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Economic theory


Below is a list of materials published in the section "Economic theory":

  1. Economic relations. Introduction to economic theory.
  2. Economic systems. The main stages in the development of economic theory
  3. Types of economic systems
  4. Good, needs, resources. Outdoor effects are also public goods
  5. Functions of the empire in a market economy. Outdoor effects are also public goods
  6. Individual also market demand: factors that affect their own market demand
  7. The law of demand. Factors of demand change. Elasticity of demand





Economic relations. Introduction to economic theory.

In the forefront of the economy, the peo- ple of people are also engaged in economic interests that are compelled to act on them either in a different way. In pezyltaat between people, there are differences on the origin of production, exchange, distribution, consumption of goods (goods, too,), which are called eco- nomic relations .

ECONOMICS - nayka o patsionnalnom povedenie people in the process of production, distribution, consumption in the world of limited pecycles, which may have a multifarious name.

Predmotom pacmotrementiya ekonomichekoy tepeyi as nayki are:

1. ECONOMIC REASONS. They can exist two types:
- the presence of co-existence, linked to the theme, who also have the basic characteristics of production, as well as the effects of production;
- the location of the facility is also managed by an economic entity.

They distinguish between the eco- nomic system, the comedian, the transcendent, the conservative, as well as the traditional economy.

2. Rational, effective use of pecypco in cases of deter- mination of specific tasks.

In the present time, the potentialities of the economic crisis are implicated. Po mneniyu P. Samyelcona "Ekonomicheckaya teopiya - IT nayka o tom, kak people also obschectvo vybipayut cpocob icpolzovaniya defitsitnyx pecypcov chtoby ppoizvecti paznoobpaznye tovapy also pacppedelit THEIR ceychac in bydyschem for potpebleniya pazlichnyx individov also gpypp obschectva".

At the same time, the analysis of the problem of the toxic and also of the traditional economy usually takes place in the following sub-sections:

1. Makpoekonomika - izychaet fynktsionipovanie ekonomiki ctpany in tselom, agpegipovannoe povedenie ekonomicheckix cybektov c tochki zpeniya obecpecheniya yctoychivogo ekonomicheckogo pocta, polnoy zanyatocti pecypcov, minimizatsii ypovnya inflation gocydapctvennoe pegylipovanie ekonomiki.

2. Mikroekonomika - raises the significance of certain self-sufficient economic entities (firms, housesmen) also accept them economic solutions; the functioning of certain markets; the mechanism of the establishment of prices for concurrent goods is also a matter of price; the formation of a general economic equilibrium with microeconomic positions.

A similar division has a formal character, as many places, themes enter into the above-mentioned sections.

In this way, the preeminent of the economic standard is the effective use of small peaches in the production of goods, too, for the sake of the absolute satisfaction of the disintegration of the disadvan- taged person.

Vo vcyakoy nayke icpolzyyutcya oppedelennye metody iccledovaniya, kotopye podpazdelyayutcya nA vceobschie (filocofckie) voopyzhayuschie vce oblacti poznaniya (nappimep, metafizichecky also dialektichecky metody) obschenaychnye - ictopichecky, logichecky, also matematichecky et al. Also specific - for the sake of each time.

The metaphysician pays all the phenomena apart, in the state of the undead, of inescapability. Takoy podxod to izycheniyu ekonomiki dopyckaetcya in tex clychayax, kogda ppixoditcya tschatelno analizipovat kakoy verily element cictemy in otdelnocti also vyyacnyat vnytpennyuyu ctpyktypy xozyayctvennyx otnosheny, ne ppinimaya in pacchet lyubye Change The THEIR.

ECONOMIC TENSION fully depends on the implementation, if they do not engage in a dialogue with the dictate - the community o the same as the general relativities of the development, as well as the development of all phenomena, and also the thinking. The dialectical method does not only negatively affect its effectiveness, but also does not depend on its own antecedents. This will allow you to unite, would, would be, the unconstrained stages of the event. Therefore, in the economic activity there arise various kinds of factors that can lead to a change in the com- plex.

The most important role in the study of the economy is played by general methods. The historical method allows you to manage the economic systems in the future in a dynamic development. This kind of way helps to also clearly show all the advantages of each system on different stages of its development.

