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Culturology - T. Gritsenko


Formulation of the basic principles of romanticism. Group “Storm and Onslaught”

To get involved, what Nimechchina herself gave life to romanticism, having seen such an office on the occasion of the Great French Revolution. Prote chi is not the first to formulate principles of romanticism to be tied with the name of Johann Gottfried Herder - a philosopher, historical, literary, and formerly active member of the Stormy Onslaught group. Tsey osoreki, a kind of having pushed up a number of prominent Nіmetsky literary, winery near 1775 p. The ambitious participants of the whole gurt called themselves “stormy genii” or “stormtroopers”. Already the Shturmeri hung around ideals, as they were promoted by the romantics of the 19th century: historicism in the evaluation of cultural manifestations, national autonomy and literature of the skin people, respect for folk art, and cultural creativity were fostered. The most significant representative of the “Onslaught” is Buv Johann Wolfgang Goethe , who owns the XVIII century, so the nineteenth century.

Goethe’s creativity with a singing world called for literature and two tables and I didn’t get the most curious things, not only my own experience, but the first time for me to come. At the “Stormy onslaught” - shturmerstvі - bulo laid down there are several offensive paths, as it’s not enough to pass the mystery. Shturmerstvo sentimentality with bagatimi rice peredromantizmu. Rozumna, clearly deconstructed, the form was created by the “wild genii” as a racehorse for the master. The spirit of “Tempest onslaught” by exposing the “Rozbynikiv” of the prominent Nimets poet and playwright Frіdrіha Shіllera * 45.

* 45: {Ukrainian and foreign culture: Nav. pos_b. / M.M. Zakovich, I.A. Zyazyun O.M. Semashko ta in .; For the ed. M.M. Zakovich. - K .: “Znannya”, KOO, 2000. - S. 252.}

Aesthetics and literature of Nimetsky romanticism

German romanticism , which is a winery at the turn of the 1790s and 1800s, was clearly expressed in a philosophical character. The yogic aesthetics was stored in the “Інський гуртука”, which was formed for the most part in the 18th century. near the small town of INI, close to Weimar. The head theoreticians of the romantic romance were the brothers August-Wilhelm and Frederick Schlegeli.

In Nimetsky romantics of the Cossack Bula, one of the most beloved genres. All glories of glory were healed by the national Cossacks, recorded by the Brothers Grimm - Jacob and Wilhelm. The novel-cossack “Henry von Ofteringen” by the poet Novalis (Frіdrich von Hardenberg) is conceived with a religious-patriarchal theme and a melancholy mood. Novalіs chorus of surviving the collapse of the old, feudal estates. You want to spend time, save for the old castles, patriarchal sounds.

A prominent post at the current Niemeck Literature is Ernest Theodore Amadeus Hoffmann . Winning the chimeric, smashing and watery hours of the most romantic novel (“The Three Minders”, “Zhittyva Philosophy Kota Myppa ...”, “Krihitka Tsahes”). Tsey the writer simply choked in the stifling atmosphere of Nimechchini on the cob of the XIX century.

Creativity of the great Nimetsky poet Heine - well and completely thin lyric (“The book is nice”), and the first half of the political satire (book of prose “Road paintings”, the poem “Nimechina. 3imova kazka”), the first part of the romance the main topic is real life.

Musical mystery

Ludwig van Beethoven is the most prominent composer of the first half of the 19th century. Beethoven’s creative work to lay down nimetsky and austrian music schools. Beethoven praciuvav at bogatokh musical genres і yogo introduction to the development of dermal skin of the genre is important reociety. The creativity of Beethoven and the formation of romanticism in museums is of little importance.

Beethoven pіdnіs musically mystical to nebuvalu to a new look. Wine is included in the new glossy, gray ideas. Writing music for widespread folk masters, the composer frightened zrobiti Ії inaccessible.

Beethoven’s creators have a great sense of heroism and pride, I’m awesome, I’m sticking out to fight, and I’m faithful in Maybut people. He has his own music and revolutionary pathos, short-lived, respectful experience of the most advanced people of their time. For the turn of the whole new rally to Beethoven, the vikorist of the great musical form (symphony, sonati, concert, quartet is skinny.), Basically, they must lie in the middle of the rest of the parts and those that are different for their character.

Symphony of Beethoven. With Beethoven’s creativity Warto, we’re ahead of the first nine symphonies, among which there are especially 3rd, 5-a, 7-a and 9-a. They have the most heroic deception of Beethoven, their closeness to the people, their faith in people, and I can overcome justice. In the midst of Beethoven’s heroic works, it is necessary to understand the music before the tragedy of Goethe “Egmont”.

Franz Schubert . The whole life and creative way of the whole mitzvah of bouts of superexpositions, which are characteristic of all artist-romantics of age. Schubert vidomiy not only an author of miraculous songs and vocal ensembles, ale yak author of instrumental works - chamber and orchestras: symphony, string ensembles, works for piano. Franz Schubert є one of the most popular composers. This music is charismatic for its richness, living truthfulness, greatness and simplicity.

Prominent masters of the opera genre in Nіmechchinі of the 19th century boules composer Weber, (opera Charivny Strits), Wagner (opera Loengrin, Tannhauser, Ring Nibelungiv) and that.

Instrumental Music

At the XIX century. order from symphonies, sonatas with a genre of genre і equally small create lyric, and one dancey character. For creativity composer-romantic character elements fiction, kazkovostі, figurative, programmatic. Нхні create often close to folk themes, to nature. Do something unnaturally like, somehow, never become a cycle. Such є, for example, Schumann’s piano cycles “Carnival” and “Meteliki”, Schubert’s cycles “Ekspromti” and “Musical moments”.

Robert Schumann . Tsei Nimetsky composer-romantic writing zdeb_lshogo piano to create, write and romance. Mensh vіdomі yogo symphony. In his creativity, he imagined his imagination of a lively life with a fantasy. Kіlka svoyh tvorіv vіn nazivaє "Fantastic p'єsami". Contrasts are characteristic of Schumann’s works: one after another, regrettiness, frivolous mood and low mood, sincerity, and mnnost. Duzhe Tsikaviy yogo “Carnival” and “Meteliki”. At the holy steps, the image at the "Carnival", musical images of masks are taken from the dance. “Album for Youth” and “Children’s Scenes” by Schumann - all the zbіrniki p'єs, sincerely, rznomnіtnyh for zmіstom, available for children. Great popularity nabuv takozh Schuman's quintet.