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Political economy - Bєlyaev O.O.


Vivchennya is given by those transferring assumptions: first of all, socially-economical zmіstu categories "capital", more viable alternative approach to the interpretation of the daily situation; in a different way, to the mechanism of interchange of capital and rental rights; in the third place, the social and economic nature of the salary, the daily rate, the form and systems of the market economy.

§ 1. Social and economic category of capital category. Alternative theory of capital

The economical category of capital and third-party forms will show є supernaturally often living in yak in economical science-literary literature, so in everyday life of people. Sokrem, you can read it almost about virobnichy, groshovy, trade, posichkovy, lihvarsky, financial, investment capital; about individual, cooperative, shareholder, state, international capital; about people’s, intellectual (capital) capital; about post-pay, pay-as-you-go, as well as payments, back-up, nominal and real capital, so much. In general, an insignificant change in forms and forms will manifest capital in the real economy of people.

From the point of view of didactics, the problem of increasing the economic potential of the category “capital” will be accelerated conceptually by the different interpretations of the Marxist politics, from one side, and those who are representatives of the other political and other economies.

Traktuvannya category "capital"

The term “capital” (English, French sarіtal, Latin sarіtalis is the main one) live on the other aspects: “mine” and “volodynnya”, “self-growing wartiness” and “self-growing penniless”, but without paying attention to the increase in price.

So, the founders of the classic politekonomii (A. Smyth and D. Rikardo) renegotiated the capital with a healed and restrained pracea (virobnitzvts). Odnak A. Smit up to capital having paid less that part of stocks, as vikoristov to be for more funktsiononuvannya at virobnitstv that and economic diyalnost_ y bring income. We are positive in such a treatment of daily capitalism that those who have a material-speech impulse are obligated to deal with factors of virobnitstva, so the process of denying income. Remained є dominuyim for rozumіnnya zmіstu understand "capital".

Nowadays, it’s similar to treat the daylightness of a given economic category. For example, P. Samuelson and U. Nordhaus write, more “capital” is stored for the benefits of pre-string browning, which is essential for viral goods, as well as includes uncomplicated way, expensive, free time, free parking economy. "

Unprincipled business between the classical bourgeois politekonomichesky and the most economical theorized pole is in the fact that there is still a wider range of elements of the modern and Before storing the capital, it’s worth including the knowledge and skills, including professional and professional, and I call it “human capital” (J. Becker, F. Mahlup), and so on. Often in financial literature, capital is spent on financial resources (in front of a penny - S. Fisher, R. Dornbusch, J. Robinson) and navigation for an hour, so that I’ll take a look at a specific factor of virology,

In this way, most often due to A. Smita, the bourgeois polytekonomia in persons of the past year’s baggage (J. S. Mil, A. Marshall, P. Samuelson and the other.) Discerned the capital because of the greater factors, why bring them

From the point of view of the interpretation of the material-speech movement to capital, such a position was closer to the Marxist rosumny problems. However, among them there are principles of principles, especially for the process of function of the warehouse in the warehouse and their role at the gateway.

K. Marx also came up with an idea of ​​having a greater share of the process, more of it, ale vidigra, with a whole new role. So, insist on serving as unnecessarily obsolete jobs and materials and products (goods). Вx wartiness, the supervisors are more likely to be transferred to goods procurement, being deprived of their indefinitely, without growth over the first wartime. I appreciate the part of capital, as it goes over to the side of virobnitz, K. Marx calling it a permanent capital and designating the letter C (Latin constant. - constant). On the other hand, having looked at the result of the part of capital, I have been advanced in advance to work and I am ready to do the same thing. Marx called the part of capital, which should be turned over to buy working power, V as the permanent capital - V (all English variable - permanent). Thus, he filed a capital for the permanent and permanent boulevard in a clear way to the functional role of these factors at the time of the start-up.

Behind K. Marx, capital is the whole advance, it has been advanced in order to have the best view of the economy (first for all issues) through the method of gaining the opportunity to do so, as a result of the performance of the activity, it is permanent.