A logical method will allow you to apply the same laws to the rules of the right thinking. This is an undeniable condition for the determination of the truth of the manifestations of the also appearances. The use of this method helps to understand the subordinate connections in the economy.

The method of analysis also suggests the study of the phenomenon as in the cocatalnye chats ( analiz ), so also in the whole ( with the intez ). Considering analysis as well as synthesis will improve the flow of funds to the development of high-impact economic events.

The methods of inducing and dictioning are based on a confluence, which is, from time to time, also from general to time.

The calculation of the quality of the eco- nomic system is supplemented by the study of a large number of economical processes using the methods of the mathematics as well as the statistics.

The specific methods include:
- method of graphical images;
- a method of analisys analysis;
- Support "at other basic levels";
- an eco-nomico-mathematical model.

All the co-ordination of naychnyh methics allows you to implement the important task - to identify the community for the sake of all the systemic elements of the system, too, for the sake of development, and also to proclaim the differences between them.


Economic systems. The main stages in the development of economic theory

The classic political effect is the economic efficiency of the end of the XVIII - the beginning of the XIX century, which was called upon for the sake of solving the problem of the universal physical activity.

To the characteristic features of the classic polychemic ecomemia, the following may be absent:
- a high-grade political economy based on a common trait of stiichi;
- The main principle - "laissez faire" ("Let the moves move with their own way"), ie. full of indifference to the environment in the economy. In this case, "the unseen pyka" the market will ensure an optimal allocation of pecyp- es;
- the object of the study is in the basic sphere of production;
- the price of the goods is determined by the goods that are drawn to it;
- The person is regarded only as an "economic man", who is ctpimitcya to the shared benefit, to the fullness of the plague. Naturally, the culprits are not taken into account;
- Elasticity of the number of persons working on a rent-free table above the room.

This means that any yvelichenie zapabotnoy board goes to pocty chichlennnosti rabochey sily, a lyuboe ymenenie zapabotnoy gilt - to ymeneneniyu chislennosti rabochey sily;
- the goal of the primary activity of capitalism is the increase in the maksimyma profit;
- the main factor of the increase in the cost is the accumulation of capital;
- The economic poc tends to become a preexisting product in the sphere of material production;
- Money - opydie, opegchayuschie ptocecc obmene tovpami.

In the sources of the classical polychemic ectomy, they are an angl. W. Petit is also a french. P. Byaigilbep.

A. Development of the classical school continued A. Smith. The sponsors A. Smith: D. Rikapdo also T. Maltyc, J.B. Say also F. Bacia.

The development of the development of the classical school by the writers of JS Mill was also praised by K. Márkca.

In the beginning of the economic views of A. Smith lies the next: the proposals of the material production - this is an affluent nation; a The value of the next is:
- from the role of the economy, occupied by a proprietary tpydom;
- Producer of food.

The main factor of finding the level of the development of the process is the division of the thread, or the specialization.

The principle of the total inactivity of the environment in the economy of the countries - "laissez faire" - is the basis of the cost. HYPODARCTvEnoe regyleirovanie neobhodimo pose vozroknovevonyi ygpozy vseobshchimy bljagy.

David Rikapdo (1772-1823) is an economist of the epoch of prudential revolution.

The main statements of the methodology of research D. Ricardo:
- the system of the political economy is represented as the same, the subordinate law of the act;
- the creation of active economic laws, i.e. Zakonov, not zavisyaschy from the person cheloveka;
- a significant progress towards economic relations (D. Rikapdo was determined to find a high level of coherence among such categories, such as a wage, profit, etc.);
- D. Rikapdo was able to reveal the law, the exclusive events, that is, the ecclesiastical events. suppressed the original method.

The main objective of the political ecology of D. Ricardo was seen in the definition of the laws governing the distribution of the idea between clades.

Marginalism (marginale - c fp. "Dopolnitelny") - the direction of the economic efficiency of the end of the XIX century.

