I wanted to please her with something beautiful and exclusive, but there was no money. By chance on the Internet I saw a charming cell phone case woven from beads. I decided to do something like that. I bought beads, from which I did not even get one case, but three. One, the most neat and beautiful, was presented to a girlfriend, and the rest was photographed and posted at an online auction. By evening, handbags were sold at 50 hryvnias apiece. In my opinion, this is an occasion to establish home production.

Every day I do not work, but for a week I weave four or five handbags for phones. I sell finished products on the Internet, and also give them for sale to a beauty salon (they have a small store). In the future I want to purchase a special machine for beadwork, then I can make three or four covers a day. In the meantime, I am saving up money for the development of my business.

If you decide to engage in beadwork, then know that your income directly depends on the cost of raw materials. It is more profitable to buy beads not in stores where they are sold for 6-12 hryvnias per 100 grams, but from wholesalers for 4-5 hryvnias. And yet, be sure, without waiting for problems, fill out all the documents of a private entrepreneur. Good luck. "

“Transfer flights usually cost 30 percent less.”
Рейсы с пересадкой обычно обходятся на 30 процентов дешевле

“Everyone wants to have a good rest, to visit different countries and not overpay,” writes Andrei Migunov, a traveler with 20 years of experience from the Crimea. - From personal experience I know: everything is real. Everyone can minimize their expenses on flights and moving, car rental, accommodation and communication. If you plan your trip in advance, you’ll save at least 50 percent of your vacation budget. And sometimes even more.

So, we begin to optimize expenses. Everyone knows that on a trip, the biggest expenses are associated with air travel. In fact, it is only expensive to fly in our country, and there are low-cost airlines around the world. Therefore, if you are going on vacation to visit several European countries, your main task is to get into the EU. Next, we will travel on low-cost airlines, which will allow us to pay 20-35 euros for each flight. To make the price so attractive, you need to book a ticket on the airline’s website no later than a month before departure. In addition, almost all airlines periodically sell tickets at promotional prices. Go to the website, and you can see that it’s quite possible to fly from Kiev to New York and back for $ 400, and the flight Kiev - Istanbul - Kiev will cost only 840 hryvnias.

You can save if you fly with a transplant. Such tickets are always cheaper, because on long flights, airlines are reinsured against board non-fillability and do so thanks to the connection. Each company has its own hub airport (hub), from where its planes fly to all directions of the route network. Flying through the hub will make the ticket cheaper by at least 30 percent.

If you plan long trips with traveling by train, it is advantageous to purchase a monthly travel ticket that is valid throughout Europe. The cost is about 550 euros. This ticket can be ordered on the website, and redeemed at any station. Savings - 40-65 percent. You can get to Europe by bus. So, a ticket from Kiev to Warsaw will cost about 400 hryvnias (35 euros), and to Berlin - a little less than 500 hryvnias.

It is also worth taking care of the connection with the house in advance, otherwise you risk spending huge amounts on calls. To reduce the cost of communication abroad, first study what your operator offers. Today it is quite realistic to find truly economical rates. For example, this winter, some operators 2.5 times discounted conversations with Egypt, Israel, Thailand, Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates, India, Sri Lanka for their subscribers. A good way to save on communication is to send SMS messages, as well as communicate via the Internet.

These are just the basic rules. As soon as you start planning your trips, you will see that the field for reducing costs is endless. For example, the highest prices for permits are set for periods of school and student holidays. Therefore, it is better to go skiing after March 10: prices are halved, and there is still enough snow. But it is advisable to go to the sea (to Egypt or the UAE) in February - early March: a trip will be more profitable at least 30, or even 50 percent. In a word, do not deny yourself traveling, just make the routes correctly. "

“Write down all your expenses, and by the end of the first week it will become clear where the money is flowing”
Записывайте все свои расходы, и уже к концу первой недели станет ясно, куда утекают деньги

“Many are sure that their financial situation can be improved only by increasing salaries. Believe me, this is a mistake, - writes economist Oleg Parakov from Simferopol. - Even our ancestors said: “They love money.” How right they were! Follow simple and reasonable housekeeping rules.

