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|home Investments Books Insurance and Investment Management - V. Fedorenko|
Insurance and Investment Management - V. Fedorenko
Price - the price of the item, the item, the product, the number of pennies, which characterize the item. When you get involved, what’s worth is when you suspend the necessary costs of selling and selling a product. It is possible to submit the following form to the wiggle:
de WТ, WГ - the variety of goods and pennies.
In other words, the price is the form of the appearance of the card (the new card) when exchanging a product, but not on the basis of the goods, but only on the penny (gold, it’s usually a penny sign, it’s necessary to replace it). All prices are lower than average. For such a price move, lay down the first and second official statements: the cost of the product and the sale of goods, which means that the card is worth nothing. If there is a price to look at a particular market, then they are called officials, as a rule of authority (goods), special offers, and consumer goods for that.
Cynics, whisking their sukupnіst, do not become only individual, special, but the first slurry, social category. It’s okay to regulate how much you buy and sell goods to your customers, so as to process everything as a whole, including suspension of goods, distribution of goods, exchange of goods, provision of services. Here, at once, we learn the price of yakalniy, єdiniy, tsilіsniy Tsinovy mehanizm.
The price of the new mechanism is two different modular parts. From one side, the price, look, structure, dynamics of the winter, and from the third - the resolution of the way, the rules for establishing, formulating the new prices and winter time. Valuation є an active part of a new mechanism, which is the sign of a rozmir price. Thus, the price and value of becoming the One-Stop Mechanism.
Under the guiding understandings of “price”, you can rely on a respectable complex of economical people to understand how to enter into one synthetic economic category. With the single name "price" is the nameless view, which may be recognized by the designation, the sphere of recognition and the way of formulating it.
Shchob to gain a constructive understanding about value creation, let’s take a look at how to get into the form of views in the minds of non-market and market economy. For non-market economy, characteristic types of prices, distribution, wholesale and procurement.
Razdrobnymi accepted the price, for such comrades are sold in the so-called retail sale, so that in the minds of the sale of individual purchases with a seemingly small liability for skin sale. For gifts, the comrade of the people living in the population of the world - for enterprises, organizations, cooperatives - is soundly realized.
They are called wholesale prices, for such products are realized great parties in the minds of the so-called wholesale retail and wholesale operations, as well as during the sale of real products through specialized retail stores and wholesale sales comrade in bulk. The wholesale price, as a rule, is lower for the distribution for the purchase of vitamins and the sale of business organizations.
Immediately with wholesale from the planned economy, purchase prices, for other powers, trade and purchase organizations, purchase products from the Czech Republic and Ukraine.
The principle of the planned method of appreciating the mastery of the drive: to achieve simple; price відбиває real vitrati virobnitstva; prices are established from above by special powerful organizations. Wholesale price, for some kind of product-selling-selling products, more expensive vitamins and accessories, to a certain plus-and-drop margin. Rozdrіbna price for individualnogo spozhivacha vstanovlyaetsya as a wholesaler plus vitrati і a side of trade organizations, including transport vitrati.
However, in practice, the centralized economy is such a scheme of short-maturity. The main of them is harsh from the non-nature of nature of planning and directive approval. Reach at that time, the non-government role of the social and budgetary regulator of the economy was paid for the price. The disorder of wholesale prices, insignificantly wholesale low prices for syringes was shattered by unprofitable prices, such as state sponsorship, vugilnaya, and dalty naftova promislovіst. The result was a view of a large subsidy from the sovereign budget, which led to the imbalance of the economy of the goluzeys of the people of the state.
Recruitment of the highest prices for the same type of product in the highest regions of the country zoom in the need for vikoristany svitovyh prices. For the sake of commencement, during the singing period, organizations are engaged in international trade, but the average price for comrades has been established in the rest of the country and regions. The socialist economy and the prices have become stained obmezhenno. With the transition to the market economy and the inclusion of Ukraine, we will have the system of the role of public relations in Ukraine.
