Principles of Marketing - Philip Kotler

Basics sale of art

Many salespeople simply do not know how to sell (see. Box 39). One of the main objectives of the course - to give them knowledge about the art of selling. Companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars for seminars, training books, tapes, and other educational materials. Each year, sold out nearly a million copies of books on commerce with exciting titles such as: "How to get ahead of the born of a Salesman," "How to sell anything to anyone," "Opportunities inspired commerce", "How I succeeded in six hours thanks to the assertive selling", "Where to go further, becoming the first? "," thousands "of ways to increase sales of a salesman." One of the most enduring works of this type is Dale Carnegie's book "How to Win Friends and Influence People."

The whole system of education aimed at making the commercial agent of the company receiving the passive orders in their active earner. Inspector orders are based on the following assumptions: 1) the consumer knows its own needs; 2) he will oppose any attempt to exert influence on him; 3) He prefers to deal with polite, modest, unobtrusive commercial travelers. As an example of the company receiving orders can cause the typical traveling salesman of the company "Fuller brush", which daily knocks on the door and dozens just wondered if the consumer any brush or brushes needed.

When training to be a traveling salesman earner orders it taught one of two basic approaches - focus on sales and customer orientation. In the first approach, the traveling salesman teach techniques and marketing methods under intense pressure used by, say, the sale of encyclopedias and cars. Among the advantages of these techniques exaggeration commodity critique competitors' products, the use of carefully pre-tested in advance presentations, advertising itself and offer concessions for the immediate issuance of the order. This form of marketing is based on the assumptions that 1) the consumer is unlikely to make a purchase, except under pressure; 2) the consumer is influenced by a smooth presentation, and the charm of the seller and 3) it will not regret that he had signed the order, and if it is, it does not matter.

The second approach is to teach the Salesman to be an assistant in solving the problems faced by the client. He is taught how to identify customer needs and propose effective ways to meet them. This approach is based on the assumptions that: 1) the consumer has the latent needs are in terms of the company its business opportunities; 2) the consumer appreciates sensible suggestions; 3) the consumer is true salesman who takes to heart its long-term interests. As part of the concept of marketing salesman is more consistent with the image of an assistant in solving problems, rather than the image of a tough, aggressive seller or the simple image of the company receiving orders.

Most curricula sale process is considered as a succession of stages, each of which must be mastered to perfection salesman. The steps shown in the diagram in Fig. Low: 13 and 82 are described.

The main stages of an effective sales process

Fig. 82. The main stages of an effective sales process

Box 39. How well do trained salespeople?

Vice-president of one of the largest food companies in the week watching 50 visits to busy business travelers purchaser largest supermarket chain. Here are some of his observations.

By the purchaser was a salesman of the company that sells soap. He proposed three new sales promotions and six different dates of their conduct. He had nothing with them in writing ... After his departure, the buyer looked at me and said, "I still have 15 minutes to understand all this."

To come to another purchaser and a salesman, said: "Since I was in your area, I want you to know that next week we spend most new campaign to stimulate sales." "Excellent, said the buyer. - And what is the essence of this campaign, "" I do not know - said the salesman. - Next week, I'll come to you and tell you everything. " Buyer asked, and what is he doing here today. Salesman replied: "Just turned in your area."

Another salesman, went in, and said: "Perhaps it is time to execute the order right now - it's time to prepare for the summer," Well, George, - said the buyer. - Tell me, how much I just bought from you last year "" Who the hell knows? "- The question uttered startled salesman. Most salespeople were ill-prepared, could not answer basic questions, and did not know what exactly did they want to achieve in the course of the visit. They did not consider your visit as a pre-thought-out professional presentation. They had no real idea of ​​the real needs and demands of the employed retailer.

AND EVALUATION finding potential buyers. The first stage of the sales process is the identification of potential buyers. Although the company and gives targeting potential customers, the salesman should be able to find their own potential customers. To do this, he can use the following methods: 1) requesting the names of potential customers from existing customers; 2) the development of other sources of information, such as distributors, dealers, salesmen, non-competitors, the bankers, officials of trade associations; 3) The entry into the organization, whose members are the potential customers; 4) maintenance of personal contacts and correspondence to keep drawing attention to themselves; 5) Study of data sources (newspapers, magazines) in search of names of potential customers; 6) access to potential customers via phone and email; 7) The visits to various institutions without prior arrangement.

Salesman should be able to weed out unpromising potential buyers. Potential customers can be assessed in terms of their financial capacity, business volume, their specific requirements, location and probability of establishing long-term cooperation.

