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Criminalistics - P. Bilenchuk

7.4 METHODS OF CRIMINALISTIC TECHNIQUES

The basis of the criminal method є technical methods (known as many) and the regular laws of science and technology, on the basis of which they are designed and designed for practical purposes, is used for practical purposes. Bagato of criminal technology is stored in different galleries of science and technology, that’s how to get hold of criminal gadgets in vain quietly, like in a shopping center.

Obov'yazkovym element of the structure of the scientific method of knowledge є tools (familiarity) - adjoining, attaching, and yaky often become the basis for the classification of ignitional and environmental methods. For the types of technical problems (such as a camera, a microscope, a computer), you can take photos, microscopes and those groups of methods. For the basis for the classification of scientific methods (the upper and lower), take the laws of fundamental sciences: mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, so that method can be called mathematical, physical, chemical, biological. Zrozumіlo, at the leather group є vlasna klasifіkatsіya. For example, in the group of physical methods, optical, spectral, luminescent, X-ray electron diffraction, atomic-adsorption and atomic radiation are violated.

Most of the time, it’s worthwhile to be guided by special literatures; the method of recognizing criminal information is divided into two great classes: method of manifestation, Methods of preliminary criminal information and special specialist, assistant of the second and expert (laboratory, expert, or science-related). However, you’ll need to say that more expert practice has been dedicated to special classification methods, which are based on the type of legal expertise, handwriting, forensic analysis, and forensic analysis.

1. Methods of manifestation, faksatsіy first and foremost speech speech dzherel іnformatsії on mіstsі podії - polovі methods of criminology.

Methods vimіryuvannya podilyayut on organoleptic and instrumental. Organoleptic method - the procedure, in some basic tools є organi chuttya - zir, hearing, scent, dotik. Organoleptic cessation is the main method of cob picking for any kind of law enforcement d'yalnost. The essence of the organoleptic methods of the pole is at the same time the size, which can be spared, is obviously metric miri chi be-yak zrazom. So much approximate, the results of them are understood in terms of "high", "low", "middle", "great", "high for the middle", "lower middle for the middle", so that I can describe the people who know everything. It is not recommended to give a closer approximation to the minimum; Material Dzherela also require exact kіlkіsіno fіksatsіі.

The instrumental method of vimyryuvanny polyagє in the portions of the standard standard metric world (m, cm, kg, g, cm2 and in.). Razrіznyayut іnstrumentalny methods of contact, non-contact and combined.

The contact method of the test in the reduced contact is in contact with the customer and the customer in this way with the same contact. So vimiryuyut objects, in between them, follow the help of large-scale lines, roulettes, folding meters.

The essence of the non-contact method is vimiryuvanny polyagє in portions of the single vimiruvannya (scale) with optical images of the vimiruvanny object, for example, a small microscope in the field of the microscope with an eyepiece scale. Before contactless, follow the photographic method of vimiruvannya, yakі zdіsnyuyut for the help of special photo cameras and annexes (large-scale lines, meter, glybin scale that is in.), The difference in the length of time of the photo order.

The essence of the combined vim_vuvannya method is to start before the contact and non-contact methods are used for vim_vuvannya.

Photographic methodology deletion of information and information may be more difficult than ever before, by protocol and by other means, and by doing so, you will have to give the temple more accuracy and more information. Photographic methods of criminal technology are used to express, vivid, contrast, signal, color, stereo, electronic, thermal, and radio.

2. Methods for verifying the speech of an information expert and a specialist in laboratory minds - the laboratory methods of criminology.

Fizichnі methods doslidzhennya nayposhirenіshі, zvichnі for a skin laboratory. We recommend that you allow the health of the people to be visible and visually impaired and invisible signs of the subject. For the most part, optical, polarization, luminescent, visual, spectroscopic and instrumental methods are available at once, often with the aid of a photo, as well as often.

Microscopic methods and methods of organoleptic tim, to give people the opportunity to expand humanity (the zoroma of the eye). Optical and electronic microscopy. The health of the Persians is up to 2000, others - ponad mіyyon. The range of available methods, the microparticles, the human eye cannot be different, the structure of the transverse surfaces of the varnish-colored coating, the warehouse and the structure of the metal, the length of the fiber, the particles of soil, and biological objects for people. The results of microscopic viewing are visualized on photographic imagery, as well as microscopic data are obtained without any interruption in the photo camera and vimyuvnymi tricks.

In vimyuvalnyh methods, it is possible to stiffen as simple as possible (lines, roulettes, micrometers, calipers, additional devices and so on.), So as folding (theodolites, time microscopes, spectrographs, spectrographs, spectrographs.

Method dosledzhennya in ultraviolet promises (UFP). The prices are invisible to the human eye; stink rostashovany in the electromagnet spectrum for violet prom. The main power of the UFP is to look at the luminescence, with the sound of the stink є with a catch of the luminescent analysis. For the auxiliary UVP, you can indulge in vitrachlenic, read texts in documents, on fabrics of the most common areas, differentiation of the secondary language (soil, barvniki), firing materials, biological, educational, argumentative, merge.