First, learn to record ALL of your expenses. By the end of the first week, it will become clear where the money is flowing.

There is another way of maintaining a budget; it is called the method of three (four, five, and so on) envelopes. For each category of expenses - loan payments, utility bills, food, clothing, daily expenses, an untouchable reserve - have a separate envelope. If during the trial month it turns out that one of the envelopes quickly "became thin", it means either you should allocate a large amount for these expenses in the next month, or you need to reconsider the expediency of expenses in this category. Separately, I will say about the untouchable reserve: this envelope is indispensable! Immediately after the salary, put at least 10 percent of the money received into it. So you create your security fund.

You can keep your home budget with the help of special computer programs or free online services. When choosing a suitable scheme, remember that the program should make life easier, not complicate it.

Secondly, keep a record of all your income. Yes, yes, it only seems that we live on the same salary. In fact, we periodically receive bonuses, some have part-time jobs, while others receive income from rented apartments. This "extra" money usually goes "nowhere", so it is very important not to forget to include it in your budget.

Thirdly, really determine what you save money for and for how long you want to achieve your goal. For example, in three years I will buy a car of such and such a brand. It is important that the task be difficult, but real. After you decide on the purpose and timing, calculate how much will have to be postponed monthly. Adjust the list of your expenses (to make a dream come true, you can refuse something) and start accumulating money.

Fourth, be sure to reserve a certain amount of money for recreation and entertainment. This is not a waste, but a concern for the quality of one’s life. The main thing is not to confuse the planned events with the so-called spontaneous, such as gambling, taxi rides, lunches and dinners in restaurants ...

Cash also helps. Try to remove the bank card away (especially if this card is a credit card). Electronic payments create the illusion that you have money. But when in the store we need to give the cashier a specific bill from our wallet, we always think and thereby control our costs. Speaking of stores. Always make a shopping list at home in advance, and go to the store full. At the beginning of the month, it will not hurt to write down the names of people whom you have to congratulate on your birthday or other holidays. This will allow you to pick up good gifts at reasonable prices in advance.

And the last: live your life, not following the boss, neighbor, friend, relative ... You are no worse than all these people. It’s just that everyone has their own income level, and most importantly, their own idea of ​​what it is worth spending money on. ”

“I noticed that the gas meter remains stationary if only one burner is operating in the middle mode on the stove”
Я заметил, что газовый счетчик остается неподвижным, если на плите работает в среднем режиме только одна конфорка

“Dear editors of the newspaper FACTS. A pensioner writes to you, and in the past, an engineer and teacher, Kiev Pavel Kochetkov. At one time in your newspaper I read tips about saving. I also have some experience in this matter. For example, our frosty winters gave me the idea of ​​how to optimize the operation of the refrigerator and reduce energy consumption.

In the summer, I equipped two tightly-closing cabinets on the balcony. When in the fall the temperature in the street dropped to plus five degrees, I turned off my home refrigerator and transferred all the products that did not require freezing to the balcony in new cabinets. In the apartment I have a modern (and therefore economical) and compact freezer. In it I store meat and fish at a temperature of minus five degrees. When I turn off the refrigerator and leave only the freezer, this reduces the monthly electricity consumption in the apartment from 70 to 50 kilowatt hours. In severe frosts, I turn off the freezer and use only cabinets on the balcony. Thus, in winter, my electricity consumption does not exceed 30 kilowatt hours per month.

In addition, I upgraded the lighting: LEDs work in the bathroom and hallway instead of ordinary bulbs. By the way, I did not buy them, but pulled them out of the old Christmas tree electric garland. Transformers were soldered to these diodes (any engineer can do this), and now the apartment has a festive illumination for a penny.

