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Economic theory

Below is a list of materials published in the section "Economic Theory":

  1. Economic Relations. Introduction to economic theory.
  2. Economic systems. The main stages of the development of economic theory
  3. Types of economic systems
  4. Good, needs, resources. Outdoor effects are also public goods.
  5. Functions of the empire in a market economy. Outdoor effects are also public goods.
  6. Individual also market demand: factors affecting own market demand
  7. The law of demand. Factors of change in demand. Demand elasticity

Economic Relations. Introduction to economic theory.

In the basis of the economics of human beings, the economic inter- ests, which compel them to operate with them or in other ways. IN THE RESULTS OF PERSONNEL, people argue about product development problems, denial, concessions, carriage requests (products are also usable), companies who are in troublemakers, and those who have troubled


Let us consider the economy of the economy as nayki:

1. Ecological relationships. They can exist two types:
- the relations of participation, connected with it, the property of the main product of the product, and also the results of the production;
- The relationship of the organization and the handling of their activities.

Scientists differ in their free economic system, the com- pany, the alternate, the mixed, and the traditional eco- nomic.


At the present time, there is a multitude of determinations of the environmental system. Po mneniyu P. Samyelcona "Ekonomicheckaya teopiya - IT nayka o tom, kak people also obschectvo vybipayut cpocob icpolzovaniya defitsitnyx pecypcov chtoby ppoizvecti paznoobpaznye tovapy also pacppedelit THEIR ceychac in bydyschem for potpebleniya pazlichnyx individov also gpypp obschectva".

At the present stage of the analysis of the problems of the theo- retical, also, to the practical economics of the usual followers:

1. Makpoekonomika - izychaet fynktsionipovanie ekonomiki ctpany in tselom, agpegipovannoe povedenie ekonomicheckix cybektov c tochki zpeniya obecpecheniya yctoychivogo ekonomicheckogo pocta, polnoy zanyatocti pecypcov, minimizatsii ypovnya inflation gocydapctvennoe pegylipovanie ekonomiki.

2. Mikroekonokomnika - is considering the detriment of the individual capacity of the environmental facilities (firms, partnerships) as well as they take on the environment of the search; FUNCTIONING OF INDIVIDUAL MARKETS; positioning of prices on confidential goods also services; the formation of general economic equilibrium with microeconomic positioning.

The similar division is borne by the spiritual character, as many sections, those enter into both the above mentioned divisions.

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Vo vcyakoy nayke icpolzyyutcya oppedelennye metody iccledovaniya, kotopye podpazdelyayutcya nA vceobschie (filocofckie) voopyzhayuschie vce oblacti poznaniya (nappimep, metafizichecky also dialektichecky metody) obschenaychnye - ictopichecky, logichecky, also matematichecky et al. also special - for the sake of every need.

Metaphysics examines all manifestations of the phenomenon, in a state of incidence, inconsistency. Takoy podxod to izycheniyu ekonomiki dopyckaetcya in tex clychayax, kogda ppixoditcya tschatelno analizipovat kakoy verily element cictemy in otdelnocti also vyyacnyat vnytpennyuyu ctpyktypy xozyayctvennyx otnosheny, ne ppinimaya in pacchet lyubye Change The THEIR.

ECONOMIC AREA COMPLETE REPRESENTATIVE ACTIVITIES, AREA OUT OF OWN CHRONTLES, CLEANSHIPS, CLEARS, OUTPUTS, OUTPUTS, OUTPUTS, OUTPUTS The dialectic method reflects not only the contradiction, but also the dissipation of the contradiction. This makes it possible in practice to unite, as it were, unconnected aspects. Therefore, various farms that make it difficult to comprehend the result of the agglomerate activity.

Important role in the study of economics play common methods. The natural method makes it possible for the systems to follow follow-up systems to follow their natural development. This approach also contributes to the clear visibility of the entire performance of each system at its different historical development.

The logical method makes it possible to take into account the laws of the correct thinking process. This serves as the undisputable outcome of the validity of the outcomes of the outputs. The use of this method helps to increase the number of related connections in the economy.

The method of analysis also involves the synthesis of a phenomenon as in the case of the corresponding parts ( analysis ), as well as in the whole ( with intez ). The analysis of the synthesis also results in a complex path to the study of complex environmental phenomena.

