Magical experiences that make children gasp and explanations for them
We have many things stored in our kitchen, thanks to which you can carry out interesting experiments and experiments with your children. Even an adult can make new discoveries for himself from the category of "as I did not know this before . "
In addition to interesting experience, it is important to convey to the child what is happening in each experiment. The story of how this is done will not reduce the admiration and delight of children, because they make their small discoveries!
We have collected for you the most amazing experiences that will take your breath away from both children and adults. We are sure that from the fact that you show and tell everything, they will not become more boring.
Egg in a bottle
Required: an egg, a bottle with a neck diameter smaller than an egg, a thin strip of paper and a drop of vegetable oil.
Experience: Is it possible to put an egg in a bottle without breaking either the bottle or the egg? It is possible if it is quail. But we will try to do this with the usual. To do this, boil the egg and peel it. Lubricate the neck of the bottle with vegetable oil. Ignite the paper and drop it on the bottom of the bottle, and then immediately place the egg on the neck. When the paper goes out, the egg is sucked in.
What happens: Fire burns oxygen in a bottle and rarefied air forms in it. The reduced pressure from the inside and the usual atmospheric pressure from the outside act together and push the egg into the bottle. Due to its elasticity, it slips through a narrow neck.
Cola and Mentos Fountain
Need: A two-liter bottle of Coca Cola diet and 5-6 tablets of Mentos.
Experience: In order not to fill the whole house with Coke, it is best to conduct this experiment on the street. Mentos tablets have to fall into the bottle at the same time, because the reaction starts almost instantly. To do this, they can be put on a piece of paper bent by a groove and allowed to slip into a bottle, or even better - put on a string one after another and at once lowered into a cola. Another important point - try to bounce more quickly so as not to fall under the sweet fountain.
What happens: The rough surface of the dragee causes the carbon dioxide dissolved in the drink to be actively released. The cola foams sharply, and bursting out of the bottle with force, forms a fountain.
Required: Plastic bottle, tray, dry yeast, 6% hydrogen peroxide, food coloring, liquid soap or dishwashing liquid, water.
Experience: Place the bottle on a tray. Pour half a glass of hydrogen peroxide into it, add a little soap or detergent and do not regret food coloring. Separately, thoroughly mix 2 tablespoons of warm water and 1 teaspoon of yeast in a cup (work on this for at least a minute), and then pour the mixture into a bottle. Almost immediately, a colored foam actively climbs out of it, resembling a toothpaste that is squeezed out of a large tube.
What happens: Hydrogen peroxide breaks down into water and oxygen, and yeast as a catalyst accelerates the reaction. Soap contributes by multiplying the bubbles. By the way, the bottle and “toothpaste” will heat up - heat is generated during the reaction.
Need: Pancake flour, fine salt, water, food coloring or gouache, cotton buds or a thick brush, thick paper for drawing.
Experience: To make the paint of the same color, you need to mix in a cup 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 tablespoon of salt, and then add three tablespoons of water and paint. Prepare paints of other colors in the same way. It is better to draw on thick paper or cardboard with cotton buds or a thick brush (use a separate one for each color). After the drawing is ready, “bake” it in the microwave - it will be enough 4-5 minutes at a power of 600 watts. During this time, the paint will swell and harden and the drawing will become voluminous.
What happens: Our paint, in fact, is an ordinary dough, only colored, so it rises in the microwave.
Ice gems: paint the ice from the inside
We need: Ice molds (any cups and bowls are also suitable), a tray with sides, salt, liquid food colors or paints, pipettes or teaspoons.
Experience: In advance, in the evening, freeze more ice in large and small tins. The next day, prepare strong saline solutions in several containers and add paint there. Lay out the ice figurines on a tray and drip saline onto them with a pipette or teaspoon. Salt will melt the ice, "drilling" the passages in it, and the paint will paint from the inside with bizarre patterns.
