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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest

Social services in Getmanschin

New to know . On the cob of the XVIII century. At the top of the suspension structure of the Getmanshchy, the new people have already confirmed themselves. The end of the law was better than the previous one, because more and more European suspensions didn’t know the other way to manage the political and social life, except for the fact that it’s On the whole, Livoberezhya gained plenty of rice, more formed and more stable, more diluted suspension than ever, quietly, but they were already lost. nih kraїnakh, de nob has occupied a pan іnvne stavische.

Nayyaskravіshim svіdchennyam overpower elitism in Getmanshchina bulo "Badge Vіyskovo partnership . " On the lists listed were names that were matured and from elders ’homelands, they hadn’t been taken by any towns, and if there was a vacancy, they could deny their singing appointment. In the 1760s, the partnership of organizing behind the collapsible ієrarchіy and included 1300 industrial names. In addition, nearly 800 people died, but actually planted land. Thus, in the middle of the XVIII century. nearly 2100 noble members iz ponad 1 million foreign population was stored at the top of the Getmanshchyna. In 1785, if the пера imperator’s detachment, having tested the test, turn on the Ukrainian to know before the Russian nobility, the figure grew up in December. Through those schools in St. Petersburg, without being convinced that, as such, they had the honor of nobility in Getmanshchyna, thousands of other Ukrainian officials and zamozhenshih goats claimed the status of a nobleman, but from them it was false to submit false documents.

From the title of nobility the first land puppets appeared. The elders ix gave the hetmani king. In bagatokh vipadok, the officers illegally dominated the secluded lands of the land. The heir of 1735 p. ponad 35% of the oblubryuvannyh lands of the Getmanshchina bulo private property nobility. Regardless of their lands, the gentry, moreover, reigned over 11% of the land. Otzhe, mensh yak 1 % of the population Volodya may 50 % of the land.

Yak and skryz in Europe, the bagatos were spread among the middle nobility. Kіlka Rodin, especially those who looked like hetman, colonels and members of the general sergeant-general, who, as a result of their own energy, denied the magnificent latifundians . For example, Mazepa Volodіv was 19,654 mothers, Skoropadskyi - 18882, Apostle - 9103. The maturity of the middle representative of the elder of the Bula, the modest and first of all, was one mother of 30 villagers, which is a third of the middle village of Volodymyr. Numerous figures about those who in Hetmanshchyna know the number of people, are at home in Russia, and the closure of the village - in advance. But if I weren’t a Bula kozatska foreman (but a gentry, as if I had a title for myself) - with a baguette and a shit — I wondered equally with a villager and a goat. Vidshih Pershivaya vimagala all the obnoxious dues, the damsel and the special service, and at the same time, the bogeyman and the goats bought the ground and threatened the land with such threats, such as the villagers.

Meshkantsі Liberation Ukraine: gentry and Cossack colonel. Kіnets XVIII century

Meshkantsі Liberation Ukraine: gentry and Cossack colonel. Kіnets XVIII century

Suspicious antagonism between the black and the eldest mav is important for political reasons, giving the tsar’s government the opportunity to have one faith in Ukrainian slavery. So, in the XVII century. Moscow pidtrimuvala national masi against the Cossack elders, if the remainder went to the end to see the superior kingdom; at the XVIII century tsars, on the run, helped elders, make sure that the separatist namagan fails, see the settlement, see how much more lodging Ukrainian citizens know of the Russian monarchies. In this way, although the deceitful representatives of the noble and nadal lost the Hetman traditions and traditions of self-determination, bagato from them, from practical ones, expressed their loyalty to the Russian monarchs.

Particularly strong pro-imperial ori- entation was written in 1785, if Katerina II matured in Ukrainian knowledge of the Russian nobility at her “Charter of noble liberties” . We are so affable, on the other hand, for older officers, they have the opportunity to testify to Kar'єru, as if they were curious about the possession of the new magnificent Zagarban of Russia. The representatives of the Ukrainian nobility brutally planted no less in the empire administration area of ​​the country, and unfortunately, they have conquered the lands of the Caucasus.