The methods of the indi- cation and deduction are based on the interactions, which are of concern to the general community, and also from the general to the particulars.

The comprehension of the quality of the tacit nauses of the tacit nauses of the tombstones of the tombstones of the tombstones of the tombstones

To the specific methods are as follows:
- method of graphic images;
- the method of the PARAMETER ANALYSIS;
- Completion of "with the help of equal conditions";
- eco-mathematical modeling.

All of the troublesome hardware means that the patients have access to the symptoms of the system.

Economic systems. The main stages of the development of economic theory

Classic political economy is an economic issue of the end of the 18th century, the beginning of the 19th century, and it was a detachment of the detachment of the troubled center.

The characteristic features of the classic political environment can be compared with the following:
- Classical political economy based on the study of the complex cost control system;
- The main principle - "laissez faire" ("pretend things to move their way"), i.e. total lack of space in the environment of the economy. In this case, the “invisible pyka” market will ensure optimal differentiation of transactivities;
- the subject of the study is in the core of the production sphere;
- the value of the product is limited to the costs impacted by its product;
- the man is seen only as an "eco man", who is struggling to get better, to improve his own health. Property rights are not taken into consideration at all;
- Efficiency of the workplace in terms of wages and salaries above the unit.

This means that any increase in the earning pay of the people of the world is a sign of hysterics of working power, and any reduction of the payable of the payables of a payboard is to be reduced by a number of cleanliness.
- the objective of the capital is to maximize profitability;
- the main factor of increasing the intensity is the accumulation of capital;
- the economic value is achieved by the production of the product in the field of the material production;
- money - oprede, with the benefit of trade in goods.

At the sources of the classic political economy are the English. W. Petit is also a Frenchman. P. Byagilber.

The development of the classic schoolchildren A. Smith. Following A. Smith: D. Ricardo also T. Maltus, J. B. She also F. Bastia.


In the basis of A. Smith’s economic views lies the following idea: the products of the material production are the most profitable; a great deal lately:
- from the share of the occupational gear;
- proizvoditelnost trypda.

The main factor of increasing the level of production is the separation of the test, or discrimination.

The principle of full-fledged volatility in the economy of the country - "laissez faire" - is the treasure of the Creator. The cardiovascular control of the unnatural upon the emergence of the theme of the whole blessed.

David Ricardo (1772–1823) - economics epoxy of the industrial revolution.

The basic conditions of the methodology of the study of D. Ricardo:
- the system of political ex- periment of the system as a unit imposed by the law of cost;
- the application of effective economic law enforcement, i. E. zakonovov, not zapischaschik from the human;
- to the end of the day of the
- D. Ricardo is anxious to reveal congestions, excludible phenomena, i.e. the impact of the acces- sive method.

The main task of the political economy, D. Ricardo, saw the lawmakers, who govern the project between the sites.

Mazhinalizm (marginale - c. "Supplementary") - the direction of the economic theory of the end of XIX century.

The underlying magencies are following:
- use of specific values ​​as an instrument for analyzing changes in environmental events;
- the basic study is the conduct of separate companies and the understanding of the solvents of the payee;
- the scrutiny of the differential determination of the surges as well as the oppression of the optimal use of these processes;
- The analysis of the analysis of the stability of the economy is not only macroeconomic, but also microscopic;
- The widespread use of mathematical methods for optimizing the optimal solutions of statistical problems;
- gedonism, that is life of life.

Merit Clerk

F. Hayek - the pioneer of the non-liberal economic control, therefore, he was the secretary of the market economy. The market, according to him, is based on an economic order. Therefore, the market must exist on the contrary to the co-operation of the system for the sake of giving specific results.

Monetapizm - ekonomicheckaya teopiya (zapodilac 60-e gody XX veka) ocnovannaya nA oppedelyayuschey poli denezhnoy maccy, naxodyascheycya in obpaschenii, a takzhe nA ocyschectvlenii politiki ctabilizatsii ekonomiki, ee fynktsionipovaniya also pazvitiya.

The theory of monopoly of money on a number of money theories is also characterized by the following conditions:
- the main regulator of the general life is the low emission;
- The number of money in the vehicle is determined automatically;
- the speed of money transfer is fixed;
- money emission is stable;
- the change in the amount of money gives a single effect as well as the cost effect of all the products;
- the possibility of the development of the money sector on the real repository process is excluded;
- as a result of the change of the money on the system, the process is also a consequence of this, it can also lead to a change in the hands of the children, this can be avoided.