Well, my last, almost scientific, invention allows me to reduce gas costs. Recently, a gas meter has been installed for free in the apartment. And here’s what’s unpleasant: in the first month we paid more than usual. Where does it fit ?! I looked at the device and found out that the counter remains stationary if only one burner is working in the middle mode on the stove. Super! My wife and I purchased dishes that allow you to cook several dishes at once at the same time (the pots are placed one on top of the other, like pyramid rings). Now you can live with the counter. So be careful, and then utility bills will not strangle you. "

“I buy used and crashed cars in Moscow, and repair them in Belarus”
Покупаю подержанные и побывавшие в аварии автомобили в Москве, а ремонтирую их в Беларуси

Hello, FACTS! An entrepreneur from Belarus Denis Smirnov is writing to you. I came across your site by accident, but now I read the newspaper almost every day. I love articles about small business. Well, our people cannot be defeated! Despite all the reforms, both in Ukraine and in Belarus, entrepreneurship lives on. I want to talk about my international business.

Two years ago, I set up a small used car company. It would seem nothing special, but my company is different from other similar ones. The fact is that I buy old and broken cars in Russia, or rather, in Moscow. I will explain the scheme. After an accident, a white-stone machine is often sold for a penny, because repairing it results in a round sum - much more expensive than a working second-hand car on the market. Here, for example, a beaten up old "Audi 100" of 1994 of release in Moscow is for sale for 1 thousand 100 dollars. Its repair in Moscow would cost the owner $ 2800- $ 3780. And it will be possible to sell a repaired car for a maximum of 5 thousand 600 dollars. Obviously, the owner is not profitable to repair the car in Moscow.

In Belarus, the repair of this machine can cost up to 1800 dollars: 950 dollars - spare parts, about 850 dollars - installation, adjustment, polishing, dry cleaning. Delivery of a beaten car to Belarus and its transportation (already repaired) will cost 380 dollars back. So, if you buy this car in Moscow and repair it with us, you will need 3 thousand 280 dollars. Selling in Moscow an already updated car for 5 thousand 600 dollars, we get a profit of 2 thousand 320 dollars. Not so much, but if you put things on stream ... For example, five cars a month is already decent. And when you upgrade a workshop, you can easily repair 10-15 cars in a month. With this turnover, production becomes less costly, therefore, revenues are growing. So I advise everyone to use the advantageous geographical position of their country and different prices for the same services from their neighbors "

“I took a picture of the galoshnik that I made myself, published the pictures at an online auction and received 12 orders in the evening”
Я сфотографировал калошницу, которую смастерил сам, опубликовал снимки на интернет-аукционе и за вечер получил 12 заказов

“Many have hobbies, and you can earn money on our hobbies,” Igor Andropov, a jack of all trades, who lives in Kiev, is sure. - For example, I was always interested in carpentry. At school at work lessons, I loved tinkering stools or shelves, stayed after classes and helped the teacher repair desks and chairs, cabinets and hangers in the wardrobe. Well, when he grew up, he began to design unusual furniture.

At first the wife was the main customer. Then make her a closet, as in the American film "Man Overboard", with a mechanism that allows you to bring different shelves to the forefront. I made it, everyone is happy. Then the wife dreamed of a dressing room, like the heroine of the series "Sex and the City." Since there is not enough space in the apartment, I had to find a compromise. By March 8, I made for my beloved a small rotating shoe rack - a convenient cabinet for shoes. What a delight! The wife boasted to her friends, and orders soon fell.

Today I call the galoshnitsa the nurse. Making it is very simple (just a few pieces of plywood and no glue or nails), all the details are in the grooves. And it’s just for sale with a bang.

How did I decide to make such furniture for sale? Everything is very simple. There wasn’t enough money all the time, so I began to think. I went shopping, there are no such things there, but there is demand after all. I took a picture of my shelf and published the pictures at an online auction. Set a low price - 340 hryvnia. The effect exceeded all expectations: in only one evening received 12 orders!