The reappearance of different forms of trade in the zoom-in category has increased in the group up to the latest in the sectors of the economy and trade. So, there are different prices of state, cooperative, community, auctions, prices of the collective market. The transition period of the sovereign economy to the market due to the manifest deficit of goods in the event of a return on the same price is not the least. The singing world won є in the be-yakіy kraiі zі zmіshanyoy ekonomіkoy.
Close to the price for the economy and the designated tariffs for transport services and sound, for that and for communal services, as well as for design, work and installation robots.
The prices agreed upon by the contract please treat the seller of goods, products, work and trade organization, sales people - fill out the request by the assistant and the Robot, - call them agreements.
Please note that in no way shall we extend the laws of the former sovereign acts and other documents, minds, marriage, like me, to mutually agree between the seller and the buyer, to make amends to offer and offer. For non-economic economics to such prices, there were only the prices of the collective and the small markets and the cooperative prices, the price was not imposed on them. With the transition to the market economy, the range of the basic market prices is expanding. This process is called a liberal price.
Prices and tariffs are attached to special documents - price lists. The values indicated in these documents are called price lists. In the minds of the sovereign price list price list (price tag), the main basic document is the price document. In the minds of the market economy, the price list is a hundred-document-information document.
More clearly presented mechanism of appreciation in the minds of the market economy. The seller, who represents the interests of the virobnik goods and the goods, the price, the price and the vitality and the bazannya to gain a great deal. Buyer, right now, cherish the "codice" of the way and the bazhanny to lower the vitrati on a unit of the cinnamon effect, to Prague the lower price. There is a great deal of competition among virobiologists. Virobniku and the seller to compete with them and drink, which is the last thing to do.
In a folding bag-factor process, the act of buying and selling is at a mutually acceptable price, if the price is set on the basis of viral payment and proposition for the benefit of both parties. They call such a price marketable, and, as a rule, in a contract, it is called contractual. However, such a price may be but established in the minds of the market; yakshko yogo dumb, then dumb can not be but an active value. Rinkove prices can be increased, if there is a market, there are plenty of goods, sellers will compete in the sale of goods and water є bagato purchases of goods. Such a market is called ideal.
Typical buying behavior in such minds is characterized by crooked eating, which is to lay down the type of consumer demand and the appearance of the value in the period values. Buyer You can buy more product, what is the lowest price, because here it is possible to wrap up in proportion to the amount of deposits and the price for the product. Rozmіr popitu - all the goods are available, but you can buy the right products for sale (month, year) for the whole price of the goods.
It’s popit - there is a lot of goods, I want to buy it voluntarily by extending the song period, I have the whole product. As a rule, for the most recent minds, there is a price for the product, that is, less of it, and more. At the end of the first half of the season there is a behavior of the mass of people living: for a fixed living budget, the oath of selling the song is lower, we can see the price of the goods.
Mathematically, the population of goods is described by a crooked population P = f (d), de R - price is one product; d - kіlkіst one item, schо є buy the sale of the singing period. The butt of such functions is shown in Fig. 7.3.
Fig 7.3. Funktsionalnaya zalezhnіst popit vіd price goods
In fig. 7.3 crooked pop DD vіdbivaє stale price of goods vіd yogo kіlkostі, schcho buy for a song price for a day per hour. The biggest value for qb is the higher price, and the lower value for qa is the higher price, for the lesser minds, the higher the cost of the change.
Існує principledvіdmіnnіst mіzh with understandings zmіni popiti vіd prices і zmіni most of the most yaky yogo zalestnosti vіd price. If it is said that when changing the price of goods to Ra to R, an oath to pay more or less to qb to qb, we characterize the point of consumption as a result of crooked food DD.
If we have a little bit of love, we will drink on singing goods, move on, respect for ourselves, and if we have cutaneous value, R will grow up. In the event of an increased consumption of goods, the price is q'a> qa, and price of the goods is q'b> qb.
The behavior of the market seller is characterized by a curve of proposition. I want to sell the goods for the market, then I’ll get a better deal, and then I will sell the goods, and the goods will be better.
