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Principles of Marketing - Philip Kotler
In the process of procurement of manufactured goods the buyer is faced with the necessity of making a number of decisions. The number of solutions depends on the type of situation the commission of purchase.
MAIN TYPES OF SITUATIONS ARE PURCHASING. There are three main types of situations the commission zakupok3. On the one hand, this re-procurement unchanged, to commit that requires a fairly standard everyday decision. On the other hand, it is for the purchase of new challenges, the solution of which may require an in-depth study. An intermediate position between them takes repeat purchase with the changes, a decision to which requires some preliminary study. Examples of these situations are shown in Fig. 40.
Fig. 40. Three types of situations the commission of procurement for the needs of industry
Re-purchase of the same. Re-procurement without changes is the situation in which the buyer gives a repeat order for anything, without making any changes to it. So often burn orders, for example, the usual stationery. With such a situation, usually consults routinely logistics department. The buyer selects suppliers according to his list, depending on how satisfied he previously made purchases. "Selected" providers try to maintain the quality level of their products and services. Often they offer to use the system will automatically re-orders to a purchasing agent do not waste time on their appearance. Suppliers that are not included in the circle of the "elect", strive to offer something new, or play on the buyer dissatisfaction. They are trying to say, stick a foot in the door by doing a small order, and over time to achieve the increase attributable to their "share of purchases."
Re-procurement with the changes. Repeated purchase with change - a situation in which the buyer wants to the issuance of re-order changes that are related to the technical characteristics of the product, the price and other terms of delivery, or to change the part of suppliers. So often give repeated orders for new equipment or component parts. Repeated purchase with change usually requires an expansion of the circle of decision-makers about it. Previously, "selected" suppliers get nervous and have to try my best to keep the client. Suppliers that do not belong in the range of "elite", consider this situation as an opportunity to make a better offer, thus tying new contacts.
Purchase to meet new challenges. New challenges confront the company, procuring a product or service for the first time. In such a situation it is a firm establishes in a first computer system or to undertake the construction of a new plant. The higher costs and / or the degree of risk, the greater the number of participating in decision-making and the greater the amount of information they need. The situation with the procurement of new challenges for the market leader opens a huge opportunity and throws him to the lower classes. He not only tries to make contact with as many people that have a major impact on the decision, but he provides information and assists. Since the purchase to meet new challenges associated with complex commercial negotiations, for their reference, many companies form of their best sellers so-called targeted sales teams.
KEY CONSIDERATIONS IN DECISION-MAKING ON PROCUREMENT. The smallest number of decisions falls on the share of the buyer, to make repeated purchases unchanged, the largest - in situations of purchases to meet new challenges. When making purchases for the new tasks the buyer will have to determine for themselves: 1 technical characteristics of the product, 2) limits the price, 3) time and terms of delivery, 4) maintenance conditions, 5) the payment terms 6) The size of the order, 7) suitable suppliers and 8) the "chosen" provider. In every decision is influenced by the different involved in this process, the person, and the sequence of decision resheniyvaetsya complete the purchase. For the first time they took advantage of the government in the procurement of major weapons and communications systems. Instead of changing from case to case.
ROLE OF COMPLETE PURCHASE AND SALE COMPLETE. Many buyers prefer to solve their problems in a complex and time, without taking many individual decisions. This approach nazykupat components separately, and then to reduce them together, it was to invite proposals for contracts from prime contractors, who themselves had to make the necessary set or desired system. The general contractor, has received a contract, is responsible for the request for proposals for the supply of certain components and their packaging into an organic whole.
Vendors are increasingly aware of the desire of buyers to precisely this purchase and have mastered its part as one of the tools of marketing practice complete sales. Complete the sale has two forms. The first - when a supplier sells a group of related products. For example, not only the adhesive is sold, but also means for applying and drying it. Second - when the supplier sells the production system, inventory management, distribution system and other services to meet the needs of the buyer to ensure the smooth functioning of his business. Complete sales - the main element of industrial marketing strategy designed to attract and retain customers. The successful use of one of these systems describes in Box 13.
Box 13 of the company "Standard's Register" Success in sales documentation forms
The company "Standard's Register" is not a leader among manufacturers of business forms documentation on the orders of other companies, it is somewhere between the second and third places. However, the strong performance of the company sales are so stable that many consider it to be a leader in many areas of marketing business documentation forms.
Clientele of the company consists of 26 thousand. Companies of various types and sizes. The smallest customers buy only one form, and in modest amounts, and one hundred largest - is spent annually on the purchase offered by "Standard's Register" forms more than $ 100 million The company sells these customers forms virtually all related to goods documents: warehouse receipts on.. acceptance of the goods for storage, forms and certificates of purchase invoices, forms for computers, typewriters and texture machines, single letterhead multiple copies (with carbon paper and without it), self-adhesive labels. The key to success of the company is its ability to adapt products and services to customer needs.
One of the methods of activity of the company "Standard's Register" attractive for customers - a method of service of Brigadier, when the affairs of large customer sales agent engaged in two - major and minor. Brigadier service ensures that if one salesman sick or left work, there is always another, just as thoroughly aware of the client's case. Another advantage - the possibility of more frequent contacts between the sales agents of the company and the customer. The company "Standard's Register" has determined that the brigade maintenance sales tend to increase, and the consumer receives additional services. According to one customer, the organization "American Life heritidzh" salesman of the company is at it twice a week. Another customer reported that he visited at least three times a week. And both believe that the attention paid to them - one of the strengths of the attractive features of the company "Standard's Register".
Among the organizations it serves the company "Standard's Register" and is known for its efficient system forms means for individual customer needs. This system is aimed at cost savings of the customer, providing him with all the necessary forms and guarantees the availability of the necessary forms at any time. To reduce the company "Standard's Register 'costs in all cases, where possible, trying not to develop completely new forms and adapting existing ones. In addition, the company maintains an ongoing current account of all forms as existing stock, and newly commissioned and are in operation, a breakdown for each individual client. To meet customers' Standard's Register "requests develops in relation to the specifics of each of them the most efficient and cost-effective customized the award system. In an effort to reach the representatives of the greatest possible number of branches of activity, the company "Standard's Register" has recently placed its advertising system forms means for the needs of individual customers can not trade publication, and in the popular "Business Week," a national magazine.
Significant marketing efforts are focused on the company and the health sector, especially since hospitals are spending a lot of money for the purchase of stationery. To attract health organizations among its customers "Standard's Register" advertises in publications Profile hospital. The ads emphasized that the company can promote the economic efficiency of the hospital by reducing paper paperwork. Trained salespeople teams learn medical terminology, hospital management structure and ways to reduce paperwork. According to "Standard's Register", it has already covered its services from 15% to 20% of the health of the market, while the market of business documentation forms as a whole, its share is only 7%.