Possession of the papaver Monetary concepts of the basis of the basic money-credit policy in the quality of the control of the cardiovascular regulation.

Types of economic systems


1) high rates of eco- nomic growth as well as eco- nomic pressure of accumulation;
2) the provision of full employment to difficult citizens;
3) reducing inflation and maintaining a stable level of prices;
4) the achievement of economic efficiency in the promotion of the activities of the production;
5) fair distribution of documents;
6) the installation of also the maintenance of economic freedom for the sake of the companies and households;
7) a reasonable adjustment of the payload balance also of a secured debt.

This is not the only complete list of counterparts, the priorities of which can be changed in accordance with this type of environmental systems. In the history of the civilization of a plethora of types of unforgettable aboriginal systems, distraught of the displaced natural forces, the proliferation of displaced natural resources, and the proliferation of displaced natural resources. SUMMARY DISCUSSION OF THESE SYSTEMS, ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION IS THERE ISSUE OF CORRECT TYPES. Seeing two of the two most active: a free market (a “clean” market) is also adjacent (centrally-controlled), and it is also a short-term market.

In the economy of the free market, the state of the cardiovascular system does not play any role in the distribution of peecepsov. Completions on the basis of the distribution of the remittances are also made by the hometowns also by the partial enterprises (firms) at the same time as the enterprises of the market. The values ​​of the reserves under the pressure of the conflict are also the main instrument of the deficit or an excess of excess of fuel, or an excess of displacement per year. The prices in the economy of a free-market market are not only conducive to what is produced, but also for the sake of it.

COMPLETE SOLUTION OF ECONOMY OF FREELESS MARKET - Co - ordinated economy. In conjunction with the co-ordination of the solution of production, the dispute is also taken up by the city. He dispatches pec- tops with the forces of the ops, he reposes the exact summit of production, he also refines the work of the concession of the concession of the concession o

The next type of eco- nomic systems was the name of the “mixed” economy .

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The environmental policy of the policy maker has a disparate set of targets, as well, in particular, from which either the product or the social group is displaced. Napoleon is the place Eco-policy is generated in two main directions - this is a monetary-budget (physical) policy as well as a credit-and-money policy.

A fiscal policymaker can exist stimulating (escaping), which is carried out in an environmental downturn or a copy; also supportive, as one of the wayside inflation. In the first instance, the law reduces the tax [1] and also increases the cardiac sweeps, thus improving the crumple. In the second case, but, as a rule, it is necessary to increase the taxes and to reduce the accumulation of spare parts. Changing the patterns of equity and transferring funds is also a significant part of the pattern of the system, affecting the system, affecting the environment, affecting the environmental impact of environmental impact on the economy.

The above-mentioned type of financial policy is a function of the law enforcement process, etc. It is also known as a discretionary fiscal policy.

In the wake of the variety of markets, the eco- nomic market outlines four main types of market:
1) market of advanced market;
2) the market for a monopoly market;
3) the market of oligopolies;
4) the market of clean monopoly.

On the first type of market, the concentration of the most powerful is also the level of the prices of the most low, because the sales of thousands are also millions. On the fourth, the trademark is minimal, since the market is operated only by one person. There are types of markets that are replaced by a succession of a strength of a strategy at the turn of the first time, in the first place, in the second place, another one, the same thing, the program is the same as the one who is on the way to the pro- cection, the second, and the other, to the same thing, to the subject of the program, the pro- temper is the same. In the following, the models of determining the prices of the products on each type of market are also considered in detail. EFFECTIVELY, it is possible to make a conclusion that the forces of the conference are more directly proportional to the number of companies operating in the market. But this conclusion is only one of many. Attention should also be paid to the keynote factors, which are strengthened or weakened.

Each market has a unique pattern, but its variations in all markets are of much interest to the general public. In general, the market is a market of five listed below forces (Fig.3.1):
1) Contrast between the contributors of the individual aircrafts;
2) attempts of the comrades from other districts of the first-time submersion to bathe their replacement submersibles;
3) the threat of entry into the field of new firms;
4) the market power is also controlled by the distributors of the rescue service provider;
5) Market power is also controlled by means of transactions on the part of the products of the product.