What happens: When sodium in salt comes in contact with ice, a reaction occurs with the release of heat, which causes the ice to melt. That is why the streets are sprinkled with ice with a mixture of sand and salt.
Need: A large transparent container (jar, salad bowl), water, shaving foam, a pipette or teaspoon, a liquid food coloring. Instead of dye, you can take gouache or watercolor and dilute them in water.
Experience: Pour water into a container and squeeze lush clouds from the foam onto it. Then drip a few drops of the dye with a pipette or a teaspoon on the foam in different places and wait for the rain to come out of the cloud.
What happens: The paint seeps through the foam and sinks to the bottom due to its higher density. Experience helps show and explain to children what rain is.
Starch Dancing Worms
Required: Corn starch, water, a thin metal pan, subwoofer or speaker, gouache or food coloring.
Experience: Mix 2 cups of starch with 1 cup of water. Pour the liquid onto a baking sheet, add a few drops of paint and place it on a subwoofer or column. Turn on dynamic music, lightly press the pan with your fingers, and enjoy the rhythmic dance of colorful worms.
What happens: Water with starch is a non-Newtonian fluid that behaves completely different from normal. If you act on it with force, that is, beat, squeeze, crush, it becomes hard, so you can even run around it. Music is something like sound beats of different strengths. The mixture, responding to them, hardens and moves.
Needed: Matches, flashlight.
Experience: Light a match and keep at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from the wall. Shine a flashlight on a match and you will see that only your hand and the match itself are reflected on the wall. It would seem obvious, but I never thought about it.
What happens: Fire does not cast shadows, since it is itself a source of light.
Needed: 2 balls, a candle, matches, water.
Experience: Inflate the ball and hold it above the lit candle to demonstrate to the children that the ball will burst from the fire. Then, pour plain water from the tap into the second ball, tie it up and bring it up to the candle again. It turns out that with water the ball calmly withstands the flame of a candle.
What happens: The water in the ball absorbs the heat released by the candle. Therefore, the ball itself will not burn and, therefore, will not burst.
Needed: a plastic bag, simple pencils, water.
Experience: Pour water into a plastic bag in half. We pierce the package through with a pencil in the place where it is filled with water.
What happens: If you poke a plastic bag and then pour water into it, it will pour out through the holes. But if you first fill the bag halfway with water and then pierce it with a sharp object so that the object remains stuck in the bag, then there will be almost no water to flow out through these holes. This is due to the fact that when polyethylene breaks, its molecules are attracted closer to each other. In our case, polyethylene is pulled around the pencils.
Needed: a balloon, a wooden skewer and some liquid for washing dishes.
Experience: Lubricate the top and bottom with a tool and pierce the ball starting from the bottom.
What happens: The secret to this trick is simple. In order to save the ball, you need to pierce it at the points of least tension, and they are located in the lower and upper parts of the ball.
Required: 4 cups of water, food coloring, cabbage leaves or white flowers.
Experience: Add food color of any color to each glass and put one leaf or flower into the water. Leave them overnight. In the morning you will see that they are painted in different colors.
What happens: Plants absorb water and thereby nourish their flowers and leaves. This is due to the capillary effect, in which the water itself tends to fill the thin tubes inside the plants. This is how flowers, grass, and large trees feed. Sucking in tinted water, they change their color.
Required: 2 eggs, 2 cups of water, salt.
Experience: Gently place the egg in a glass with plain clean water. As expected, it will sink to the bottom (if not, perhaps the egg is rotten and you should not return it to the refrigerator). Pour warm water into the second glass and stir 4-5 tablespoons of salt in it. For the purity of the experiment, you can wait for the water to cool. Then dip the second egg into the water. It will float at the surface.
What is happening: It's all about density. The average density of an egg is much higher than that of plain water, so the egg drops down. And the density of the brine is higher, and therefore the egg rises.
Required: 2 glasses of water, 5 glasses of sugar, wooden sticks for mini-barbecue, thick paper, transparent glasses, pan, food colors.
