Magic experiments that will make children gasp and explanations for them
We have a lot of things stored in the kitchen, thanks to which it is possible to conduct interesting experiments and experiments with children. Even an adult can make for himself new discoveries from the category of "how I did not know this before" .
In addition to interesting experience, it is important to tell the child what is happening in each of the experiments. The story of how this is done will not lessen the admiration and delight of the children, because they make their little discoveries!
We have collected for you the most amazing experiences, from which the spirit will captivate both children and adults. We are sure: from the fact that you show everything and tell me, they will not become boring.
Egg in the bottle
You need: an egg, a bottle with a neck diameter smaller than an egg, a thin strip of paper and a drop of vegetable oil.
Experience: Can I put an egg in a bottle without breaking a bottle or an egg? You can, if it's quail. But we will try to do this with the usual. To do this, egg the egg and clean it from the shell. Lubricate the neck of the bottle with vegetable oil. Light the paper and throw it at the bottom of the bottle, and then immediately put the egg on the neck. When the paper goes out, the egg will suck in.
What happens: The fire burns oxygen in the bottle and creates thin air in it. Low pressure from the inside and normal atmospheric pressure externally act together and push the egg into the bottle. Due to its elasticity, it slips through a narrow neck.
Fountain of cola and Mentosa
You need: Two-liter bottle of dietary Coca Cola and 5-6 Mentos.
Experience: In order not to flood the entire house with a cola, it is best to conduct this experiment on the street. Dragee Mentos should hit the bottle at the same time, because the reaction begins almost instantly. To do this, they can be put on a bent paper groove and let it slip into the bottle, or even better - put it on the thread one by one and lower it at once into the cola. Another important point - try to bounce back more swiftly, so as not to please under the sweet fountain.
What happens: The rough surface of the dragee causes the carbon dioxide dissolved in the beverage to actively release. Cola sharply foams, and with force breaking out of the bottle, forms a fountain.
Toothpaste for an elephant
You need: Plastic bottle, tray, dry yeast, 6% hydrogen peroxide, food color, liquid soap or dishwashing liquid, water.
Experience: Put the bottle on the tray. Fill in it half a glass of hydrogen peroxide, add a little soap or detergent and do not regret the food color. Separately in a cup, carefully mix 2 tablespoons of warm water and 1 teaspoon of yeast (work on it for at least a minute), and then pour the mixture into the bottle. Almost immediately, a colored foam reminiscent of toothpaste, which is squeezed out of a large tube, will actively come from it.
What happens: Hydrogen peroxide breaks up into water and oxygen, and yeast as a catalyst accelerates the reaction. Soap contributes by multiplying bubbles. By the way, the bottle and toothpaste will heat up - during the reaction heat is released.
You need: Pancake flour, fine salt, water, food colorings or gouache, cotton swabs or a thick brush, thick drawing paper.
Experience: To make a single color paint, mix 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 tablespoon of salt in a glass, and then add three tablespoons of water and paint. In the same way, prepare colors of other colors. Draw better on thick paper or cardboard with cotton swabs or a thick brush (use a separate brush for each color). After the drawing is ready, "bake" it in the microwave - enough will be 4-5 minutes at a power of 600 watts. During this time, the colors will swell and solidify and the pattern will become voluminous.
What is happening: Our paint, in fact, it's an ordinary dough, only colored, so it rises in the microwave.
Ice gems: paint the ice from the inside
Need: Forms for ice (any cups and bowls are also suitable), tray with bows, salt, liquid food colors or paints, pipettes or teaspoons.
Experience: In advance, in the evening, freeze more ice in large and small molds. The next day, prepare in a few containers of strong salt solutions and add paint there. Place the ice figures on a tray, and drop a saline solution with a pipette or a teaspoon. Salt will melt the ice, "drill" in it the moves, and the paint will paint from within with bizarre patterns.
What happens: When the sodium in the salt comes into contact with the ice, a reaction occurs with the release of heat, which causes the ice to melt. That's why the streets are sprinkled with a mixture of sand and salt.