Model of the five powers of the Pöterpit

Model of five strengths of the configuration (on the Pateri)

This model is the most widely used method for analyzing a configuration.

Good, needs, resources. Outdoor effects are also public goods.

The ultimate goal of the functional of any environmental system is to satisfy the needs of the community as well. For the sake of compliance with the needs of the needs of the needs of environmental protection, development issues are connected. Solutions to these problems are based on two functional environmental services:
- the societal capacity is unlimited;
- The partnerships of the community, which are unavailable for the sake of production of goods and services, are limited or worn.

The marked controversy is resolved by means of a choice.

Competence is the need for something else, which is not necessary to maintain vitality, personal development, and also for the whole community.

The habits are divided into the primary, repetitive, vital and impaired needs of the human body (clothes, food, housing), also in the rest of the world. For material requirements, services that are associated with the products are suitable for our own needs. The parties, with the help of those who are satisfied with the demands, are called . Some of the logos are in the unloading of the community in an unlimited number (for example, air), others - in the limited. The followings are economic logs.

Under the name of the oceans blag. Material peccps: earth - all eclipsed pets; capital - all produced by the industry, used in the production of goods by the merchants and their consortium. Human pecicpies: hard - all physical and deceased abilities that are used in the blessed way; Preventive capabilities are a special kind of human activity that is incapacitated by the most efficient use of all productive factors.

IMPLEMENTATION OF SPECIFICATIONS FROM APPLICABILITIES, CONFIRMATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFICATIONS Ppoblema effektivnocti - ocnovnaya ppoblema ekonomicheckoy teopii, kotopaya iccledyet astray nailychshego icpolzovaniya or ppimeneniya ogpanichennyx pecypcov, c tem, chtoby doctich makcimalno vozmozhnogo ydovletvopeniya bezgpanichnyx potpebnoctey obschectva. In each of these times, the number of all the respondents represent a fixed value. The use of all practical, in particular, the pre- viously, the re-

Functions of the empire in a market economy. Outdoor effects are also public goods.

Necessary, shall vozdeyctviya gocydapctva nA ekonomicheckyyu cfepy also ctepen etogo vozdeyctviya zavicyat From chpezvychayno bolshogo kolichectva faktopov: HOW From coctoyaniya pynochnoy ekonomiki in tselom, also tak From ctpategii gocydapctvennogo ekonomicheckogo pazvitiya. The underlying causes of a market breakdown are also that of a motorized joint is followed by the following:

1. Monopoly power . Particularly effective disparity in the arrangement also can occur only on the market of the perfected market. Similarly, the markets are similarly distant from each other. In connection with this need to look at the problem of monopoly, it is also possible to select an adequate reparation of the city's cardiovascular system.

2. EXPERIENCES AREAHEADS AHEADLANDS. they are neither the provider nor the payers.

EXTERNAL EFFECTS CAN BE PRODUCED AS PERFORMED BY, AS WELL AS WRINKED. In this case, the external effects can exist as exemplary, as well as positive. The Panther is the best in the world. For example, in the market of medical medicaments, it is worn from the grip. In this case, only those who killed this service will win, but also other people, who are both in total and have a few children who have lost a lot of money. Puerh upkah uh ia ia iaa For example, the petrochemical complex will charge in the city, in the result the main material losses (on the surface) of its inhabitants will also be affected by it. The situation with the production of one enterprise leads to a reduction in the level of need of many individuals.

Fundamental methods of controlling the extrinsic external effects are as follows:
- administrative - legal control;
- Creation of simulations for the sake of limiting undesirable activities (tax Pigy, sibsidii, compensation for the resulting cause, etc.). Tax Pigy is set on each unit of production that is produced by the agent, producing a decorative external effect. For the sake of comprehension, for the sake of comprehension Tehomera
- coniferous intercourse of the hemocytosis;
- internalization of the external effect, i. E. the reversal of external costs in private.

3. General publicity. Most economic rewards are frequent. They are sought by private individuals as well as by the general public. However, there is also a lot of information on the inhabitants of the region. The public good has the following properties:
- incompatible - it is impossible to deprive the consuming person of this good, even if his desire is in order;
- Failure - the individual can not choose the volume of consumption of the log;
- incompetence - with the increase in the number of survivors of the succession of the needs of each of them.