Experience: In a quarter glass of water, boil sugar syrup with a couple of tablespoons of sugar. Pour some sugar on paper. Then you need to dip the stick in the syrup and collect the saccharines with it. Next, distribute them evenly on a stick. Leave the sticks to dry overnight. In the morning, dissolve 5 glasses of sugar in 2 cups of water over a fire. For 15 minutes you can leave the syrup to cool, but it should not cool down very much, otherwise the crystals will not grow. Then pour it into jars and add different food colors. Dip the prepared sticks in a jar of syrup so that they do not touch the walls and the bottom of the jar, this will help the clothespin. Then it remains only to wait, to observe the process, and then to eat the resulting delicacy.
What happens: With cooling water, the solubility of sugar decreases, and it begins to precipitate and settle on the walls of the vessel and on your stick with seed from sugar grains.
This experience will require some preparation and additional purchases, but it will look especially impressive.
Required: one tall glass, a solution of washing powder (20 ml), three percent hydrogen peroxide (10 ml), a three percent solution of luminol (5 ml), several crystals of potassium permanganate.
Experience: pour a solution of washing powder, hydrogen peroxide and a solution of luminol into a glass. Separately, grind several potassium permanganate crystals and also send into a glass. When you try to mix, the mixture will foam and it will sparkle beautifully.
What happens: luminol begins to glow when it reacts with hydrogen peroxide.
Needed: ball, soda, bottle, vinegar.
Experience: pour soda into a ball, and pour vinegar into a bottle. Put the ball on the neck of the bottle, and then turn it over so that the contents of the ball spill out into vinegar, and observe.
What happens: the fact is that when soda is added to vinegar (soda extinguishing), carbon dioxide is released, which inflates a balloon.
Needed: one candle and a lighter.
Experience: light a candle and extinguish it after a while. When the candle goes out, smoke will rise from the wick. If you bring the fire to the smoke, the candle will light up again.
What happens: the smoke that rises from the wick contains paraffin vapor that easily ignites. For these pairs, the light reaches the wick, as shown in the gif.
Ball and funnel
Needed: funnel and ping-pong ball.
Experience: turn the funnel wide down, put the ball in the funnel and support it with your finger. Then start blowing at the narrow end of the funnel and stop supporting the ball with your finger without stopping blowing. The ball should stay inside.
What happens: the faster the air passes past the ball, the less pressure it exerts on the ball. The air pressure between the walls of the funnel and the ball is much less than outside, so while you blow, the ball will remain in the funnel, even if you turn it vertically. A vacuum cleaner can be adapted to the same experience.
Ball and orange
Needed: one orange, inflated balls (as you wish).
Experience: Cut a piece of peel from an orange, as if you were peeling an orange for food. Pressing on the peel, sprinkle the zest with juice on the inflated ball. The ball will burst.
What happens: In the zest of an orange there is a lot of such a substance as limonene. It actively dissolves rubber, so a thin ball cannot resist it.
Required: Salt, water, a glass of vegetable oil, several food colors, a large transparent glass or glass jar.
Experience: Fill a 2/3 glass with water, pour vegetable oil into the water. Oil will float on the surface. Add food coloring to water and oil. Then slowly pour 1 teaspoon of salt.
What happens: Oil is lighter than water, so it floats on the surface, but salt is heavier than oil, so when you add salt to a glass, the oil and salt begin to sink to the bottom. When the salt disintegrates, it releases particles of oil and they rise to the surface. Food coloring will help make the experience more visual and entertaining.
Required: A container filled with water (bathtub, basin), a flashlight, a mirror, a sheet of white paper.
Experience: Pour water into a container and put a mirror on the bottom. We direct the light of the flashlight to the mirror. The reflected light must be caught on paper, on which a rainbow should appear.
What happens: A ray of light consists of several colors; when it passes through water, it decomposes into its component parts - in the form of a rainbow.
Required: Tray, sand, plastic bottle, food coloring, soda, vinegar.
