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|the main Marketing Marketing Basics - Kotler Philip|
Marketing Basics - Kotler Philip
In the 1960s, there was growing public concern about whether industrial activity in developed countries was destroying the natural environment . In her book Silent Spring, Rachel Carson5 spoke about the damage caused to water, soil, and air by certain industries. Vigilance groups emerged, such as the Sierra Club and Friends of the Earth, and anxious lawmakers began to put forward various environmental measures. Changes in the environment affect the products that firms produce and offer to the market.
DEFICIENCY OF SOME KINDS OF RAW MATERIALS . Water and air may seem inexhaustible types of natural resources, but some groups of environmentalists see a threat to them in the future. These groups advocate prohibiting the sale of certain aerosolized drugs, as they can potentially harm the ozone layer in the atmosphere. And with water in several parts of the world problems have arisen today.
The use of renewable resources, such as forest and food, requires attention. In order to preserve the soil and ensure a sufficient amount of timber to meet future demand, logging companies must restore plantations in the cut down areas. Food supply can be a major problem, as agricultural land is limited and increasingly devoted to housing and commercial use.
A serious problem arises from the depletion of non-renewable resources such as oil, coal and other minerals.
Today, it seems that there is already a shortage of platinum, gold, zinc and lead ... By the end of the century, even with rising prices, silver, tin and uranium could become scarce. Keeping current consumption levels by 2050, reserves and a number of other minerals may be depleted6.
Even with raw materials, the activities of companies that use scarce minerals can be complicated and require much higher costs. And shifting these costs onto the shoulders of the consumer will probably not be easy. Firms involved in research and development can partially alleviate the problem by opening up new valuable sources of raw materials and creating new materials.
ENERGY ENERGY . The most serious problem of ensuring economic development in the future arose in connection with one of the non-renewable types of natural resources? oil. The economies of the world's leading industrialized countries are largely dependent on oil supplies, and until economically viable substitutes for this energy are found, oil will continue to play a dominant role in world politics and economics. The high cost of oil (which jumped from $ 2.23 per barrel in 1970 to $ 34.00 per barrel in 1982) created a feverish search for alternative energy sources. Coal has become popular again, research is being conducted to find practical ways to use solar, nuclear, wind and other types of energy. Only in the field of solar energy use, hundreds of companies offer equipment for heating residential premises and other purposes7.
GROWTH OF POLLUTION ENVIRONMENT . Industrial activity almost always harms the state of the environment. Think about the disposal of chemical and nuclear waste, the dangerous levels of mercury in the waters of the seas and oceans, the content of DDT and other chemical pollutants in the soil and food, as well as the clogging of the environment with bottles, plastic products and other packaging materials that are not resistant biochemical decomposition.
Public concern opens up a good marketing opportunity for sensitively responsive firms. A capacious market for pollution control products is being created, such as scrubbers and aggregates, working on the technology of recycling raw materials. The search begins for alternative methods of production and packaging of goods without harming the environment8.
DECISIVE INTERVENTION OF THE STATE IN THE PROCESS OF RATIONAL USE AND REPRODUCTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES . The management of the marketing service should keep all these problems in view in order to be able to obtain the natural resources necessary for the firm’s activities without harming the environment. In this sense, entrepreneurial activity is likely to come under strong control both from government bodies and from influential public groups. Instead of resisting all forms of regulation, business should participate in the search for acceptable solutions to the country's problems of supplying material resources and energy.