If it is one of them who is in the hands of all three of them, it is a common communion. We note that the general publicity of the intercourse is small. Consumers make profit from the general public blamelessly vandalized, they pay for it or not. Podobnoe povedenie potpebitelya polychilo nazvanie ppoblemy bezbiletnika: yclovie, cvyazannoe c neicklyuchaemoctyu blaga, kogda individual patsionalno ytaivaet cvoe zhelanie platit obschectvennoe za blago, ozhidaya polychat vygody bez ee oplaty.

4. The asymmetry of the information. Accomplishment of the efficiency of the infecting the perception of the replica of the spontaneous of the labor of the parties of the chastan counts of the other Information about the quality of the trademark of the product, which is why the whole distributor knows about the characteristics of a great lot more than that, which is much better than the rest. A certain positive attitude in the sphere of information is a part of a cadre of a cognitive tactile clues, independent of an ex- pectorate of a volunteer, an open source of information, an open source, an open source, an open intelligence But this is also often not sufficient. The main cause of the displacement of unwanted external assets should be taken by the city itself. It is foreseeable that this is a lawsuit of law enforcement: the prosecution of a traffic license is subject to legal disputes also legal entities.

Individual also market demand: factors affecting own market demand

The individual questionnaire is the one that is provided to the attendees.

Breeding of individual question is the result of the product (product), which the perpetrators are willing to pay for their performance at a given price.

Geometpicheckaya fopma kpivoy (otpitsatelny naklon) otpazhaet obpatnyyu zavicimoct obema cppoca (Q) also tseny (P), a takzhe cnizhayuscheycya ppedelnoy poleznocti kazhdoy dopolnitelnoy edinitsy pokypaemogo tovapa chto obyacnyaet padenie ego tseny (pic.6.1).

The individual benefits are: the price of the product, the perception of the consumer, the number of the volunteers, its social level, the system of price and system, the system of price and power, the system of the price system, the social system, the system of price system, the price system, the system of price, the system of the price system.


Pic 6.1. Curvature

The displacement in terms of demand (D) shows how the change in price (P) affects the change in supply volume (Q). At the same time, the situation with the curve D is still, ie. no change was made.

The performance of the market binds to the analysis of the situation, in which many volunteers are also involved in the workplace.

The comprehension of a questionnaire on a certain vehicle reflects the behavior of the vehicle. The volume of the market for this problem is due to the pattern of a number of objects that occur in the form of a pattern from a predetermined pattern.

On the market question show the impact of: the price of the product, the products of the beneficiaries, the cleanliness of the product, the testimonies of the smokers.

Bidding of the market gives rise to the volume of the hell of the crooks, and at any price, also the numbers of the bored of the whole of the stockpiles of the stock of the people, the numbers of the

Individual (a) also market (b)

Pic 6.2. Individual (a) also market (b)

She mozhet exist poctpoena curves are available from individyalnogo cppoca (Po gopizontali) nA danny ppodykt pytem clozheniya ego kolichectv (Q d12 + Q d + Q d3) nA kotopye date every pokypatel ppedyavlyaet cppoc VARIATIONS kazhdoy vozmozhnoy tsene edinitsy ppodykta nA. As well as bred individual concession, besides the market concession will have a beautiful tilt.

The law of demand. Factors of change in demand. Demand elasticity

The request also reflects the possibility of gaining a product at a specific price. In it lies the territory of the oceans of

Curve (D) shows how the numbers of the trademarks (Q) can be used at a reasonable rate at different price levels. Bound D Reconciliation of the law of security : the above price (P) is on a displacement with equal conditions, the same as the displacement of the displaced (also by the displacement of the displaced), the less the displaced.

Owing to the D Curve:
1) staying;
2) the angular tangency is angular;
3) reflects the backward dependence between P and Q.

The question of the effects of the priceless effects of the factors. This feature can exist in a form.

The impact of the effects of stockpiles also on impaired factors on demand

where P a - price of this product;
P n - the price of substitute products;
P m - price for complementary products;
w I - doped oxides;
M - checks are also received by the buyer.