Experience: A small volcano should be blinded around a small plastic bottle of clay or sand - for entourage. To cause an eruption, pour two tablespoons of soda into the bottle, pour a quarter cup of warm water, add a little food coloring, and pour a quarter cup of vinegar at the end.
What happens: When soda and vinegar come into contact, a violent reaction begins with the release of water, salt and carbon dioxide. Bubbles the gas and push the contents out.
We grow crystals
Needed: Salt, water, wire.
Experience: To obtain crystals, it is necessary to prepare a supersaturated salt solution - one in which when a new portion is added, the salt does not dissolve. In this case, you need to keep the solution warm. To make the process go better, it is desirable that the water be distilled. When the solution is ready, it must be poured into a new container to get rid of the garbage that is always in the salt. Next, in the solution, you can lower the wire with a small loop at the end. Put the jar in a warm place so that the liquid cools more slowly. In a few days, beautiful salt crystals will grow on the wire. If you get the hang of it, you can grow quite large crystals or patterned crafts on twisted wire.
What happens: With cooling water, the solubility of the salt decreases, and it begins to precipitate and settle on the walls of the vessel and on your wire.
Need: Bottle, coin, which you can cover the neck of the bottle, water.
Experience: An empty, unopened bottle should be put in the freezer for several minutes. Moisten a coin with water and cover it with a bottle removed from the freezer. After a few seconds, the coin will start to jump and, hitting the neck of the bottle, make sounds that look like clicks.
What is happening: The coin is being lifted by air, which has compressed in the freezer and took up a smaller volume, but now it has warmed up and started to expand.
Required: Whole milk, food coloring, liquid detergent, cotton buds, plate.
Experience: Pour milk into a plate, add a few drops of dyes. Then you need to take a cotton swab, dip in detergent and touch the stick in the center of the plate with milk. Milk will begin to move, and colors will mix.
What happens: The detergent reacts with the fat molecules in the milk and sets them in motion. That is why skim milk is not suitable for the experiment.
Required: Ten-ruble note, tongs, matches or a lighter, salt, 50% alcohol solution (1/2 part of alcohol to 1/2 part of water).
Experience: Add a pinch of salt to the alcohol solution, immerse the bill in the solution so that it is completely saturated. Remove the bill with forceps from the solution and allow the excess liquid to drain. Set fire to a bill and watch it burn without burning.
What happens: As a result of burning ethanol, water, carbon dioxide and heat (energy) are formed. When you set fire to a bill, alcohol burns. The temperature at which it burns is not sufficient to evaporate the water that is saturated with the paper bill. As a result, all alcohol burns out, the flame goes out, and a slightly damp dozen remains intact.
We need: two dozen eggs in cells, a trash bag, a bucket of water, soap and good friends.
Experience: Lay a trash bag on the floor and place two boxes of eggs on it. Check the eggs in the boxes, replace, if you notice, a cracked egg. Also check that all eggs are oriented in one direction - either with sharp ends up, or blunt. If you put your foot right, evenly distributing the weight, then you can stand or walk around the balls barefoot. If you don’t feel like extreme sports from reckless movement, you can put a thin board or tile on top of the eggs. Then nothing will hinder.
What happens: Everyone knows that it is easy to break an egg, but the egg shell is very strong and can withstand heavy weight. The "architecture" of the egg is such that under uniform pressure, the voltage is distributed throughout the shell and prevents it from breaking.
- A camera that supports slow shutter speeds (up to 30 s);
- A large sheet of thick cardboard;
- Masking tape (for gluing cardboard);
- A room with a view of anything;
- Sunny day.
- We seal the window with cardboard so that the light does not come from the street.
- In the center we make an even hole (for a room 3 meters deep, the hole should be about 7-8 mm).
- When your eyes get used to the darkness, an inverted street will be found on the walls of the room! The most visible effect will be on a bright sunny day.
- Now the resulting can be shot on the camera at a slow shutter speed. A shutter speed of 10-30 seconds will do.