You need: A large transparent container (a can, salad bowl), water, shaving foam, a pipette or a teaspoon, a liquid food color. Instead of the dye, you can take gouache or watercolor and dilute them in water.
Experience: Pour water into the container and squeeze into it lush clouds of foam. Then, drop a few drops of dye with a pipette or a teaspoon on the foam in different places and wait - the rain will soon come down from the cloud.
What happens: The paint seeps through the foam and sinks to the bottom due to the greater density. Experience helps to show and explain to children what is rain.
Dandy worms from starch
You need: Corn starch, water, a thin metal baking sheet, a subwoofer or a column, gouache or food coloring.
Experience: Mix 2 cups of starch with 1 glass of water. Pour the liquid onto a baking tray, add a few drops of paint and place it on a subwoofer or speaker. Turn on the dynamic music, lightly press the tray with your fingers, and enjoy the rhythmic dance of multi-colored worms.
What happens: Water with starch is a non-Newtonian fluid that behaves quite differently than usual. If it is influenced by force, that is, to beat, squeeze, squeeze, it becomes firm, so you can even run around it. Music is something like sound strikes of different strength. The mixture, responding to them, hardens and moves.
Looking for: Matches, flashlight.
Experience: Light the match and keep it at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from the wall. Shine on the match with a flashlight, and you will see that only your hand and the match itself are reflected on the wall. It would seem, obviously, but I never thought about it.
What happens: Fire does not cast a shadow, as it is a source of light.
You need: 2 balls, a candle, matches, water.
Experience: Puff the ball and hold it over a lighted candle to show the children that the ball will burst from the fire. Then in the second ball pour plain water from the tap, tie it and again bring it to the candle. It turns out that with water the ball calmly withstands the flame of a candle.
What happens: The water in the ball absorbs the heat emitted by the candle. Therefore, the ball itself will not burn and, therefore, will not burst.
You need: a plastic bag, simple pencils, water.
Experience: Pour water in a polyethylene bag half way. Pencil pierce through the package in the place where it is filled with water.
What happens: If the plastic bag is punctured and then poured into it with water, it will pour out through the holes. But if the packet is first filled with half water and then pierced with a sharp object so that the object remains stuck in the bag, then water will not flow through these holes. This is due to the fact that when a polyethylene rupture, its molecules are attracted closer to each other. In our case, polyethylene is tightened around pencils.
You need: a balloon, a wooden skewer and a little liquid for washing dishes.
Experience: Lubricate the top and bottom of the device and pierce the ball, starting from the bottom.
What happens: The secret of this trick is simple. In order to save the ball, you need to pierce it at the points of least tension, and they are located at the bottom and at the top of the ball.
You need: 4 glasses of water, food colorings, cabbage leaves or white flowers.
Experience: Add each colorant food color of any color and put in water one sheet or flower. Leave them for the night. In the morning you will see that they are painted in different colors.
What is happening: Plants suck water and at the expense of this nourish their flowers and leaves. This is due to the capillary effect, in which water itself tends to fill the thin tubes inside the plants. So eat and flowers, and grass, and large trees. Sucking up the colored water, they change their color.
You need: 2 eggs, 2 glasses of water, salt.
Experience: Gently place the egg in a glass with plain pure water. As expected, it will sink to the bottom (if not, perhaps the egg is rotten and it is not worth returning it to the refrigerator). In the second glass, pour warm water and stir in it 4-5 tablespoons of salt. For the purity of the experiment, you can wait until the water cools down. Then lower the second egg into the water. It will float at the surface.
What happens: It's all about density. The average egg density is much larger than that of plain water, so the egg sinks down. And the density of the brine is higher, and therefore the egg rises.
You need: 2 cups of water, 5 glasses of sugar, wooden sticks for mini-shish kebabs, thick paper, transparent glasses, a pan, food colorings.