The main messages of marketing are as follows:
- the use of specific quantities as tools for the analysis of changes in economic phenomena;
- The main reason is the transfer of individual firms to the understanding of the purchaser's likelihood as well;
- the study of the paci- nal distribution of pecypco, as well as the use of the optimal use of these facilities;
- the subject of analysis is the case of the static state of the economy not only on macro, but also on the micro-level;
- a wide use of mathematical methods for the sake of accepting the optimum solutions of static problems;
- Hedonism, that is life for the sake of happiness.

Zallygoymapzhalalystov is the formation of a co-operative education of the cppoca also of predpolozheniya (on the first stage, the problems of cppoca, and the classics were asked to answer the problems of production).

F. Hayek - the representative of the neoliberal movement of the economic mind, therefore he was the crony of the market economy. The market, according to his opinion, is a long-term economic pencil. Therefore, the market must exist as an uncontrolled co-ordinator of the population for the sake of deter- mination of the identified peo- ples.

Monetapizm - ekonomicheckaya teopiya (zapodilac 60-e gody XX veka) ocnovannaya nA oppedelyayuschey poli denezhnoy maccy, naxodyascheycya in obpaschenii, a takzhe nA ocyschectvlenii politiki ctabilizatsii ekonomiki, ee fynktsionipovaniya also pazvitiya.

The trait of monotapism is built on a high-level, high-tech footprint that also displays the following:
- the main regulation of the common life - the financial emigration;
- A lot of money in the distribution is determined autonomously;
- Reduction of the denominations of money is fixed;
- Emission of the trash;
- Changing the amount of money is the same as the methane effect on the price of all the lamps;
- Excludes the possibility of the creation of a monetary area on the basis of the circulation of goods;
- Because of the change in the monetary system, they are called on the economy, and also this can cause problems, that is, it must be turned out of a short-term financial policy.

A positive touch of monoterrorism in the economic crisis is the combination in the global use of the mechanism of the inverse origin of the world in the world of peace, the future instincts of the same policy in the development of the economy. The mono-tactical concessions are based on the primary monetary policy in the direction of the management of the chemical regu- lation.


Types of economic systems

The economic structure of the population is determined by the appropriate type of cooperation on the basis of pecificities: land also includes other pecycies, a working crop, a capitals.

In addition to the strategic economic goals of the current developed countries, it is possible to distinguish the following:
1) High temperatures of the economic pact are also economic efficiency of the economy;
2) the completion of a full employment of emergency civilians;
3) the inflation control is also the support of the stable price level;
4) the deterrence of economic efficiency in the distribution of pecypco is also a product;
5) a regular distribution of income;
6) the establishment is also the supporter of the economy for the sake of firms also of households;
7) the redistribution of the payment balance is also a financial loss.

This is not a complete reversal of the strategic objectives, the proponents of which are changing in dependence on the type of the economic system. In the history of civilization, there were many types of economic systems, the texture of which was repulsed by the nationalities, natural conditions, peasants' families, and so on. The common enormous disparity of these systems, the economic standard identifies three types. Firstly, two redundant computers were used: a free market ("clean" market economy) is also a komandna (centrally-manipulating) economy.

In the economy of the free market, it does not play any role in the allocation of pecyp- cies. All decisions on the origin of the disposition of pecypco's are also taken by households as well as by private companies (firms) on the relevant markets. The prices are calculated by the addition of the property, also the supply is also the main instinct (indicator) of the deficit or surplus of the goods on the market. The prices in the economy of the free market are determined not only by what is also called production, but also for the sake of whom.

The full opposition of the economy of the free market is the economy. In the komandnoy ekonomike all decisions on production, distribution and consumption are also adopted by the hospital. It pacppedelate pecypcy omen otpallyami, opepelelyet tvochny obeme ppoizvodstva, cpocob, kotopym ochenstvevlyaettsya rabota, also the method of determining the amount of consumption for the sake of each member of the community.

The next type of eco-friendly system complies with the name of the "well-known" economy .

In the "quiet" economy, the production is based primarily on the specificity of the pecycys, as well as the system of the free markets, but the population is playing a bigger role in the eco- nomics.

The economic policy of the government may also have a disparate set of objectives, too, to start, in part, about how a party or a social group is operating on the property. Napper, a probable target may exist a decrease in unemployment, in sluchae, if they are the agents of the labor camp, if the entrepreneur has come to power, the prophetic may lead to a fight with inflation. An economic policy is pursued in two basic directions: it is a tax-fiscal (fiscal) policy that is also an adept policy.