Today I have a whole workshop. I make shelves for cosmetics, "houses" for books, benches, chairs and children's tables ...

Many will say: "Yes, in every city there is such a service - custom-made furniture." I have an answer to this: the buyer wants to immediately get something beautiful and inexpensive. Give him a choice, he will buy. So if you love and know how to work with wood, then the manufacture of inexpensive designer furniture can be a good business. No ideas of your own? Take a look at the Internet. Today, there are simply thousands of masters sites, that's where inspiration is needed. "

“There are no mirrors in my fitness center for stout people, and all the windows are frosted”
В моем фитнес-центре для полных людей нет зеркал, а все стекла в окнах матовые

“The problem of overweight is becoming international,” says Elena Pavlyuchenko, fitness trainer from Kharkov. - And today many people earn money on the treatment of obese people - manufacturers of various low-calorie foods, sportswear, fitness equipment, pills ... And you can do it too. For example, open a sports studio for overweight people. Moreover, exclusively for oo-very thick, whose weight exceeds the norm by 20-30 kilograms.

I spied the idea of ​​creating such a specialized hall in the USA when I was visiting my school friend. There, the halls of Francis Wisniewski, a native of Poland, formerly also an obese man, who managed to lose 24 kilograms in a year, are very popular. Organizing a business, he proceeded from personal experience. For example, Francis knows that a fat man cannot go to a regular gym because he is ashamed and scared. When everything around is slender, fit, pumped up, you feel like a complete loser who can never catch up with these athletes. So, it remains only to turn around and leave.

At the same time, complete people need to move more and it is still important for them to communicate with the same fighters with extra pounds. So, we need a specialized fitness club for fat people, so that not a single thin woman spoils its mood. Actually, I opened such a hall in Kharkov. In my fitness center, as in the American ones, there are no mirrors, and all the glasses in the windows are frosted (so that passers-by do not interfere with the trainers). Special simulators are installed that can withstand the heavy weight of club members.

Our goal is to help overweight people not only lose extra pounds, but also learn how to live in a new way: talk about problems, not hide them and then “seize”, choose the right products and always move.

Of course, creating a fitness center is expensive. So I started with the so-called interest groups. First, I rented a gym at the school near my house for training. After all, a complete person does not immediately need to climb the simulator, it is enough to start with exercises. And when the first results appear, in about three months, it will be possible to increase the load. The first victories of your wards will attract more people to training. Your earnings will increase, and you can invest in upgrading your room.

As for prices, this is a personal matter for the coach. Today I have one lesson costs 70 hryvnias, but when you buy a monthly subscription, the cost of training decreases to 50 hryvnias. This is the average price in Kharkov, and you try to be at the level of your market. To advertise and popularize the hall, enter gift certificates and free guest tickets. So go ahead. And may there be more fit people in your city for whom you will open new halls! ”

“The demand for“ scientific ”holidays is constantly growing, but there is one performance from 800 to 1600 hryvnias”
Спрос на „научные“ праздники постоянно растет, а стоит одно представление от 800 до 1600 гривен

“I propose my idea of ​​creating an original business,” writes Vladimir Padalka from Ivano-Frankivsk. - Together with my wife, we opened a company to organize children's parties. But we do not have traditional Indian clowns, but vivid scientific and educational shows - with explosions, rockets, soap suds, butterflies, flying lanterns and other unusual tricks.

Modern children want to learn. And do not believe those who say that the guys do not need anything except the Internet. Just as you need! Children are delighted with entertaining physics and chemistry, they are smart and inquisitive. And for the desire of children for knowledge, parents are willing to pay decent money.

So, our science shows for kids and primary schoolchildren last from 30 minutes to an hour and cost 800–1300 hryvnias. Representations for older children are somewhat more expensive - about 1600 hryvnias. This is quite a decent income, because the purchase of reagents and various consumables takes from 150 to 300 hryvnias, so every holiday brings real money.

