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Marketing Basics - Kotler Philip


If an exchange? the basic concept of marketing as a scientific discipline, the main unit of measurement in the field of marketing is a transaction.

Deal ? commercial exchange of values ​​between two parties.

For this, it is necessary that side A transfer to side B an X object and receive from it an Igrek object in return. Let's say Jones gives Smith $ 400 and gets a TV. This is a classic money transaction, although the presence of money as commercially exchanged values ​​is not necessary. In a barter deal in exchange for a television, Jones will give Smith a fridge. Instead of goods, services can be exchanged during a barter transaction, for example, when a lawyer Jones makes a will to Doctor Smith in exchange for a medical examination (see Box 1).

The transaction involves several conditions: 1) at least two valuable objects, 2) the agreed conditions for its implementation, 3) the agreed time of completion, and 4) the agreed venue. As a rule, the terms of the transaction are supported and protected by law.

A transaction should be distinguished from a simple transfer. When transferring, side A gives side B an X object, without receiving anything in return. Transfers relate to gifts, subsidies, charity events, and are also a form of exchange. After all, a gift giving is counting on one or another benefit, such as a good disposition, getting rid of guilt, or a desire to put the other side in a position of obligation. Professional fundraisers of various kinds of funds acutely feel the motives of “reciprocity” that underlie the behavior of donors and strive to provide the benefits that they seek for themselves. If donors are simply forgotten or do not show them appreciation, then the fund will soon lose their support. As a result, professional market leaders have recently begun to broadly interpret the concept of marketing, including in its sphere not only the study of behavior during transactions, but also the study of behavior in the process of transfers.

When making a transfer, a market leader seeks to elicit a response to a particular offer. This reaction is not tantamount to a "purchase" or "commercial exchange." A political candidate wants to get votes, the church wants to increase the number of parishioners, a group of social actions? of what is called "perception of an idea." Marketing consists of actions taken to achieve in any form the desired response of the target audience in relation to any object, service or idea.

Box 1. Back to barter

Due to the high prices today, thousands of people in the United States are returning to the primitively simple practice of barter. Many find that it is possible to make a commercial exchange of their goods or services for the goods or services they need of others. Lawyers, doctors and accountants exchange services, and some clever followers of the exchange trade manage to get their hair cut, dry clean, treat their teeth and use other services without paying in cash. The ranks of members of the ever-growing number of exchange clubs are replenished with a multitude of future practitioners of exchange transactions.

A number of large firms also resort to barter trade . A few years ago, Xerox offered to exchange 200 of its desktop copiers, worth about $ 800,000, for the goods it needed, such as forklift trucks and airline tickets for its business travelers. And there is nothing surprising in the fact that specialized barter companies have already appeared to help individuals and firms to carry out exchange operations. One such company? Barter Systems, Inc. from Oklahoma City? It has 62 merchants in various parts of the United States. One of the letters sent to a specially selected group of 25,000 customers of the company included the following appeal: “Required: a batch of dried milk or corn flakes for a total value of 300 thousand dollars in exchange for a plane of equal value.” Such barter organizations use computers to search for customers who want to make a trade exchange transaction, and provide loans for future transactions, as well as for cash transactions. They usually pay salaries to their employees in money, but with the consent of the workers, they prefer to pay with them durable goods and services.