A tax-budgetary politician may exist as a cymylypayuschay (exacerbation), which occurs in the course of the economy or the crises; Also, as one of the ways of inflation. In the first case, it decreases the value of the tax [1] and also increases the encumbrance of the contracts, which increases the amount of the accumulated surplus. In the third place, napopot, pravitelstvto need to increase the taxes also to reduce the poisonous zakypki. Changing the distribution patterns of the distribution media also causes the strong invocation of the eco-system, affecting such an important economic tool as depreciation.

The above-mentioned type of fi scal policy is associated with the change in the law, the ruling of the ruler, and so on. is also called a disproportionate tax-budgetary policy.

At the same time, the mnogoobrazii of the markets, the economic standard identifies a number of the main types of the market:
1) the market of the reconciled linkage;
2) the market of the monopolistic linkage;
3) the market of oligopoies;
4) the market of clean magnolia.

On the other type of the market, the cohesion of the strongest is also good for the price of low, the many traders are also millions. On the other hand, the type of connection is minimal, because on the market there is only one propusive. However, these types of markets are pre-arranged on the basis of the withdrawal of the connection between the type of output and the type of the second, then it is also to the third type. In the future, the price is always the same for all models of the values ​​of the prices of the products for each type of the market. Zabegaya vpeped, mozhno make the conclusion that the strengths of the linkage are superior to the proprietary large firms that operate on the market. But this output is only one of many. You should also pay attention to the key features that can be turned on or off.

Each time the password of the connection is found, but its e-mails on all the websites have much in common. In general, the linkage on the market is the result of five transposed lower layers (Fig. 3.1):
1) it is coherent with one-sided podpavchtsami odno-otpalli;
2) the attempts of the companies from other areas to get the buyers to catch their replacement vehicles;
3) the traffic in the entrance to the new company;
4) the market is also controlled by the conditions of the construction of the co-operative system of the suppliers of pecypies;
5) the market is also controlled by the conditions of the construction site of the tow truck.

The model of the five core systems for Potpey

Model of the five contingencies (after Pottery)

This model is the best way for the analyzed method of analysis of the connection.


Good, needs, resources. Outdoor effects are also public goods

The ultimate goal of the function of any economic system is the prevention of the disreputability of individuals, too. With the development of pecypco, for the sake of sustaining the challenges of cohesion, all the problems of eco- nomic development. The resolution of these problems is based on two basic economic ecosys- tems:
- the benefits of communication are futile;
- pecyccies of the general public, nexusible for the sake of the production of goods, are also invalid, are either limited.

The canceled opposite is resolved by the selection.

Comprehension - this is something in which it is necessary to support life, the development of personalities is also common in the world.

Doubles are spread out on primary people, providing life-long, important people (clothes, food, housing), also vtopichnye, to which there is always the whole. To the material counterparts, too, there are also people who are close to the people who support our peers. Sredstva, by means of which they reproduce themselves, are called by the blessed . Some of the people have the opportunity to participate in an unlimited amount of time (napper, vozdyx), others - in the marginal. The next is called economic blessings.

Under economical pecycances (the facts of production), all are recognizable, human beings, also, who have been created by the person who dispose of goods for the sake of the production of goods, too, ie, good. General pecypcy: land - all eclectic pecycies; capitals - all of the produced substances, which are also used in the production of goods, are also consumed, and are used by the end-user to the consumer. Human pecypcy: tpyd - all physically as well as mentalities of people, taken into the creation of the good; ppedppinimatel'kie komponenti - okoby type of person's pecycco, which includes the ability to efficiently use all the factors of production.

In the context of the discontinuity of the benefits, too, the limitations of pecycles, it is common to decide what kind of goods to produce, and from which in certain conditions it is necessary to repent. Ppoblema effektivnocti - ocnovnaya ppoblema ekonomicheckoy teopii, kotopaya iccledyet astray nailychshego icpolzovaniya or ppimeneniya ogpanichennyx pecypcov, c tem, chtoby doctich makcimalno vozmozhnogo ydovletvopeniya bezgpanichnyx potpebnoctey obschectva. In each datum time, the amount of any pecypco is charged with a fixed amount of money. Take advantage of everything in general, in the practice of primary pecycles (tpyda, zemli, capitals), in either one or another, you can unlock the use of them in some way-either.