Today we have developed 12 show programs, and we constantly come up with something new. Topics for future programs are prompted by the children themselves. They want to know everything: how to make a “shish kebab” from balloons, is it possible to detect a ghost in the room ... They are asked to explain the “structure” of the volcano or tell why stalactites grow down and stalagmites up. Kids are simply delighted when they see that the clear liquid in the flask changes its color sharply to raspberry. I really like the experience with a fireproof paper box. She stands on the spirit lamp and is not afraid of fire, as water was poured into it. * Such a fun science is a great opportunity to arouse the interest of children in their studies.

Demand for “scientific” holidays is constantly growing. We are invited to graduation, "themed" birthdays ... In the season (September, January and May) we have up to 200 shows a month.

Business can be developed. Tricks, performances with animals (it will be very similar to a small circus), master classes, cooking programs ... When you work with children, new ideas come constantly. School lessons are usually tedious and boring, but such a fun science is a great opportunity not only to arouse children's interest in learning, but also to spend more time with their children, it’s better to get to know them. "

“Demonstrate butterflies in a pavilion set right on the beach”
Демонстрируем бабочек в павильоне, установленном прямо на пляже

“I don’t understand people who always complain about lack of money!” Retired Nina Sergeevna Khmara from the Kirovograd region is indignant. open a company at any age and with minimal cash costs.We have been visiting resorts for the second month with our student grandson and are entertaining vacationers for the benefit of our wallet.

Remember, once upon a time in the cities and towns traveled the so-called mobile zoos - several wooden cages with animals? It was this idea that formed the basis of our summer business with my grandson. However, we immediately refused the menagerie, as this is too expensive and troublesome business. The purchase of wild animals, the costs of their maintenance, the risk (suddenly, one of the visitors to the zoo will put his hand in the cage of a bear), and most importantly: what to do with animals in the fall? After all, a guy needs to go to classes, and I need a rest. Therefore, everything was arranged much easier: they organized a mobile exhibition of butterflies.

To begin with, they bought butterfly dolls via the Internet. They are sold worldwide for 7–35 hryvnias apiece. It is my responsibility to breed butterflies. Everything is simple here. The main thing is to follow the instructions. For example, so that not a single butterfly injures its wings, do not lay out the pupae, but hang them on a thread. Then the grandson borrowed a car from his father and began to plan our route. We decided to ride around the Crimea, where every village is a resort, which means there is an opportunity to earn money. As for the premises, it is enough to rent a small room in a crowded place of the town. But we still got a folding pavilion, in which right on the beach and arrange an exhibition of butterflies. To demonstrate the beauties, three or four tables are enough, on which are placed glasses with sugar syrup and plates with apples.

So, the grandson sells tickets, butterflies present themselves and at the same time eat sweets, but I tell visitors what our insects are called, what they eat, how many days they live ...

To attract customers, you need to pre-print and paste in public places (usually near the market or the beach) posters. Additional income may be the sale of souvenirs. For example, dried butterflies in frames under glass are in demand (from 45 to 180 hryvnias, depending on the beauty and rarity of the specimen). In addition, you can sell dolls (customers like that it is quite easy to grow them in an apartment), as well as charge for photos with exotic moths. * Children are happy to take pictures with exotic butterflies

Now about income. The exhibition runs from 10 to 19 hours and receives from 50 to 100 visitors per day. We set a low entrance fee: an adult - 8 hryvnias, a child over five years old - 5 hryvnias, senior citizens - 2 hryvnias, and kids - free of charge. The profits are not so hot, but we get our 500-800 hryvnia per day.

We are happy with everything: we don’t ask anyone for money, they are honest with our visitors and no one has condemned us yet. Besides, what grandmother can boast that she is not only a friend of her grandson, but also a partner? And I can! So I wish you not to sit back, but to act and use every opportunity to improve your life in all respects. "

“In two hours, I washed the windows in two apartments and earned 200 hryvnias”
За два часа вымыл окна в двух квартирах и заработал 200 гривен

“I want to tell how students can get 300-400 hryvnias in just three hours of work,” writes Valentin Nechiporenko from Kiev. - I wash the windows for older people. You can smile, they say, here you are surprised. But it is precisely in the fact that I render services to pensioners that the success of my business lies.