On Kinets XVIII century Ukrainians have occupied a number of the most beautiful villages in the empire. In the 1770s and 1780s, the homelands of Bezborodkiv, Zavadovskih, Kochubiev and Troshchinskiy were given chancellors and ministers, as well as they helped their countrymen to get rid of the signposts for drinking in St. Petersburg. The number of special opportunities and excursions provided by the service of the empire, to explain with a significant amount to those for whom the liquidity of the Getmanshchyna is such a weak opir mid Ukrainian knowledge. And osklki prosuvannya on service vimagalo of knowledge of the imperial culture, bagatos of Ukrainian noblemen were imagined to see their barbarian Cossack go to the European style, repaired the Rosemary of France. More than okremі elders, they seemingly amiably amazed at the romantics, they grieve for the unhealthy Hetman and that for the long-standing Cossack glory.

Zanapad cossava . Pislya rebel 1648 p. Cossacks browning with wide privileges. Vіyskova service gave the Cossacks the right to land redemption and called for a fee, it allowed mothers to self-deduce, to conduct bargaining, as well as to swivel a grave - privilege, but earlier having landed a gentry. Viddak, as a result of the size of the bolsheviks, there were fewer kozaks who had seen the villagers, they were right that they’ve got the same amount of money; One, scho-za was defended by the Cossacks, - tse zmushuvati peasants v_dbuvati panshchina - right, sho zerigolosya exceptionally for the gentry. Ale popri sun і tsi liberties z kіntsya XVII Art. to stand up for the post-mortem of the establishment of an ordinary cossack.

Unsurprisingly overwhelmingly filled with elders, simple Cossacks lost such important political prerogatives, as the right to rob the foreman and take the fate of the Rada. More serious problems for them, they shouted at the very nature of the Cossack life, like they had a lot of water time and villagers and warriors. To the rebel 1648 p. the Cossacks could have seen such a role, the fragments of the bullet were short, the big one was great, and the subsidies from the Polish policeman gave a supplementary move. But for the tsar of the conflict, such as the 21st anniversary of the war, they dragged on without the edge. Navigate at the peace time, the Russian officers often glanced over to the prazuvati in Budapest Ukraine, the channel was so thin.

V_dbuvayuchi to the trivial and shaved service with a hairy cat, the Cossacks often climbed the Borg. As a result, they were sold to their creditors from middlemen of the elders, often in vain and at low prices, selling sacking in their colossal lands like yekendrei, viconuy duty, analogous selyansky. More than an unappealing Cossack, she was fortunate enough to achieve the title of sergeant-major, and on a skin day, became a grandfather important. Thus, the non-fall of the fishery has passed through the number of 50 yews. at 1650 p. to DA yew. from 1669 i to 20 yew. at 1730 p.

It is turbaned by tsim a monster of Tsar’s Vlad in 1723 p. I suddenly at 1728 p. zaborilila sales of Cossack lands. But if you come in, it appears to be more ineffective, symptoms of twisting, and not just the reasons for it, are more pronounced. At 1735 p. The Getmanshchina’s squad went into the depths of wider reforms, adding more goats to two categories: the most ignored poor goats, which were called viborny, and quietly, which were buoyant, so that you can buy your own quick list (first). At that hour, the war was fought, the small businessmen of Mali took care of their good fortune, serving as the giants to navigate the land of the land. Pidomniks were cluttered with a quitrent, schopravda, double the identity of the village. In fact, the Bolsheviks Cossacks turned to the servants of their sovereign comrades and foremen. Take into account the economic stability of the whole cossacks and the distant pogirshuvalos. In 1764 p. at registers financials 175 yew. viborny kozakі i 198 tis. Підпомічників. Ale actually dear boules more than 10 yew. viborny kozakіv. Grown as well as the number of bargaining of the Cossack gratitude. Until the end of the year, the greater number of goats fell to the level of the sovereign villagers. Confessing to the cordon, and at the same time consuming it, protect them from economic difficulties, rebuilding the elders in the great land masters, building up with the right people - all this was called before the goat in Ukraine ceased to exist.

Meshkantsі Lіvoberezhnyї Ukraine: the peasant and the villager. Kіnets XVIII century

Meshkantsі Lіvoberezhnyї Ukraine: the peasant and the villager. Kіnets XVIII century

Repeatedly closed villagers . The settlement of the villagers Livoberezhzha (the unclosed villagers, who have little in Europe, lacked a lot), like the settlement of the Kozakivs, was permanently dead, mostly at the time of the Great Rebel 1648 p. Later, gettin’s boogdan Khmelnitsky got accustomed come in and turn old tidy orders, a hetman letting go of the good monasteries and taking away from the villagers. A rare fall of the settlement was placed at the XVII century, as long as that autonomous “settlement of the country” was registered in the land fund of the Hetmanshchyna to the indivisible land shakers of the foreman.

