Principles of Marketing - Philip Kotler


If the exchange? the basic concept of marketing as a scientific discipline, the basic unit of measurement in the field of marketing is the deal.

Deal? commercial exchange of values ​​between the two parties.

For this purpose, the side and the transmitting side B X object and received from it in return for the Y object. For example, Jones gives $ 400 to Smith. And receives a TV. This is a classic monetary transaction, although the presence of the money as a commercially exchanged values is not necessary. In a barter transaction in exchange for TV Jones will give Smith a refrigerator. Instead, the goods in a barter transaction can exchange services, for example when a lawyer is a testament Jones physician Smith in return for medical examination (see. Box 1).

The deal requires a few conditions: 1) at least two value-significant objects, 2) the agreed terms of implementation, 3) the commission agreed time, and 4) the agreed venue. As a rule, the terms of the transaction are supported and protected by law.

The transaction is to be distinguished from a simple transfer. When the transmission side A side B gives X an object does not give the return. Transfers relating to gifts, grants, fundraisers, and are one of the forms of exchange. After transmitting the gift counts for a particular benefit, such as a good location to himself, getting rid of feelings of guilt or a desire to put the other party in the position of the obliged. Professional fundraisers in various funds acutely aware of the motives of "reciprocity" that underlie the behavior of donors, and seek to ensure that folks are seeking for themselves. If of donors simply forget or do not show gratitude to him, the fund will soon lose their support. As a result, professional market makers recently began to broadly interpret the concept of marketing, including in its scope not only the study of the behavior in the course of transactions, but also to study the behavior in the course of transmission.

In carrying out the transfer market leader tends to cause a response to a particular proposal. This reaction is not the same as "buying" or "commercial exchange". The political candidate wants to get votes, the church wants to increase the number of parishioners, a group of public action? what it is called "perception of ideas." Marketing consists of actions taken in order to achieve any form of the desired response of the target audience in relation to any object, service or idea.

Box 1. Back - to barter

Due to the high prices now, thousands of people in the United States returned to the primitive practice of simple barter. Many find that you can make a commercial exchange of their products or services on the dates of their products or services of others. Lawyers, doctors and accountants exchange services, and some deft adherents of barter manage to get a haircut, take things to the dry cleaners, dental treatment and take advantage of other services without paying cash. The ranks of the members of the growing number of barter clubs replenished with lots of future practitioners of barter transactions.

A number of large companies also resorted to barter trade. A few years ago the company "Xerox" has offered to exchange its 200 desktop copiers worth about 800 thousand. USD. On the dates of her products, such as forklift trucks and tickets for their employees, seconded on official business. And there is nothing surprising in the fact that there were already specialized barter companies that help individuals and businesses to make barter transactions. One of these companies? "Barter Systems, Inc.". From the city of Oklahoma City? Barter has 62 centers in different parts of the United States. In one of the letters sent out specially selected group of 25 strong contingent of customers, and this treatment was "Wanted:.. Batch of powdered milk or corn flakes total value of 300 thousand dollars in a plane equivalent to the exchange value." Search for clients wishing to barter deal barter such organizations use a computer, and a future transaction, as in money transactions, provide loans. The salary to their employees, they usually pay the money, but with the consent of employees prefer to pay them durable goods and services.