Method dosledzhennya in Іnfrachervonyh promany (ІЧП). The price of rosette in the electromagnetic spectrum for chervonim; I’m able to smell, I’ll penetrate health and I’ll say that to Infrachervon luminescence. For the auxiliary ICP, one can read texts closed with a thin ball of wood, papier, barvnik, penetrated for ICP. I’ll take a photo in the ICP to get some knowledge about the fog and the weather (for the additional access to night bachen, EOP and other). By the method of informational luminescence to visualize the same text, as well as visualization, differentiation of barvniki, and it is impermissible to discern.

Method dosledzhennya in x-ray proms (RP). Thank you for changing your favor, lower ultraviolet; after stink lie down to gamma-promises. X-ray exchanges may be able to penetrate through objects of inorganic and biologically similar nature, for example, for making hiding places for stolen goods, for example for changing stalls, changing the size of the luggage, special attachments and installations). Victoristovy RP, you can see the mechanism of the castle, to understand the structure of the papier (for example, pennies) thin. Criminal methods, in which there are stagnant RPs, are called x-ray, radiographic.

Luminescence analysis is an urgent, high-precision method, which is based on the power of the material environment at different times with ultraviolet, infrared, x-ray and electronic spectrum. The luminescent method is possible to protect experts, as well as before. I’m glad to help you with the help of Taran, UP-1, Ural Federal District-1;

Methods of verifying the evidence, for some people say that they’re radioactive dzherela zbudzhennya, call them radioactive, isotopic. Radio activity may give birth to temple I will penetrate health, and I can help you to educate the world of metal and stone masonry. Criminals for obtaining metal and biological objects are equipped with a cobalt-60, strontium-90 isotope. Radioactive isotope victorious for drawing with the help of a joke at the time of stealing. Zastosovuychi such radio activity, the next suvoro dotrimvatsya vimog іnstrucіі with safety technology.

Chemical Methods. Of classical chemical methods, polarographic, chromatographic, and spectral measurements are recorded. Bagato of chemical methods to meet with physical, assertive physical and chemical methods. On the basis of criminal attainment, criminals can have the opportunity to have the same subject matter, if you need to establish a warehouse, similarity, sameness, or uniformity.

Chromatographic methods , thin-gas sphere and gas chromatography, more extensive experience with practical chemical methods. Similar to drugs, barvniks, burning mantle rivules are recognized by gas chromatography on a folding possession.

The spectral and adsorption analyzes should be established until the methods of the element storage of the recovini. For their additional help, we can identify the characteristics of speech on the regional group of identities (before supplies, drugs, sticky words, barbnik, readin - ward off, blood, shed, cut). Zokrema, spectral analysis can establish the type of drug that region of the first virochuvannya chi region of gold, tobto viyaviti dzherelo similar to specific recovini (for example, the one with the shmatka lead in the wiggings made with shrimp, but without the scarlet).

Biological methods. By objects of biologic dosljen є objects, microparticles of the dear and the creature's likeness. Before the objects of the roslinnogo similarity there should be a village, virobi z nei, a village of Vugіllya, roslini and their parts (stems, leaves, nasinnya, quiti, argue, grain, grain products). The objects of creature поход hairstyle вов hair, wool, hair, hair, hair, fluff and wool.

Biological methods based on the latest highly versatile techniques and new techniques. Among them, different methods of botany, dispute-filing, ichthyologic, orthologic, virological, genetic engineering, histological, embryological and biological methods are used.

Cybernetic methods - the cornerstone of the most important methods of informatics and calculating techniques, which are widely used for hours at the forensic and practical practice. Zokrem, at the law enforcement authorities, the banks of the information and information level of ignorance (ABD-republic, ABD-region and ABD-district). Zbirannya, sampling and zberigannya information in banks to automatically automatically register from special programs for special programs, for the help of which you can design a portrait of malicious people, it’s possible to automatically fingers from the middle).

Criminalities at once with programmers based on more practical practice have broken down the systems of typical methods for recovering zolochin, which can help them to get rid of zolino after flamboyant signs.

Nowadays, methods and practices for achieving the desired smell for practitioners to assimilate self-guided criminal techniques - criminal odorology. Follow the smell of victoriousness for the rodent of malefactors, stolen speeches, drugs, boobypasiv, vibovih speeches for the auxiliary service dogs-shukachіv. For a robot with a smell, it’s always possible to smell odorously logical, in a special special environment (“Sail”) for a robot with a microprocessor. You can preserve and detect the occurrence of smells at special smelling cans of information, and at the same time give birth to a matured choked charge;

Control food

1. What does the terminology "criminal technology" mean?

2. Head of criminal technology.

3. How many rozdіlіv stockpiled rozdіl "Krimіnalіstichna tehnіka"?

4. The main areas of criminal technology, such as zastosovaє sіldchy.

5. Technique, pick up a set of values.

6. The main technical problems are the following: an hour of expert examination.

7. Technological hassle, for the help of some special health care.

8. The Polish methods of criminology.

9. The main methods of attainment, such as being an expert in laboratory minds.