Experience: In a quarter of a glass of water, cook the sugar syrup with a couple of tablespoons of sugar. Pour a little sugar on the paper. Then you need to dip the wand into a syrup and collect the saquarks. Then distribute them evenly on the stick. Leave the sticks to dry for the night. In the morning in 2 glasses of water on fire dissolve 5 glasses of sugar. For 15 minutes you can leave the syrup cool, but it should not cool down, otherwise the crystals will not grow. Then pour it over the jars and add different food colorings. Harvested sticks in a jar of syrup so that they do not touch the walls and the bottom of the can, this will help the clothespin. Then you just have to wait, watch the process, and then - eat the resulting delicacy.
What happens: As the water cools, the solubility of sugar decreases, and it begins to precipitate and settle on the walls of the vessel and on your stick with a seed of sugar grains.
This experience will require some preparation and additional purchases, but it will look especially impressive.
You need: one high glass, detergent solution (20 ml), 3% hydrogen peroxide (10 ml), 3% luminol solution (5 ml), several crystals of potassium permanganate.
Experience: pour a solution of detergent into the glass, hydrogen peroxide and luminol solution. Separately, rub several crystals of potassium permanganate and also send it to a glass. When you try to mix the mixture will foam and it will sparkle beautifully.
What happens: luminol begins to glow when it reacts with hydrogen peroxide.
You need: a ball, soda, a bottle, vinegar.
Experience: pour soda into the ball, and pour vinegar into the bottle. Put the ball on the neck of the bottle, and then turn it over so that the contents of the ball poured into the vinegar, and watch.
What happens: the fact is that when soda is added to vinegar (soda quenching), carbon dioxide is released, which inflates the balloon.
One candle and a lighter are needed .
Experience: light the candle and after a while put it out. When the candle goes out, the smoke will rise from the wick. If you bring a fire to the smoke, then the candle will light up again.
What happens: the smoke that rises from the wick contains a vapor of paraffin, which easily ignite. For these pairs, a light comes to the wick, as shown on the hypha.
Ball and funnel
You need: a funnel and a ping-pong ball.
Experience: flip the funnel wide down, put the ball in the funnel and support it with your finger. Then start blowing into the narrow end of the funnel and stop holding the ball with your finger, without stopping the blow. The ball must stay inside.
What happens: the faster the ball passes the ball, the less pressure it exerts on the ball. The air pressure between the walls of the funnel and the ball is much less than outside, so while you are blowing, the ball will remain in the funnel, even if you turn it vertically. To the same experience, you can adapt the vacuum cleaner.
Ball and orange
You need: an orange, inflated balls (as you wish).
Experience: Cut off a piece of peel from an orange, as if you were cleaning an orange for food. Pressing on the peel, sprinkle the juice of zest on the balloon. The ball will burst.
What happens: In an orange peel, a lot of such a substance as limonene. It actively dissolves the rubber, so a thin ball can not resist it.
You need: Salt, water, a glass of vegetable oil, several food colors, a large transparent glass or a glass jar.
Experience: Fill a glass with water for 2/3, pour the vegetable oil into the water. The oil will float on the surface. Add the food colorant to the water and the oil. Then slowly pour 1 teaspoon of salt.
What happens: The oil is lighter than water, so it floats on the surface, but the salt is heavier than oil, so when you add salt to the glass, the oil begins to sink to the bottom along with the salt. When the salt breaks up, it releases the oil particles and they rise to the surface. Food coloring will help make the experience more vivid and spectacular.
You need: Capacity, filled with water (bath, basin), a flashlight, a mirror, a sheet of white paper.
Experience: Pour water into a container and put a mirror on the bottom. We direct the light of the flashlight to the mirror. Reflected light should be caught on paper, on which a rainbow should appear.
What happens: A ray of light consists of several colors; when it passes through the water, it decomposes into its component parts - in the form of a rainbow.
Need: Tray, sand, plastic bottle, food color, soda, vinegar.