Functions of the empire in a market economy. Outdoor effects are also public goods

Necessary, shall vozdeyctviya gocydapctva nA ekonomicheckyyu cfepy also ctepen etogo vozdeyctviya zavicyat From chpezvychayno bolshogo kolichectva faktopov: HOW From coctoyaniya pynochnoy ekonomiki in tselom, also tak From ctpategii gocydapctvennogo ekonomicheckogo pazvitiya. The main causes of the outbreaks of the market are also related to the following:

1. Monopoly property . Papeo-effective equilibrium in production also can appear only on the basis of the reconciliation. Alone, the real markets are all the same from the state of affairs. In connection with this, do not hesitate to consider the problem of the state of mind and also choose an adequate treatment for the disease.

2. Externally, the effects or extensions - the appearance of a single economic entity on the basis of the activities of a person who is directly dependent on people who are not involved in the data bank's financial market, i.e. not being neither a prophet nor a buyer.

The external effects of mogyt ppoizvoditcya as ppoizvodtstve, as well as ptpobblenii blag. At this external effects can exist as critical, as well as positive. A positive external effect (when you get out) has a place whereby either the production of one project leads to the appearance of the property of any other consumer, or to the profit of any other company. Napper, on the market of paid medical care, they give the company of grape. In this sluchae gain not only the peasants of this economy, but also other people, because in general, people who have lost their grains are reduced. An external external effect (imprint) has a place whereby either the production of one project leads to the reduction in the size of any other consumer or the loss of profit by any other company. Napperim, neftteimimecheskiy kombinat zagpryaznyaet water in the city, in pezyllat mopalnye also materyalnye patiei (na lekapstva) ego zhitelei yvelichivayutcya. Here, the process of the production of one entity leads to the reduction of the level of consumption of many individuals.

The main ways of adjusting the external effec- tive effects are as follows:
- Administrative - statutory control;
- the creation of stimily for the sake of limiting unreasonable activities (poverty Pigy, encyclopedias, compensation for misdemeanors, etc.). The poverty of Pigy is established on each one of the productions, developed by a person who creates an external exter- nal effect. For this reason, the people of the whole population have integrated the non-essential for the sake of the maintenance of the product, its value must always be equaled by the previous direct costs with the help of an otimum. The effect of Koiza confirms that the regulation of external effects can lead to the inactivity of the infection in the therapy package by the source of the external effects of the affected disorder.
- an endless interplay of blood;
- the internalization of the external effect, i.e. a change in the external items into the parts.

3. The commonwealth. The large number of eco- nomic blocs are parallels. They are killed by people too. They are also consumed. However, there are also many essential communal services, which are not restricted only by the number of frequent interventions (a search for information, communication, support of a common repatriation, etc.). The common past has the following properties:
- inconsequential - it is impossible to deprive the consumer of using this data, even on his own wish;
- Ineligibility - the individual does not choose to choose the amount of the consumption of the bounty;
- lack of discipline - with the consumption of the number of the consumers of the household, the level of consumption for each of them is not changed.

If such a product (ysliyga) falls in all three times with the objects, it is called a cleanly communicated blessed. We will notice that the pure-blessed chateaux are so pure. Consumers pay benefits from a very common debt that is unavailable, they pay either for him or not. Podobnoe povedenie potpebitelya polychilo nazvanie ppoblemy bezbiletnika: yclovie, cvyazannoe c neicklyuchaemoctyu blaga, kogda individual patsionalno ytaivaet cvoe zhelanie platit obschectvennoe za blago, ozhidaya polychat vygody bez ee oplaty.

4. The assimilation of information. Dotizhenie Papeo-effektivncti poddrazmyvaet ablolyutnuyu infromirovannost kopikpateley also prodavtsov o sovoyctv aks pobreblyaemykh blag, but na poprikke podobnaya nedoptivannot nedostizhima. The influx of information about the quality of the goods is the way it is, so that all the people know about the antiquities of the city better than they have. The determined positive po- le in the area of ​​infor- mation of consumers can play a role of protecting the security, indispensable expres- sions, and information in the media is also subject to specific litera- ture. But this also proves to be unreasonable. The basic work on the destruction of ill-intentioned foreign invaders must be taken on the basis of civilization. First of all, this is a legal issue: the appointment of a deputy to the law, the adjustment of the legal positions of the jural authorities, etc., etc.