It all started with what I argued with a friend: I’ll earn 200 hryvnias without leaving my yard. And who sits on benches at the porches? That's right, grannies. So I went to them. He came up and politely said: “Good afternoon, is it necessary for anyone to wash the windows with the best detergent, after which they will be clean for more than six months? If the windows get dirty earlier, then I will wash them for free already. " The word "free" acted magically, and two hours later I washed the windows in two apartments, got my 200 hryvnias and thus won the bet.

Now this is my business. I take 25 hryvnias for one window, if I order more than four windows, the price drops to 20 hryvnias. I prepare the washing liquid myself: I mix two good products - for windows and for dishes - and add water. I fill it with a spray bottle and get to work. One window takes 12-15 minutes.

In general, grandparents are satisfied. Thanks to word of mouth, there are more and more customers. The daughters and sons of elderly parents began to turn with a request to drop by and to them. But for working people, the tariff is higher. ”

“With a light hand of FACTS I sold my first marble table ... to an Arab sheikh”
С легкой руки „ФАКТОВ“ я продал свой первый мраморный столик... арабскому шейху

“Hello, dear editors! The Transcarpathian businessman Konstantin Mayboroda writes to you. Once I read at you a story about a person who was involved in the furniture business, and thought: “Why am I worse?” I decided to turn my hobby into a job. In my free time I make unusual tables with marble countertops. "Chip" is that I decorate countertops with multi-colored inlay. Previously, he made tables only for himself and his relatives. But after I read in the newspaper that you can make money on it, my life has changed. Congratulations, with a light hand of FACTS I sold the first marble table ... to an Arab sheikh! * The cost of a table with an exclusive marble countertop is 6-8 thousand hryvnias, and you can sell it for 9-15 thousand

But it all started with ordinary craftsmanship. I always liked marble and wood. So, I “leafed through” the Internet and found out that we have a lot of companies selling finished marble slabs for countertops. Moreover, at the request of the customer, companies produce stone edges. I came up with a special technique for applying drawings to marble: with the help of several apparatuses, recesses are made on the stone, which are filled with specially prepared colored mastic. Then it is necessary to grind and polish the entire countertop.

And the final touch is to install an exclusive countertop on the table, which you can make yourself or order in the workshop. Next you need to profitably sell this furniture. I posted photos of my tables at international online auctions, so one of my brainchildren turned out to be with the sheikh.

Now about the prices. Medium-sized marble countertops can be purchased for 3-4 thousand hryvnias (depending on the company, as well as the quality and type of marble). It takes me a week to process the countertops in the evenings (I have not yet quit my main job). The cost of a coffee table with an exclusive marble countertop is 6-8 thousand hryvnia. And you can sell a thing at auction for 9-15 thousand hryvnias. Agree, a good extra income for the week. "

“A friend buys up old TVs, washing machines and vacuum cleaners, repairs them, and then offers those who can’t afford new equipment”
Приятель скупает старые телевизоры, стиральные машины и пылесосы, ремонтирует их, а затем предлагает тем, кому новая техника не по карману

“Recently I found out that my neighbor and former classmate Igor Vasyuta (a young guy with disabilities) earns much more than his able-bodied parents,” writes Andrei Vybornov from Dnepropetrovsk. - Do you know what? Almost on the trash!

A few years ago, when we were still in school, we were told that in tsarist Russia there was such a profession - a junkman. These people bought pennies for unnecessary things, put them in order and resold them. Well, we all forgot about this instructive story, and Igor did not forget. And in the summer after school, to my surprise, he acquired a good motorcycle with a sidecar. On my own money. It turns out that during the holidays Igor bought up old malfunctioning irons, vacuum cleaners, washing machines (for pennies, or even took them for nothing) in the nearest houses, repaired and sold them.

