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Aesthetics - Levchuk L.T.

Rozdil XI. AESTHETICS OF XX CENTURY: MISTETSKA PRACTICE

§ 1. ABSOLUTIZATION OF FORMAL AND TECHNICAL POSHUKIV AT MISTESTVII XX ST.

A look at the front of the old laws of historical development of the mystery of the XIX century and the front desk is endlessly talking about the pane of the old realism in the history of art culture. Well, until the twentieth century, the picture has changed a lot. I want realism and be overwhelmed by a creative method, the most important thing is that there are formal and technical jokes, but rather subtle closed-loop people. The identified tendencies have come to light in the case of the barred jerel of an artistic image, in the piece of accelerated form, in the symbol of the word, color, sound, amusement of the zagolnuyu zmіstu, -тт --реш реш у ру ру ру ру мист мист тради тради тради тради тради тради тради тради тради.

A number of unrealistic artists directly, yakі were stored on the cob of the XX century. I have a significant impact on the furthest development of the mystery, follow the word for fauvism, futurism, cubism, cubofuturism. You are directly represented by painting, sculpture, poetry, music and music in Europe, in Russia and in Ukraine.

Mystetsky life Є Europe period kіntsya XIX - the cob of the XX century. designations of supra-musical dynamics, temporal winter generation, mitzvah, style, direct. I am a numerical group of mysterious obdnanny, for the sake of the sake of which I will sway my creativity concept. The assertion of new principles in the mystery of the “manifest” character. Without question, scho on the form of the avant-garde ruhu in mystery XX century. they popped in as a science-and-technology revolution, as a pawn at the intellect of understanding the dynamics, ruh, new rhythms, so the philosophical ideas of F. Nietzsche, A. Bergson, 3. Freud and the whole theory.

At the folding, super-lazy interruption of the artistic life of that hour all the same, you can still know your love of marriage between the mysteries of the 19th and 20th centuries. "Osinny Salon" 1905 p. in Paris, having installed his robots Anri Matіss. Kartini A. Matissa is no less than a wickel to the traditions of French painting, and the crosses of empresionism, magnetism will turn to sparkles of farb, small, decorative. On one side, A. Matissa can be repaired on behalf of a fauvist, like a wild Mitz, and on the other side - to recognize as a fighter for a new mystery. A. Matіss, P. Picasso, A. Derain, O. Фрієз upgrade their paintings with a different “materially good” light, repair the mysticism “barbarian” - halfway through, know how to do it a bit, the mystery of primitiveness.

Z 1906 p. creative sounds were intensified between the charts of France and Russia, they also helped the art schools, creative manners, and innovative ideas of mysteries. Tsimoyu was spritted by Diaghilevim of the Ascension of 1906 p. a large-scale exhibition of Russian painting was presented; on the other hand, robots were presented on May 53. The order with the icons of the 18th - 19th centuries, the paintings of Roerich, Vrubel and Somov demonstrates the first avant-garde mystery - “plastic experiments” by M. Larionov and N. Goncharovo. At that hour, it’s possible to talk about the specific way of the Russian avant-garde. Tse pіdtverdzhuyut I vistavki 1906-1914 pp. at Moscow and Kyiv :, a copy of 1908 p. “Lanka” exhibited the robots of O. Bogomazov, D. Burlkzha, M. Larionov, O. Exter.

The Fauvism of A. Matisse bouvre by the first postman for the development of an unrealistic mystery of the XX century Z 1909 p. the possibilities of the picturesque expanse began to actively reach the French mitzvah Pablo Picasso and George Braque. In parallel with them in Italy, the concept of futurism was scattered (see Lat. Future - Maybutnє).

P. Picasso and J- Marriage are sympathetically polemic with A. Matis-som for the effectiveness of coloristic “vibuhu” fovisty and preserve respect for plastic compositions, obmezhuyuchi the palitra of the house - three colors, especially black, brown. Zgodom, from 1911 to 1913 pp., Stink to give your own little jokes, having voted for the basic principle of cubism (the form of cube is cube). Before P. Picasso and J-Marriage, F. Leger, M. Duchamp, Le Fo-con, and others, came to recognize them, because they respected the need for additional geometric proportions and reiterated the need to reiterate that "Figurativnist" painting abo naturalism. At the core of cubism lay the bazhenya of artists in realizing the idea of ​​a geometrical image of reality. At the beginning of the year, the significant influx of mali naukovі vіdkritty kіntsya XIX - the cob of XX century.