I want to buy and sell, I have a reaction to a change (a change), I don’t have to buy and sell, I don’t have to fix it, I have to say that I have to change it. Graphically, such is the price and accuracy of the curves of distribution and proposition (Fig. 7.4). Peretin is crookedly proposed to a product SS із a crooked yogo popit DD visnacha rivnovazhnu rinkova price of the product.
So, it’s important that the price rink is not set up at once, but after a series of tests with the seller and the seller, as a result of the bargaining.
It is voiced to the same extent, when there are crooked drinks and propositions at randomly singing the singing hour (month, rick). You’ll stink at the clock. Naychastishe zmіshchuetsya ugor crooked drank, scho lead up to the increase of market prices, and at the time of ten-year tendency - up to inflation.
Although I don’t want to see the price tag behind the rosunky formulas, however, I don’t forbid the front link price tag based on the price model. For the sake of need, it’s important for the seller and buyer, the lawyer and the seller to go through the process of singing, to change their minds, to turn around in the middle of their views, their future prices. For virobnik products, goods, services, the forefront of rozrahunkova price is needed at the stage of the project, bathing, the price of products, so that you don’t have to bank during the implementation. Thus, the need for forecasting, rozrahunkovyh prices. And for third-party visitor requirements, models are needed, submitted to methods and formulas. One of the most common practical models - the price for the costs (vitrates) of the virobnitz. Згідно з цією модлю ціна
C = C + P + H,
de S - product sharing; P - normative, but rosrahunkovy, aide; N - allowances (books) to price.
Fig. 7.4. Crooked food and nutrition
Prior to entering the site, you must see the vitrate for viral products (products, work, services), which will be viral.
The order of the meeting when formulating the price for the vitrates is more important than establishing a profit. A side note is that there’s a groovy twist of the cost of an additional product, but it's a grocer's allowance (sales) of products, I have to earn a lot of money because I’m new to the product, I’m going to sell it for sale.
If the price is forecasted, it is easy to transfer the real income, the goods are not sold. Tom zasosovyyut method regulatory-roshrahunkovoy sidetrack. For the sake of victory, there is such a category, as a profitability, but an integrated way.
In the economic practice of Ukraine, the income was insured up to their own products, to the main main funds, to their salaries, or to the total pay-as-you-go amortization fund. Z positsі rozrahunku price is better to look at the values of profitability in the view of the company for a little more to the point.
The standard of profitability - the establishment of financial regulation by the authorities, as well as suspension of the average, and most often the marginal profitability. Since the normative value of profitability is in norm, the normative margin at the warehouse is simple for the many profitability of income (100 and 100%, the profitability is in the range).
In the economy of Ukraine, a profitability margin of 10% is considered acceptable, 20% is normal, 30% is high. As a rule, the profitability of the business is reckoned for prices on all the products that are visible to them, I re-distribute 30%, and all of the time for gaining the additional ownership of the business. At the second time, you can get a little better, but you will get to the budget.
I want to see the key to the theory of corroboration, to thoroughly measure the parameters of the understanding, in the minds of the price of the goods before the goods. Parametric value is as follows:
C = Tsbaz + Ts1P1 + Ts2P2 + ...,
de Tsbaz - the price of the basic sight of the singing kind of product; Ts1 - the price of single products; P1 - the parameter is available in the base products.
If you recognize the price of the product for the parametric method, vibrate the base zrazok, so that it is analogous to the whole kind of product, the price is the same kind. We can establish the stability of the authorities, the characteristics, the signs, for the most important products (the corroded oath and the weight, the need, the resource, the comfort, the comfort). The numerical value of skin and skin characteristics is called the parameter of viscosity.
Equally, the parameters of assessed products with an analogue (baseline), z'yasovєmo, how much they want to reflect on the fact that serpents can be positive, so negative.
1. Viznazhennya pіdprimstva market type.
2. Indicators of financial stability of products of the market type.
3. Najvivlivshi officials, scho vplyyut on financial management for the market economy.
4. See pidprimnitsky rizika in the minds of the market.
5. Understanding the strategic management of enterprises.
6. The main functions of the financial manager.
7. Commerce and financial support.
8. The mechanism of market value.
9. Profitability of enterprises.