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Marketing Basics - Kotler Philip

Ways to communicate with the audience

How to get in touch with sample members? By phone, mail or in person.

Phone interview ? the best method of collecting information as soon as possible. During his interviewer has the opportunity to clarify questions incomprehensible to the interviewee. Two main disadvantages of telephone interviews: you can only interview those who have a telephone, and the conversation should be brief in time and not be too personal.

A questionnaire sent by mail may be the best way to get in touch with people who either do not agree to a personal interview or that the interviewer may influence their responses. However, a postal questionnaire requires simple, clearly formulated questions, and the percentage and / or rate of return of such questionnaires is usually low.

Personal interview ? the most versatile of the three survey methods. The interviewer can not only ask more questions, but also supplement the results of the conversation with his personal observations. Personal interview? the most expensive of the three methods and requires more careful administrative planning and control.

Are there two types of personal interviews? individual and group.

Individual interviews involve visiting people at home or at the place of work or meeting with them on the street. The interviewer must enlist their cooperation, and the conversation itself can last from several minutes to several hours. In some cases, the respondent is given a small amount of money or a small gift as compensation for the time spent.

A group interview consists in inviting 6 × 10 people for several hours to talk with a specially trained interviewer about a product, service, organization, or some other marketing problem. The host should have high qualifications, objectivity, knowledge of the topic and industry of the activity that will be discussed, and the ability to understand the specific dynamics of group and consumer behavior. Otherwise, the results of the conversation may be useless or misleading. For participation in the conversation, respondents are usually paid a small monetary reward. The conversation, as a rule, takes place in a pleasant environment (for example, in an apartment), and in order to further emphasize its ease, invited guests are served soft drinks. The host starts the conversation with general questions such as “How do you feel before flying on an airplane?” The following questions relate to how people perceive pre-flight, flight, and after-flight service, and, finally, what feelings do they have for Allegheni and each of its competing airlines. The facilitator encourages a free and easy exchange of views between interviewees in the hope that the dynamics of group behavior will reveal their true feelings and thoughts. Statements are recorded manually or using a tape recorder and then studied, trying to figure out how consumers make purchase decisions. Group interviews are becoming one of the main research tools of marketing, allowing a deeper understanding of the thoughts and feelings of consumers12.

Collection of information

Having developed a research project, it is necessary to collect information. As a rule, this is the most expensive and most error-prone phase of the study. When conducting surveys, four major problems arise at once. Some interviewees may not be at home or at work, and an attempt to make contact with them will have to be repeated. Others may refuse to participate in the survey. Still others may respond biased or insincere. And finally, the presenter himself may be biased and insincere.

When conducting experiments, researchers need to carefully monitor the consistency of the experimental and control groups, not exert influence on the participants with their presence, give instructions in a completely uniform way, and monitor compliance with all other conditions.

Analysis of collected information

The next phase of marketing research? extraction of the most important information and results from the totality of the obtained data. The researcher summarizes the data in tables. Based on these tables, indicators such as frequency distribution, average levels and degree of dispersion are derived or calculated. Then the researcher, hoping to get additional information, processes the data using modern statistical techniques and decision models used in the marketing information analysis system.

Presentation of the results

The researcher should not overwhelm marketing managers with the amount and sophistication of the statistical techniques they use. This will only confuse managers. It is necessary to present the main results needed by the management of the company to make the main, pressing marketing decisions. A study is useful when it helps reduce the uncertainty faced by marketing professionals. Here, by the way, what happened in the case of Allegheni.

Researchers have found that most people continue to consider this airline a very small company, despite the fact that it has reached the sixth place among the largest air carriers nationwide. The worst thing was that passengers preferred large airlines to small ones, being sure that flying with large companies was safer, that they had more experienced pilots and that large companies were generally more reliable. Based on the results, Allegheny responded in the form of an advertising campaign designed to convince people that they have the same “big” company as Pan American, Transworld Airlines and American Airlines. In television advertisements, in newspapers and magazines, statements such as the following appeared:

• The airline must be large in order to carry more than one million more passengers annually than Pan American.

• The airline must be large in order to fly more flights daily than TransWorld Airlines.

• The airline must be large in order to serve more American cities than American Airlines.

Researchers have also found out that part of the company's problems is related to its name. When Allegheni was a company of local lines, it was nicknamed the “airline of suffering” because its small planes flew through the weather, and not above it, like large jet liners. As a result, in flight, passengers often felt like riding on a bumpy road, and aircraft were often late. In addition, the name tied the company to a small region of the United States, although it has already flown to many parts of the country. The solution to this problem was to replace the name with “Yu.S. air. " The new name sounded like the name of the "big" airline and reminded them of travelers about the nationwide routes of the company.

Since then, the company "Yu. S. Air "continues to grow. After the advertising campaign, not only the number of business people increased, but also the number of families and vacationers using its aircraft. Marketing research and advertising campaign based on its results were successful. The airline gained great fame, more passengers began to use its services13.