Cubist artists have begun to transfer to the mystery of the obsolete, analitic method of attaining the light, and science is in the same way. They didn’t think of the main specific power of the mystery - the image of reality. Ale ım most important - like the very same image, like wiping your shape.

The cubistic principle of imaging up to deformation of objects, proportions of human body, to splitting of objects into elementary geometric volumes. The principles of cubism have ignored the power of understanding by mystery of the true reality, the power of real beauty. But this meant that Cubism, calling to the joke, to unlocking the talent of Mitzia, cringing the way to experimenting in acquiring new formal and technical interests, as well as painting the artist’s master. Let’s say, why did the roks actively feel that the new re-imagining of the old see and genres of the mysterious zagrely, painting and sculptures of the secrecy could be seen? Apparently understanding the so-called pure painting on the vidmina vid collages, the "Religious" works, in which the picture "Mounted" zavdyaki zraznym materials. Moreover, they tried to make painting and sculpture in the genre of "assembly lage." At 1912 p. Marcel Duchamp shocked the public, having denounced the third “crumbling sculpture” - a bicycle wheel mounted on stools. I respect the mysteries of carriage experiment by Guillaume Apollinaire: a clear vision to praise your “lyrical ideograms” with a mystical vision. The stink of fooling around in 1918 p., Dіstavshi call it "Caligra."

Subsequent creative experiments, rejoiced to life by fauvism and cubism, French theorists are rewarded with sound of national tradition. All of the above is an important moment: formally, the mystery of the past is formally forbidden, you don’t have to see and cosmopolitan tendencies. Namaganny okremikh mittsіv take near the XX century zagalno-vsepeyske mystestvo to be thrilled with these lands, mittsy some reached the singing creative peaks. So, the main theoretician of Cubism, Albert Glez pidkreslyuv, scho "Create a fancy look and make it clear that we’re born out of our national tradition"

The rise of futurism povyazyuyut redefinition with im'yam іtalіytsya Filіppo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944 p.). Prote futurism is not possible to respect the clownish lish italy. Having infused futurism, having come to know the creativity of Russia, Ukraine, at 3 o’clock the first manifesto of futurists felt like a fight for "priority in the re-establishment of a natural medium." What is the first - Cubism Chi Futurism?

Theoretically praised for the onslaught, yaki guilty obgruntuvati principle of futurism: "Futurism" (F. Marinetti), "Futurist antitraditsiya:" Manifest synthesis "(G. Apolliner)," Futuristic manart Del Marl) that ін. A special respect for merit is theoretical for one of the founders of Ukrainian cubofuturism Oleksandr Bogomazov's “Painting and Element” (1914). O. Bogomazov, having quilted the genesis of the artistic form, is born of the rudiment of the primary element - the specks and the distance, dynamically ruined ruins, warehousing lines, picturesque areas, the middle ground is skinny. He painted, respecting O. Bogomazov, the whole system of self, as I live in my own inner life, in constant rhythm - in the category of artist, in thought of the artist, in general and in words.

O. Bogomazov, having honored cubofuturism with a new mystery, is not less than kidik wiklik traditions, but ya visuva "self-reliance element painting yak nosiya vidchuttіv" mittsya. All of this is one of the most important signs of futurists, cubists, but cubic futurists - we don’t have to blame but not the creator, but the form element. Naked by that element (colors, objects, deformations of the subject, composition), the painter “anatomized” was almost respectable.

The theoretical program of futurists absolutized the significance of the form of mystic creation. The culture of the past, futuristy, fetishizuvali technology, industry, creativity, introduced by the technical development of new rhythms. Silently before the tide of technological reach of the 20th century, the stench was brought up, the technical progress was brought to spiritual cogging, and the technical needed to know its creature for an hour - lyudin. I mean, I want futurism, I want it, on an interactive, emotional level, all the same with technological progress as the process of creating new and old people means that you can make people better.