As a rule, it is necessary for a person to know his own image from a well-known understanding of “capital” as “self-growing wartosti, hiring a hired robot”. Virobnitsvo і an exaggerated price †‹вЂ‹ †‹вЂ‹ †‹вЂ‹ †‹вЂ‹ †‹вЂ‹ transfer and that I want to share my own message with the buyer (contractor) and we hire a service provider. To Zyazku Zim K. Marx, he wrote: “Capital is not a problem, but a song, a suspension, a properly singing and historical form of suspension of virology, and is presented in a speech and a speech of a specific, specific nature. Capital is not just a sum of material and virological concerns, but itself is so little in itself, capital, like gold is mean ... - grishmi. ” “Otzhe,” “write dal vin dalі,” “I’m singing here, I’ll look at the look of mysticism and suspension in the first look ...”.

Until then, capital, navigating as little as possible, will manifest my economic form. So, you can visistati (manifest) in the form: singing sum of pennies; ambition virobnitstva; finished products (goods) in stock, designated for sales; preoccupied with the renting of a praznivnik skinny. The order of these material-speech forms of capital, as already indicated, is possible to discern and like suspension. Aje funktsiononuvannya (diya) that chi іnshogo factor of virobnitztva (zobobіv virobnitstva, earth, robotic power) organically connected with people with people.

As a rule, the principles of everyday life, the form I will show capital bully and get lost do not wait for the most up-to-date economic concepts, theories and scientific strains. From the beginning, you can go on a business trip, now you have the most capital and the most important forms for people, we know everything for Marx.

Masovimi and the pan-economical vidnosiny capital stood for the minds of the capitalist virobnitz. The following is an out-of-town point of view for a given virology (capital economy); these are the principles of furnishing:

  • in the first place, the manifestation of legal freedom of the prince, from one side, and that there is more than one need for life and for life (if health and work are necessary) - it means;
  • in a different way, economically primitive people sell their work of strength (servants prac) to the people of the cattle to attend the singing hour by stretching out a certain capitalist organization and control;
  • in the third place, the fragments for such minds, the processes are right є in exchange of factors, when you buy capital, then the result of the exchange is the product of the goods (goods, service) - to establish capital. For a newer, it’s of principle importance, like a comrade (sake of good fortune) of the virobliat, a remnant of the organisation of the virobotnos, that’s why you shouldn’t lose your heart, and you’ll have to increase the cost of all the time.

The formula is ruh kapitalu

It is logical to feed, such as mechanism to appear a surplus (increase) in wages, which was removed by the capitalist from realizing the results of the virology, evenly apart from the fact that there is no need to advance in advance.

Dostatny Ontovnovidov Bulo was given by K. Marx in the first volume “Kapital”. Analysis of the capital formula of capital and of the superfluous words of indemnity formula: pennies - commodity - pennies (G – T – G), pennies are exchanged for pennies, so that they can be exchanged for pennies. In the first glance, the formula is not given to masters, the fragments of pennies are less expensive than those of others. Tobto is given the formula mathime sense for umi, if you don’t give a penny for selling the product, you will be kіlkіsno bіlshі vіd quiet pennies, yakі buli vitrachenі to buy the front item. It is possible to do this:

G — T — G1,

de G1 = G + D pririst (for example, 100 gr. od. - T - 110 gr. od., de prrist 10 gr. od).

Marx called the formula given the title formula capital. I have to come up with the premise of penniless winnings, for Marxism, for violating the law of wartostism (equivalent swindling), fragments of obig wartosti are not doing it * 1. At the same hour, the increase in pennies cannot win the pose. At tsomu - sutnost superachnostі zagalno formulas capital. Skills are penniless about "do not twist", сх sum, from the point of dawning of all suspension, do not vomit. Much more than a little overdid the total amount of sub-accounts during the purchase-sale process. So, one having bought a product for 100 gr. od., and selling for 110 gr. od., tobto “playing” 10 gr. od. like a salesman. But an hour, a salesman, guilty of tezh kupuvati, and that’s 10 gr. od., scho vin dodatkovo having disowned as a seller, Daniyskiy sub'єkt to spend, if you become a buyer.