Experience: Around a small plastic bottle of clay or sand, you need to dazzle a small volcano - for entourage. To cause the eruption, you should put two tablespoons of soda in a bottle, pour in a quarter of a glass of warm water, add a little food coloring, and in the end pour a quarter of a glass of vinegar.
What happens: When soda and vinegar come into contact, a violent reaction begins with the release of water, salt and carbon dioxide. Bubbles of gas and push the contents out.
Need: Salt, water, wire.
Experience: In order to obtain crystals, it is necessary to prepare a supersaturated solution of salt, such that when salt is added, the salt does not dissolve. In this case, it is necessary to keep the solution warm. To make the process better, it is desirable that the water is distilled. When the solution is ready, it must be poured into a new container to get rid of the debris that is always present in the salt. Further, in the solution, a wire with a small eyelet at the end can be dropped. Put the jar in a warm place, so that the liquid cools down more slowly. In a few days on the wire will grow beautiful salt crystals. If you get used, you can grow pretty large crystals or patterned hand-made articles on twisted wire.
What happens: As the water cools, the solubility of the salt decreases and it begins to precipitate and settle on the walls of the vessel and on your wire.
You need: A bottle, a coin, which you can cover the neck of the bottle, water.
Experience: Empty unopened bottle should be put for a few minutes in the freezer. Wet a coin with water and cover it with a bottle taken from the freezer. After a few seconds, the coin will begin to jump and, hitting the neck of the bottle, make sounds that look like clicks.
What is happening: The coin lifts the air, which in the freezer contracted and took up less volume, and now it is heated and began to expand.
You need: Whole milk, food colorings, liquid detergent, cotton buds, a plate.
Experience: Pour the milk into a plate, add a few drops of dye. Then you need to take a cotton swab, dip it in a detergent and touch it with a stick in the center of the plate with milk. Milk begins to move, and colors - to mix.
What happens: The detergent reacts with fat molecules in the milk and drives them. This is why fat-free milk is not suitable for the experiment.
You need: Ten-ruble note, tongs, matches or lighter, salt, 50% alcohol solution (1/2 part of alcohol for 1/2 part of water).
Experience: Add a pinch of salt to the alcohol solution, immerse the bill in the solution so that it is completely soaked. Grab the bill from the solution with the tongs and let the excess liquid drain off. Kindle a bill and watch it burn, not burning.
What happens: As a result of burning of ethyl alcohol, water, carbon dioxide and heat (energy) are formed. When you set fire to a bill, alcohol burns. The temperature at which it burns is not sufficient to evaporate the water, which impregnates the paper bill. As a result, all alcohol burns out, the flame goes out, and a slightly moist dozen remains intact.
Walking in the Eggs
We need: two dozen eggs in the cells, a garbage bag, a bucket of water, soap and good friends.
Experience: Spread a garbage bag on the floor and put two boxes of eggs on it. Check eggs in boxes, replace, if you notice, a cracked egg. Also check that all eggs are oriented in one direction - either with sharp ends up, or blunt. If you put your foot correctly, evenly distributing the weight, then you can stand or walk around the eggs barefoot. If you do not want to be extreme from careless movement, you can put a thin board or tile on the tops of eggs. Then nothing will stop you.
What happens: Everyone knows that the egg is easy to break, but the eggshell is very durable and can withstand a lot of weight. The "architecture" of the eggs is such that at uniform pressure the stress is distributed throughout the shell and does not allow it to break.
- A camera that supports long exposure (up to 30 seconds);
- Large sheet of cardboard;
- Painting tape (for pasting cardboard);
- A room with a view of anything;
- Sunny day.
- We seal the window with cardboard so that the light does not come from the street.
- In the center, make a smooth hole (for a room 3 meters deep, the hole should be about 7-8 mm).
- When the eyes get used to the darkness, on the walls of the room there will be an inverted street! The most visible effect will turn out on a bright sunny day.
- Now the result can be shot on a camera on a long exposure. Exposure 10-30 seconds will do.