Іtalіyskі futurists didn’t disengage from artful jokes. F. Marinetti and that yogicheskie prikalniki got hooked on social and political processes in Italy, claimed to be a new philosophical and aesthetic concept. The Italian model of futurism will become the butt of the assertion of anti-humanism, pochtovom to piddrimki reactionary ideological ideology and regime Mus-

solіnі. Manifesti іtalіytsіv vіdverto called out to the horror and violence. The dehumanization of mystery was directed to “mechanical people”, lyudin-av-tomato, to awakening to people of primitive social activism, to fight for the excitement: I gave: “Nema masterpieces without aggression”. Such a philosophy of creativity led the Italian futurists to the creation of an indulgent. The poet-futurists lamalized the artistic image, ruined the zvichayna mov, respected alogism with the obvyazkovym principle of incitement to the creation.

In front of the first Holy Futuristic Futurist Futurist, they echoed a cob of “great symphony” - joy, joyfully, they called it “stained hygiene”.

Slide mean, what are the future futurists - F. Marinetti, J. Severini, I. Boccioni, K. Carra got organized and creative about the future of Europe, Russia, and the “Western European Front” - the international partnership with centers near Florence, Paris, Munich and Moscow. The very same organisation of zusilla shuzhdko shyly shook off the principle of sacrifice among the rozumіnnі futurism among the representatives of the krai’s krai, shook off the unity of the term “futurism” (like calling it straight) while there is one prototype of the other. So, for the French futurism, behind the loyal G. Apollinaire, "a great deal of French fresco painting of the world before Cubism included." For Russians and Ukrainians (V. Kamensky, V. Mayakovsky, O. Bogomazov, D. Burliuk, M. Lario-nov, N. Goncharova, V. Khlebnikov and others.) - This is an update on the old-time tradition, “dialogue” the mystery of the tenth century - “the golden age of the words of the nyanism”, which has moral and ethical implications of the Russian freedoms of Stepan Razin’s.

Futurism in Russia is repaired by the will-be-lianism - the maybutnik provider (V. Khlebnikov, V. Kamensky, D. Burliuk, O. Guro, M. Matyushin, V. Mayakovsky). Period mizh 1910-1914 pp. obligations among the Russian futurists in the world with mythical ideas, with the legendary words of the past. At 1909 p. in the list to Vasil Kamensky, Velemir Khlebnikov donated people not for nations, religions and social camps, but for “camp -“ mi ”and our damned

Manifests of Italian futurism. M., 1914.S. 12.

heaps. Mi novy rіd people-prom. Came ozoryuvati all. We're not able to. ”2.

Nakoloshuyuchi on mythological necklaces of Russian futurism, representatives of the zeros of baguette for vivchenny and popularization of old frescoes, icons, skifsky plasticity, got into it before the traditional folk art.

More than 1908 p. V. Khlebnikov wrote a verse “Zharbog”, de pagan god of words, “Ian vistupaak nosiy freedom, yak force, scho єdnaє people:

Jarbog! Jarbog!

The will to see fire

Flock of light fryers

So rainbow guard

The hassle of our days has flashed ... 3.

Tsіkavo, scho V. Khlebnikov, having examined the folk mystery as the supreme popular aesthetics. Navigation of the word-creation (the creation of the “abstruse word”) has spiraled towards a tradition of folklore, the government’s rozumіnnya іntpretatsіy час hour - space ’, at the same time symbolic матери mainland’ and океан ocean ’, so that symbolism "Russian" light, on the "Asian" face of the Russian culture.

Yakshko has V. Khlebnikov’s freedom of freedom through the use of the god of old words, then V. Kamensky has the same functions as Stepan Razin, and V. Mayakovsky has drunk his own Russian-Ukrainian-Georgian coils. Novators, revolutionaries, as a rule, don’t be afraid of ringing in archaism, because for them, for a long time, for an hour they have symbols, symbols, sounds - all the ideas of zagalnulyudskih beginnings, all the way to the times of frost.

Futurism - one of the most beautiful manifestations of the Russian and Ukrainian cultures on the cob of the XX century It won’t overwhelmingly superseded the talents, the original ideas, so sorry, so much tragedy and creative things were heard, so much people.

Persha svitova vіyna, and then the zhovtnev revolution in Russia, they made it impossible for us to fake active organizations and creative works of the letters of Europe. The flower of the mysterious grandfather was more often than not having a violently European character, as it were on the cob of the table, but rather surrounded by cordons and essentially national social interests.

Khlebnikov V. Creations. M., 1986. C 11.

In the same place.

Against the background of the first ones that we had designated, we absolutely absolutized formal and technical pitches from the mysteries, having acted on the basis of gaining special significance and popularity abstraction.