On the spot, the hair-lifters took a modest rental fee and goiters, called for their rentals, and also robots, like logging, firewood and transported shipping. During Mazepi’s hour, the maximum labor duty grew up to two days per week; although I want to give a damn weighty hour, if the villagers Livoberezhja didn’t go out of duty, more than half became a half of the third of the panschin service of Polish and Russian villagers. Throughout one generation, the middle triviality of the panschin grew up to three days a day, and the undercoddy was weakened by chotirioh-p'yati days. In addition, at the period of the village of Mali, there is an opportunity to impeccably conduct, wait, take off your hats, build bridges and open robots. As far as the villagers got involved in the zahist up to the Russian monarchs, then there was little sympathy, the share of the Russian villagers in the Bula nabagato girshoy was found. The butt of the fitted rosiyskogo krypak, having spared more mercilessly exploiting the Ukrainian peasant.

І All the same, the docks of the villagers, the right to deprive one’s pan, win, go to the blissful household, settle in the village of Chidi in the steppe. For one of the reasons, the foreman for piddrimki rossyskogo squad progressively deducted the right to transfer the villagers. Law 1727 p . having transferred, scho, depriving their feudal lords, the villagers lost the right to lane, as it belonged to the old misc, and from 1760 p . the villagers are guilty of bulimy rivimuvati at the pan of the letter dialed for relocation. Having lost the legitimate right of kidati pan, the Bagato villagers of the Getmanshchina went into the process of being blocked by the law. We love the fellow priest for the thousands of people who would like to give Zaporizhzhya’s land, which gave Katerina II the Dodatkov’s address for the familiarity of Sich. At 1783 p . Katerina II zrobila left at the right hand of Crok, zaboronivshi livoberezhnymi villagers for any kind of furnishings depriving their feudal lords. Vіdtak through 130 rіkіv pіslya svogo vizvolennya at 1648 p. livoberezhny peasant again becoming a croak.

Zanepad of bourgeoisie . In the agrarian 'organization of Getmanism, the citizens recognized the discrimination of discrimination. For a vignette of such hetman, like Mazepa and the Apostle, the cossack adminstratsii at once was quick to ignore them, and in the last hitch, the whole was reinstated. Navigate between the offices of the organization of government and the conviction did not have a little power over such yogo sacking, as the numerical representatives of the elders, kozatstva and villagers. In deyakiye vypadakhs, the foreman simply liqvidovuvav autonomy of small and weakly hardened mіst і translate іхніх inhabitants іd their uninterrupted idleness. In the result, the number of people in Getmanshchina changed from 200 in 1723 p. to 122 in 60 rokіv.

The citizens of Boulevard were no less politically unreasonable, and they were sent to an economically immovable camp. Zvilnenі vid podkіv Cossacks could sell in the cities of Svіy Kram, not rallying mіstsevogo mit. The water time of the city, a place to save a grishmi ар б м ар м м ста,,,,,, з, з, сп сп сп лач лач лач лач аток под аток аток аток б б, б, ули кими торг кими торг торг торг торг торг торг торг. That stink is a little bit smaller than the shamer at the lofty Mist, lower Cossacks and soldiers of the Russian bail. For such furnishings, there was a small number of people living in Livoberezhya in the middle - in the middle view 3 to 5 thousand. (div. also table 2).

However, in the middle of the most stagnant stagnation, the oasis of prosperity and prosperity ceased. Zavdyaki the value of Kyiv as the administrative, trade, trade and cultural center of the population has grown in the second yew. at 1723 p. to about 43 yew. in the 1780s. We have been operating in the near future near the Russian shopping centers in the city, like Starodub and Nizhyn. The manifestations about the state d'yalnost, which are rooted in the middle of the street, can be helped by such statistics: in 1786 p. in Nizhny nalichuvalos 387 kramnits, six shaved cavities, 29 smiths, 73 shreds, 124 innings, hung tsegelen,

dvі tsukrovarnі, 15 vіtryakіv. Proteus in the whole stretch of the eighteenth century. in an economically vіdnoshnіnі ukrainskііі mіsta thriving on a large scale. In the aphids of such stagnation, the Maybut boom near the Pivdennyi Ukraine was a particularly hostile clown.

Table 2

Social structure of Liberated Ukraine (1795 p.)

Social camp Number, yew. chol. At visitors to the overwhelming population
Gentry 36 1,6
Clergy fifteen 0.7
Mіshany 92 4.0
Kozaki 920 40,0
Villagers 1240 53.7
At once 2300 100