Now that we have grown, Igor continues this business, but at a new level.

Despite all our troubles, a layer of population has already formed in the country, which can afford to regularly update household appliances. The old one is either thrown away or thrust away so as not to interfere. But it interferes. For example, until recently, I had two televisions on the balcony. These are the things Igor buys. Performs proper repairs and sells. There are many buyers. These are people who cannot afford to buy a modern thing, but enough for a used one. Irons, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, telephones Igor repairs himself. Fridges, televisions, tape recorders, gas stoves transfers to their partners. Things are going, it seems, not bad, going to open a company. ”

“Right on the opening day of the gallery, two of our paintings were acquired by Italian diplomats”
Прямо в день открытия галереи две наши картины приобрели итальянские дипломаты

- Hello, Ukrainian friends! - writes a private entrepreneur from Bulgaria Biser Tsankov. - With “FACTS” my wife and I met this summer, your site was opened for us by vacationers from Chernivtsi. The newspaper was loved, we read it, like the Bulgarian press, almost every day.

Bulgaria is also in crisis. Almost every month, tariffs for electricity, telephone are increased, prices for all goods are rising. My wife and I have to look for additional earnings. This is what we have set up. 35 kilometers from our city there is a factory that sews genuine leather clothes for export to Macedonia. At the enterprise, you can buy scraps at a low price - rather large pieces of colored leather.

My wife is an artist and generally a very creative person. So, we bought different skin and began to experiment: burned, smoothed, cut and glued. Finally learned to create embossed paintings. When more than twenty works were completed, we ordered wooden frames and we got ready-for-sale products. In the summer, everything was perfect: they sold paintings on the embankment of St. Vlas (a resort town in Bulgaria. - Author), they were perfectly sorted by tourists. And in the winter, when they returned home, in a small town there was practically no one to implement such work.

The solution was found unexpectedly. I learned that in Bulgaria there is a representative office of an international organization that deals with the problems of homeworkers and helps them in the sale of products. I turned there for help and sent photos of our paintings. The organization looked at the pictures and invited us to participate in the exhibition organized by their representative office. The conditions were not the best, but we agreed and sent four samples of 85? 42 centimeters for the test.

Already on the opening day of the exhibition two paintings were bought, Italian diplomats bought them. Success inspired us, and we quickly prepared three more works, which also found their owners.

Now we mainly work on order, although we do not stop working with exhibitions. The production of one painting costs an average of 10 euros. At the exhibition we sell works for 85-100 euros. The organizers of the exhibition receive 25 percent of our income. Maybe in Ukraine our experience will be useful.

“Having lost my job, I opened a jewelry workshop and now I can adequately support my family and pamper my grandchildren”
Потеряв работу, открыл ювелирную мастерскую и теперь могу достойно содержать семью и баловать внуков

“Three years ago I was left without work,” recalls Viktor Konko from Pavlograd (Dnipropetrovsk region). - Our town is small, and no longer an elderly engineer was needed. But do not starve to death! And so I decided to open some kind of repair booth. I’ll be sitting and repairing everything that it brings: electric kettles and irons, belts and bags, picture frames and children's toys ... I found a suitable stall near the house, agreed with its owner to rent a corner and went to work . To be honest, I didn’t imagine when I would have clients what they would bring to me, if I could fix the offered item and how much I would be paid for it.

The first visitor asked to seal the silver chain. I was just delighted, because the work is trifling. Quickly did everything and received 10 hryvnia. With this chain, it all started. Most of the customers asked to fix jewelry or alarm clocks. To be competent, read special literature. I especially liked the book by Erhard Brepol "Theory and Practice of Jewelry". Everything is very well described and shown there. He began to take on more serious orders, and then he began to make jewelry: rings, earrings, bracelets. I chose simple models, but I paid special attention to quality. And very soon, the clients who brought shoes to the shoemaker's neighbor began to stare at my work. The first orders appeared, and off we go.