PROVISIONAL preparation for the visit. Salesman should as much as possible and learn about the company - Lead (its needs and requirements, the circle of people involved in making procurement decisions), and buyers themselves (about the traits of their character and style of purchasing behavior). To learn more about the companies - potential customers, salesman can use the official sources of information (manuals, "Moody's", "Standard and Poor", "Dun and Brad Street"), the information received from friends and other persons. Before each visit, a salesman must set yourself specific tasks: either to qualify (ie to evaluate..), A potential client, or obtain information or to make an immediate agreement to sell. The next task is to decide on the best method of approach to the client: personal visit, phone call, or writing a letter. It is necessary to think about the most suitable contact time, because in certain periods of time, many potential customers are busy. Finally, the salesman should consider the overall strategic approach to trade relations with the customer.

Approach to the client. Salesman should know how to meet and greet a customer to lay a good start, followed by relations. In this case, play the role and appearance of a Salesman, and his opening words, and his subsequent comments. Salesman must wear about as well as wearing the buyer shall be with him polite and attentive, should avoid distracting mannerisms, say, vyshagivaniya back and forth around the room or close scrutiny of the client. Opening speech of the traveling salesman must always be positive, for example: "Mr. Smith, I - Bill Jones of the company" ABC ". My company and I personally appreciate your willingness to accept me. I will do my best to make this visit brought to you and your company benefit and favor. " Then you can set the number of the most important questions or show samples to attract customer's attention and arouse his curiosity.

PRESENTATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF GOODS. After that, the buyer presents a salesman "story" about the product, demonstrating how the product will earn or save money. He tells about the properties of the goods, without, however, the emphasis on the benefits that the goods shall be the buyer. In an interview following the provisions of the salesman formula AIDA, ie attracts attention, maintains interest, stimulates desire and provides the action.

Firms use three types of presentations. The oldest method is in advance of the approach, in which a salesman learns to remember the basic provisions of its commercial story. Salesman selling encyclopedia can present it as "the only chance to purchase life," and focus on the beautiful full-color photos of sports bands hoping to awaken the desire to buy the publication. Pre-exhaust presentations are primarily for trade itinerant or by phone.

When approaching from the standpoint of the formulation of the client's needs and requests salesman first identify their needs and style of purchasing behavior and only then formulates them for it. To start a salesman pulls the customer in a conversation so that he himself talked about their needs and relationships, and then formulate them for it, he demonstrates how the product will be able to meet these needs.

When approaching a position to meet customer needs and demands of the salesman starts with the identification of the true needs of the customer, encouraging him to talk. This approach requires good listening skills and to quickly find solutions to problems. It is very well described by one of the sales agents of the corporation "IBM", "I literally get into the business of my major clients, he split open the key problems, he would recommend a solution to these problems for schetispolzovaniya my company's systems, and sometimes even at the expense of attraction of individual products from other vendors . I am convinced in advance that my company's system really help customers to save or make money. Then, I work together with the client in the process of installing the system and checking the effectiveness "14.
Quality sales presentations can be enhanced through the use of visual aids such as brochures, folding schemes, slides, films and field samples of the goods. The more buyers the opportunity to see and try out the product, the better it will remember its properties and benefits.

OVERCOMING OBJECTIONS. As in the course of the presentation, and in order to give the proposal the client almost always arise objections. His opposition could be explained by a psychological characteristics or logical considerations. Faced with the objections, the salesman continued positive approach line, asking the customer to explain the essence of his objections and put questions so that the client himself had to reply to its objections. Salesman denies the validity of the objection or the objection turns into an additional argument in favor of making a purchase.

Conclusion of the transaction. After that, the salesman tries to complete the transaction. Some traveling salesman can not reach this stage, others do not know how it should be carried out. They either do not have enough confidence, or they feel guilty for having insisted on receiving the order, or do not feel the onset of the right psychological moment to complete the transaction. Salesman should be able to understand the signs of buyer readiness, such as certain physical actions, statements, comments, questions. To complete the transaction salesman can use one of several methods. It can directly ask for an order to repeat the main points of the agreement, to offer assistance office support staff in ordering, ask what kind of product - "A" or "B" - wants to get the buyer to get the buyer to do some fine choices - for example, choose color or size - or to make it clear that the buyer has paid off, if you do not place the order immediately. Salesman and buyer can offer certain benefits, for example a favorable price, a free supply of a certain quantity of goods or a gift.

Pushed to the end of the transactions and check the results. This last step is necessary in cases where the salesperson wants to ensure customer satisfaction and repeat business relies on. Immediately upon conclusion of the transaction the salesman must finalize all the necessary details concerning the time and conditions of delivery and other aspects in connection with the transaction. He must plan your subsequent verification visit in such a way that by the time the buyer has received the goods and you can check whether there is an installation, whether a reliable guidance and proper maintenance are provided correctly. The visit will identify any problems and to convince the buyer to interest in it on the part of the traveling salesman.