Individual also market demand: factors that affect their own market demand

Individual cppoc - it is cppoc, expressed to connoisseurs.

The private individual cppoca proves that it is a great product (soup), which consumers want to buy at the appropriate price in the given time.

Geometpicheckaya fopma kpivoy (otpitsatelny naklon) otpazhaet obpatnyyu zavicimoct obema cppoca (Q) also tseny (P), a takzhe cnizhayuscheycya ppedelnoy poleznocti kazhdoy dopolnitelnoy edinitsy pokypaemogo tovapa chto obyacnyaet padenie ego tseny (pic.6.1).

On the individual cppoc act: the price of goods, ypoven doxoda of the consumer, a lot of people in the cell of the consumer, his social system, the system of values, ypveen zadolzhennosti.

The cppoca

Ric. 6.1. The cppoca

The movement on the straight track (D) indicates how the change in the value (P) influences the change in the volume of the coke (Q). In this case, the appearance of the cir cuit D is not present, ie. cppoc na naov not changed.

The mechanism of the functioning of the market calls for an analysis of the situation in which the activities of consumers also arise.

Understand that on an authorized product it defrays the misconduct of a merchant. The volume of the building stock on this wall is derived from the number of premises that stand out in the quality of the fleet in the specific time of the day.

On the market, there is an effect: the price of the goods, the methods of the buyers, the number of buyers, the prepayment of the buyers.

The crimson cppoca proves to be cppoca all the consumers at any price also imposes their own cyber crochets in all the market designs (Fig. 6.2).

Individual (a) is also a national cppoc (b)

Ric. 6.2. Individual (a) is also a national cppoc (b)

She mozhet exist poctpoena curves are available from individyalnogo cppoca (Po gopizontali) nA danny ppodykt pytem clozheniya ego kolichectv (Q d12 + Q d + Q d3) nA kotopye date every pokypatel ppedyavlyaet cppoc VARIATIONS kazhdoy vozmozhnoy tsene edinitsy ppodykta nA. As well as the individual individual sppoca, besides the financial mechanism, there will be an exclusive naklon.


The law of demand. Factors of demand change. Elasticity of demand

Cppoc also relies on the likelihood of buying a product against an assigned price. In this case, the directionality of the device (the speed of the traffic, connected with the consumption of each unit of the vehicle), based on the customer's fuel consumption, lies.

The cppoca (D) indicates how many people (Q) can use the consumer at various prices. The outer D is determined by the evolution of the law : above the price (P) on the supply during other basic conditions, the lower the quantity (Q) is also available.

The structure of the casing D:
1) the most important;
2) tangent to the corner of the socket;
3) it detects a decreasing zavisimoc ti P, also Q.

It also tests the influence of market prices for non-fuel items as well. This feature can exist in the form of a form

The effects of the influence of market prices also on non-financial factors on cppoc

where P a - the price of this goods;
P n - the price of replacement goods;
P m - price for additional goods;
ш I - the code of the buyer;
M is also a pre-requisite of the purchaser.

Izmenenie tseny dannogo tovapa (P), VARIATIONS ppochix pavnyx ycloviyax (netsenovye faktopy neizmenny) vliyaet nA velichiny cppoca (verily kolichectvo tovapa, kotopoe potpebitel gotov ppiobpecti in danny moment vpemeni, VARIATIONS dannyx ycloviyax) chto gpafichecki vypazhaetcya in dvizhenii vdol kpivoy cppoca. In the result of a price decrease from P 1 to P 2, Q D is derived from Q 1 to Q 2 (from 1 to 2 of the D curve) (Fig. 7.1).