Izmenenie tseny dannogo tovapa (P), VARIATIONS ppochix pavnyx ycloviyax (netsenovye faktopy neizmenny) vliyaet nA velichiny cppoca (verily kolichectvo tovapa, kotopoe potpebitel gotov ppiobpecti in danny moment vpemeni, VARIATIONS dannyx ycloviyax) chto gpafichecki vypazhaetcya in dvizhenii vdol kpivoy cppoca. To reduce the price from P 1 to P 2 , see Q D from Q 1 to Q 2 (from V.1 to V.2 in Fig. D) (Fig. 7.1).

A change in the amount of compensation also functions of the argument

Pic 7.1. A change in the amount of compensation also functions of the argument

Izmenenie netsenovyx faktopov (P n, P m, I , M), VARIATIONS neizmennocti tseny dannogo tovapa, vliyaet nA izmenenie cppoca (fynktsii cppoca) chto gpafichecki vypazhaetcya cmescheniem kpivoy D (pic. 7.1). So at your house the price of P 1 , but with the help of the people of the village, the children of Algeria are happy to help you in the evening, but they are happy to help you in order to learn more

Asks for different reasons for changing the factors that determine it. The degree of compliance with the need to change the keys on the keyboard (the price of the car, the subscriber's pay, the prices of the car-replacements are also complementary to those of the subscriber ;

I. The ratio of the elasticity of the center of the price (direct elasticity of the core) shows, as much as the volume of the net (DQ D ) changes when the price (DP) is changed by the value of the frequency of the motherboard (DQ D ).

The coefficient of efficiency with respect to price (direct elasticity of resistance) .

The coefficient E P (D) is always impersonal, as well as at the same time as the right P and Q is changed in a counterpropagating direction.

The reliability of the price depends on:
a) From the standpoint of inactivity (it is more, that is, less electric);
b) the number of substitution vehicles (the more, the more potential it is to replace the substitute, i.e., the above);
c) factor of time (which is more, and more convenient for a user to stop changing the price, that is, more efficient).

In the case of these factors, there are:

1. The ineffective demand (E P (D) <1) is a market situation, with a change in price of 1% causing an inappropriate change of volume (Q D ) (Fig. 7.2, a).

2. The electrical resistance (E P (D)> 1) - a market situation, with a change of P to 1% (DP = 1%) causes a significant change in Q D (Fig. 7.2, b).

Different charts for different price points

Different charts for different price points

Pic 7.2. Different charts for different price points

3. The question of the unit efficiency ( EP (D) = 1) is a market situation, with which a change of price of 1% causes a 1% change of Q D (P.2.2, c).

4. Absolutely inert elasticity, which means a compulsory autotransmitter volume of the displacement to change the price E P (D) = 0): the change of P in 1% also has no effect of a change in a change of a result of a change by a factor of 1%, and a change is also affected by a change of a response by a factor of 1%.

5. Absolute electrical compatibility, meaning the absolute quality of Q D to the smallest change of P (E P (D) = ): an inadvertent P value causes the Q D to drop to zero, and a negligible decrease of P to the increase in Q D up to the scaling (curved D н on figure 7.2, in).

Ii. The coefficient of efficiency with respect to pressure is shown by how much the volume of supply (DI D ) changes by changing the consumption of solvent (DI) by 1%.


In connection with the connection between Q D and also I (directly also inverse), the coefficient E I (D) may exist positively as well:

1) E I (D)> 0 means that the growth of I results in a Q Q (the quality of the product: meat, milk) (curved D 1 on figure 7.3).

2) E I (D) <0 means that the growth of I causes a reduction of Q D (products of lower category, for example, replacement of oil), (curved D 2 on pc.7.3).

3) E I (D)> 1 means that the value of Q D Increases I increase by 1% (products of a glass, compare to other forms of equipment under pressure) - K 3 .

Variants of free play

Pic 7.3. Variants of free play

Iii. The coefficient of permissibility of the resistance is indicated by how much the volume of the displacement on the market is changed (Q DA ) when changing the price of another trademark (P B ):

The efficiency coefficient of the contrast is shown by .

The sign of the coefficient E PB (D A ) depends on the connection between the goods:

- if the products are being replaced (oil / magparin), to E PB (D A ) (+), it is shown that with the P system on the volume, but it doesn’t have to (the volume of the tank).

- If the products are repaid (photoapparator / gadget windows), then E PB (D A ) (-) proves that with a speed P on a par In addition, on the other hand, on the other hand, on the PC

Anchors for substitutions are also displaced by

Pic 7.4. Anchors for substitutions are also displaced by