- Flowers and plants
- Aquarium and fish
- For work
- For site
- For training
- Postal Codes of Ukraine
- Digital Libraries
- Registers of Ukraine
- Old Brewing Books
- Dictionary of Old Slavonic words
- All Pelevin's novels
- 50 books for children
- Strugatsky, compositions in 33 volumes
- Posts by Leonardo da Vinci
- Human behavior biology
|the main Marketing Marketing Basics - Kotler Philip|
Marketing Basics - Kotler Philip
We already know that the consumer uses the information in order to compose for himself a set of stamps from which the final choice is made . The question is how exactly the choice is made among several alternative brands, how the consumer evaluates the information.
Several basic concepts will help us shed light on evaluating options. Firstly, there is a concept of product properties. We believe that every consumer considers any given product as a specific set of properties. Here are some properties that interest buyers in a number of well-known classes of products:
• Cameras: the sharpness of the resulting photographs, shutter speed range, size, price.
• Hotels: location, cleanliness, atmosphere, value.
• Dental elixir: color, effectiveness, price, taste and aroma.
• Bras: comfort, fit, durability, price, style.
• Lipstick: color, type of packaging, fat content, prestige, taste and aroma.
• Tires: safety, durability of a protector, smoothness of a ride, price.
The above-mentioned properties are usually of interest to everyone, but different consumers consider different properties relevant for themselves. A person pays most attention to properties that are related to his need.
Secondly, the consumer is inclined to give different weight indicators of significance to properties that he considers relevant for himself. A distinction can be made between the importance of a property or its characteristic, i.e. noticeability 20. Characteristic properties are those that first come to the mind of the consumer when asked to think about the quality of the product. A marketer should in no way consider that these very properties are necessarily the most important. Some of them may turn out to be characteristic because the consumer has just been exposed to commercial circulation, where they were mentioned, or encountered a problem in connection with them, as a result of which these properties came to his forefront. Moreover, the product may have more important properties, but the consumer simply forgets to mention them.
Thirdly, the consumer is inclined to create a set of beliefs about brands when each individual brand is characterized by the degree of presence of each individual property in it. A set of beliefs about a particular brand product is known as the brand image. Consumer beliefs can range from knowing the true properties from personal experience to knowledge arising from selective perception, selective distortion, and selective memorization.
Fourth, it is believed that the consumer attributes a utility function to each property . The utility function describes the degree of expected satisfaction with each individual property. For example, Betty Smith can expect that camera satisfaction will increase as the lens aperture increases. And the greatest satisfaction will come from a not too light and not too heavy camera, preferably 35 mm format, not 135 mm. The combination of property levels with the highest utility will give a "portrait" of the ideal camera, from Betty's point of view. In addition, the preference of this brand will depend on its availability on the market and affordability.
Fifthly, the attitude to branded alternatives is formed by the consumer as a result of his assessment. And consumers make brands differently21.