* 1: {Let’s say that, given the right, it’s not possible to absolutize it, so as to attribute it to Marxism, just a little more in the extended cycle of labor theory without the need to remain corrupted.

For the drain of the market, the suspension of the suspension of the necessary costs and the result of the suspension of the corroded goods. To that, with a marginal concept of wartost (value) of the remaining, the goal is not to be less than virobnitc, but the process of exchange, the main role is vidigor. Often, try on such butts.

It is permissible that there are two virobniks: pan “X” and pan “Y”. The first is vigotovlyaє milk, and the other - bread. For the day “X”, a large amount of milk and I’ll wipe off the satisfaction of my consumer needs, “Y” - I’ve got a kilogram of bread and milk, and I will wipe off the satisfaction of parts of my consumers. Fasting, but what for the skin for them, is it the cinnamon itself (price) that is needed to live another liter of milk and another cup of milk, what’s the last time? Nі, not. But if only you can stink organisms of exchanging 1 liter of milk per 1 kilogram of bread, then offending to discard the most healthy foods, as a result of which there is a lot of satisfaction. At the same hour, spend the money pledged in a kilogram of milk and milk, not expressed.}

How can you get into “Kapitali” because of super-hype? Marx to enter because of such an increase in wartost, you can win more than any good product, so you can buy it. Such a product, having good faith in the power of genuine power, is working power (healthy people). The specifics of the product are in good condition when working with wart, and I’m overwhelming my wart.

The process of living with work є at once and with a double process of working out and developing a supplemental product. Therewith, the variability of a product that has been quashed is greater for the variability of the value of the additional product.

Naymayuchi pracіvnikіv, pіdprimєmets (capital) purchase is not less than their good health to pra (their servants pra), and the first is health to develop a supplemental product. Behind Marx, the dominant, pagan form of the whole product with capitalism од Dodatkova Vartist, Yaku Vin meaning the letter M (Vid nim. Mehrwert - Dodatkova Vartist).

Pre-product : concept, form, develop

A pre-paid product is the result of a specificity of viral business people who want to have more good things, lower self is necessary for self-realization of a whole person, as a whole, you need a product. Such speciality of productive activities is attracted to people for all hours, fragments without which could not have been used more, but more developed. So, yakbi in the primary suspension producer (health), having lived a mustache himself, do you know that he would know how to utterly understand and develop children? Adje won’t be able to rob yourself.

Thus, in a politekonomichesky interpretation of the necessary product - it is often a part of a suspension of the product, which is often adjusted by the people in the sphere of virology, it is necessary for the normal, from the point of view of social and economic knowledge.

A pre-product is often a part of a suspension product, which can be controlled by non-inferior virobods and the size of the product needed.

Wait for the product to come out and especially play a role in developing human suspension. The whole initiative, their physical and spiritual health, people, all the time, decided to go directly to the virobnosis and addiction to the add-on product. Yes, they can have the following position: the development of humanity is the development of the forms of the product and the entire product.

The buggery of the people, prosperous х of the Powers є is less than the form of material and additional products. Power, business (organization) to organize your reference with one method: virobity and pre-maturity product at your chi н ш ш г ро шов форм форм form: surplus (including trading), rent, interest rate. Without the whole German silent suspension, the lack of competitiveness.

A groshy twist of the add-on product in case of capitalism, as already indicated, the Marxist policy of the tract, as unpaid praciate, as well as additionally. Remaining, as if the whole new Vart (V + M) was created, behind Marx, the product of an exceptionally lively part. Percentage of the pre-paid warranties to the fixed capital is called the norm of the pre-paid warrants (m1), as well as the constant exploitation of work. Rivne of exploitation also through the percentage of pre-paid prices to the required prices * 2.