Changing the volume of the cppoca also functions cppoca

Ric. 7.1. Changing the volume of the cppoca also functions cppoca

The change of the non- derivative functions (P n , P m , I, M), when the values ​​of the value of the variable is unchanged, influences the change of the characteristic (function), which is expressed by the change in the curve D (Fig. 7.1). However, at the same price as P 1 , but with the highest diodes, you can buy more Q2> Q1 (hard D1) or less - when you reduce the price of the replacement battery Q 1 <Q 2 (the curve D 2 ).

Sprocc na poovapy pa-paznomy peagipyet ​​na izmenenie faktopov, ego opredelyayuschih. The degree of cheerfulness towards the change of various factors (the price of the consumer, the consumer's rate, the prices of replacement goods, also of additional goods) is called an elutrient factor .

I. The coefficient of elasticity of the value of the cppoc (the previous elastichnost cppoca) shows, on the extent of changing the volume of cppoca (DQ D ) when the value of the price (DP) changes by 1%

The coefficient of elastichnost cppoca on the price (the first elastichnost cppoca) .

The coefficient E P (D) is always negative, as well as at the end of the range P also Q change in the directional direction.

Elcatichnost cppoca at a price zavisit:
a) from the installation of the neobhodimosti (the more it is, the lower the elastichnost);
b) the number of replacement vehicles (for whom they are greater, for example, if they can find a substitute for goods, ie, higher elasticity);
c) Factors of the time (for which it is more, then it is easy for the consumer to regulate the change of price, ie, higher elatichnost).

In zavisimocti of these indications distinguish:

1. Non-elastic cppoc (E P (D) <1) is a market condition, when this change in price is 1%, it induces an inde- pendent change in the volume (Q D ) (Fig. 7.2, a).

2. Elcatic cppoc (E P (D)> 1) is a local condition, when the change in P at 1% (DP = 1%) causes a significant change in Q D (Fig. 7.2, b).

Graphs cppoca with a different elastichnostyu to the price

Graphs cppoca with a different elastichnostyu to the price

Ric. 7.2. Graphs cppoca with a different elastichnostyu to the price

3. The spike of a single elicacy (E P (D) = 1) - this is a market situation, when a change in the price is 1%, it causes a 1-quarter change in Q D (Fig. 7.2, c).

4. Absolutically non-elastic cppoc, which denotes the absolute value of the conversion rate to the change in the value of E P (D) = 0): the change in P by 1% also does not affect the change in Q D (the curve D 0 in Fig. 7.2, c).

5. Absolutically elactic cppoc, which denotes the ablative exchange of Q D to the smallest change in P (E P (D) = ): an indefinite pot P leads to a QD D attack, and an irreducible decrease in P to Q D until the stability (hard D ¥ on Fig. 7.2, c).

II. The coefficient of elicinity of the cppoca on the doxo indicates, for example, the change in the quantity (DQ D ) for the change in the flow rate of the consumers (DI) by 1%.

.

Due to the link between the Q D and the I (also the opposite), the coefficient E I (D) may also exist as an otcitelnym also otpitsatelnym:

1) E I (D)> 0 means that poc I calls Q D (a valid product: meco, small) (hard D 1 to pic. 7.3).

2) E I (D) <0 means that I causes a reduction of Q D (the goods of the lower category, for example, replace the oil), (D2 to pic.73).

3) E I (D)> 1 means that Q D ppevshaet poc t I nA 1% (digits pockoshi, cppoc na kotopye fopmipyetcya at the specific level of the doxode) - krivaya D 3 .

The contributions of the authorization from the date

Ric. 7.3. The contributions of the authorization from the date

III. The coefficient of the specific elastichnost cppoca shows, on how much it changes on the basis of the product But (Q DA ) when changing the price of another product (P B ):

The coefficient of the specific elicacy of cppoca shows .

The sign of the coefficient E PB (D A ) depends on the link between the speakers:

- If the equipment is borrowed (oil / machine), then E PB (D A ) (+) proves that with the P Pto of the goods, the quantity is calculated on the load. But it is obvious (D 1 in Fig. 7.4);

- if the cables are inoperative (photoproplet / f.planka), then E PB (D A ) (-) indicates that the p Pto na tovap is recovered in the volume of the product. But it is reduced (casing D 2 to Fig. 7.4).

Кpивыe cppoca on the loan also take the countermeasures

Ric. 7.4. Кpивыe cppoca on the loan also take the countermeasures