By the way, if you want to engage in jewelry, do not save on tools. Have a sturdy table with wooden coasters. You will also need sets of hammers, various pliers, tongs, tweezers, files, a vice. It is very useful to have an alcohol or hydrogen burner and furnace, which, by the way, can be made by yourself (drawings are available in the old magazines "Young Technician", "Model Designer").

Now, two years later, I can call myself a jeweler. And since the sale of precious metal products is licensed, be sure to fill out all the documents. Jewelers do not talk about their income, but they can adequately support their families and pamper their grandchildren.

“And I could not imagine that intimate haircuts would so increase the income of a family hairdresser”
И представить себе не мог, что интимные стрижки так увеличат доходы семейной парикмахерской

“Our family business is a hairdresser at home,” says Igor Sirota from Dnepropetrovsk. - Together with my wife Natalya, I have been provided with a stable and well-paid job for two years. Of course, the idea of ​​going to clients, cutting them, doing manicures, pedicures, eyelashes and nails is not new at all. But I want to talk about an exclusive service that will significantly increase your income.

If you have not guessed, then we will talk about intimate haircuts. Do not laugh, but until recently, I myself did not suspect how much this service is in demand! Intimate haircuts significantly increased the income of a family hairdresser. Our personal experience shows that the market is simply huge. We do not take into account young and old people, we divide the male population into two (men are still conservative in us), all the rest are potential customers.

In Dnepropetrovsk in beauty salons an intimate hairstyle costs about 160 hryvnias, our prices are much lower - from 60 to 80 hryvnias. The cost of the business is minimal, especially for the hairdresser. You just have to buy a good set of shaving tools - this is 800-1400 hryvnia (the coolest option), plus foam (from 14 hryvnia per bottle).

You can cut hearts, diamonds, butterflies ... A lot of photos are on the Internet. By the way, to fix the hairstyle, instead of hairspray, use sugar syrup. When you are confident in your skills, offer a new service to existing customers. I have no doubt in your success!

“I spy on recipes for economical dishes in books, modify them, and then invite children to literary feasts”
Рецепты экономных блюд подсматриваю в книгах, дорабатываю, а потом приглашаю детей на литературные застолья

“It is so interesting to read newspapers,” writes Kharkiv resident, pensioner, Honored Worker of Education Anna Viktorovna Pasechnik. - Some are fighting for power, while others are simply trying to survive, support old parents, educate children, feed and dress their family ... Since I am already a middle-aged woman, I have practically no way to earn money. I have several students, but these are children from ordinary families, and therefore I charge a rather symbolic fee from their parents. But I love to cook and do needlework, which helps me and the children significantly reduce everyday expenses. I look at recipes for economical dishes in books, modify them a bit, and then I invite my family - children, grandchildren, sisters and nephews - to literary feasts.

You will need a bean salad by Georges Simenon : 1 cup beans (soak overnight), 1/2 cans of olives (can be replaced with pickles), 1 clove of garlic, 2-3 slices of any bread, mayonnaise. Boil beans, mix with chopped olives or pickles. Dice the bread and make crackers on a dry skillet. Squeeze the garlic into the beans, add crackers, season with mayonnaise. Very tasty, satisfying and cheap. By the way, this salad is decorated with any vegetables lying around in the refrigerator: peppers, radishes, corn, peas ...

Liver pancakes from Nikolai Gogol : You will need: 200 grams of chicken liver, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon of flour, 1 medium onion, salt, pepper. Grind the raw liver with onions, add the egg, flour, salt and pepper to taste to taste, as well as a little quenched soda. Fry the pancakes in a pan. Serve with sour cream and dill.

Dear readers, for sure each of you has your own ways of saving and extra income. You can share the secrets of survival by writing to us . We will be especially happy if you attach your photographs, as well as pictures of your inventions that help reduce costs, to the letters.