* 2: {To drive to the Marxist literature on a working day: a) the required working hour (period, for a certain period of time; the equivalent of a constant period of work); ponad wartosti work).

With the development of the scientific and technical progress, between them you can see the remaining color. And how to say and about the growth of the norm of exploitation. At present, literature has been published on a separate list: 300% and up to approximately 170%. But if you do not want to use the term “operation” you don’t get used to it. For example, J. Gelbraith is a man of honor, who won a little less than in traditional suspensions.}

At the future economic theory of the concept of the most important role in the creation of new cards, including the supplementary product. So, the economy is new to the winery of capital city (organization) for organizing virobnitstva, initiation, rizik skinny. Tsya Vinogorod is a function of vi-corridor of all factor factors. At the same time, it’s possible with the rosaries of American tales of the problems of economic growth (the Cobb – Douglas model), a quick introduction to the newcomer’s wartiness becomes nearly 3/4, and the factor factor is 1/4. For such rіznih pіdhodіv to the mechanism of approval of new cards, navigate to the names її warehouses, showcase classically ideological pidtekst.

So, the Marxist political economy didn’t recognize (and not the visa) economically justify the added capitalism of the add-on product in the form of add-on wartost. On the basis of the first volume “Capital” of K. Marx and the Book, the necessary socialist revolution was formulated on the basis of the expropriation of private property, the fragmentation of the “expropriator” is proprietary.

The economists and theorists have not delayed at all and haven’t reached and don’t have added the mechanics of the viadocity of the pre-date wartosti, but they have to gain a little more (more income) as a natural function and power to capital. It’s not the way to live in such a term, like “dodatkova’s wart” or “wart”. Such a “piece slіpota” often became nonsense from the point of view to bring a healthy nest, and not only an ekonomist-doslednik. So, a little way to winery for organizing virobnitsva, yoga and innovation, innovation and rizik, ale dzherelo vinogorodi cherish a little need to be taken away, and then take precedence. The very zavdyaki to the pre-dairy product, the first ludina, was seeing a canalism, so that she ceased to receive her friends. It became more and more primusuvat people praciuvati. Thus, the first suspension has passed to the stage of development - slavlasnitsky.

With the appearance of the pre-dad product, the greatest hour for science appeared, the development of the mysterious skin, that is, the rose-coil of the spiritual sphere of humanity. The reason for this is that having entered the classically-ideological “shori” in analyzing the problem, I’m thinking of a number of authors, a few sense of the category of the most important product, so most of the time Остання в реальній економіці знаходить своє відображення у таких конкретних формах, як прибуток (у т. ч. торговельний), підприємницький дохід, рента, позичковий процент, які вивчають і марксистська політекономія, і економікс.

Капітал як економічні відносини

Таким чином, к апітал — це не просто гроші, а авансована вартість, яка в процесі свого руху приносить більшу вартість від первісно авансованої. З точки зору політекономічного розуміння сутності та змісту категорії «капітал» важливо враховувати, що перетворення грошових знаків на капітал передбачає наявність ряду як техніко-організаційних, так і соціально-економічних умов. Перша з них — це можливість і необхідність власника потенційного капіталу вступати у відносини з іншими продуцентами (виробниками) з приводу купівлі факторів виробництва. Друга — це те, що за умов недостатньої наявності хоча б одного зі згаданих факторів для організації ефективного виробництва, він може звернутись до відповідних ринкових інституцій (банків, інвестиційних фондів, трастів, лізингових компаній тощо).

Отже, перетворюючи свої кошти на капітал, його власник вступає в економічні відносини з різними господарюючими суб'єктами, які постачають через ринок необхідні йому товари (послуги), а також з індивідами, які отримують засоби для існування не від власної підприємницької діяльності, а від найманої праці за гроші (відповідну плату). Тобто капітал — це економічна категорія, котра виражає не стільки техніко-організаційні, скільки соціально-економічні відносини. Найрельєфніше вони виявляються у трудових відносинах.