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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest


For the benefit of the present, it is necessary to modernize and to industrialize the state of gratitude . At the helm of these huts have already become the name of the country of Europe and America, ale dosvid of the Russian Federation and the empire. Nasampered, the state took on the most important role in the development of the Russian Federation of Ukraine, and the whole of it at Zakhodі. The internal market of the Russian Empire is weak; the bourgeoisie, for example, as a rule, came in capital-private, practically didn’t quit, and the private capital didn’t get out, so that without paying attention to the order of the date of delivery of the great promyslovost. In a different way, if the empire has begun to industrialize, swirl around to the aid of the capital and please the specialists, speedy development of the boulevard is super-fast, especially in the Ukraine of the 1890s, if you only have to pay for the holidays. Nareshti, economical modernization of the empire has relinquished even more irregularly. In evil, with a sounding picture in Ukraine, boulevards were found in Europe, factories and metallurgical plants, surrounded by villages, people still harnessed themselves to the plow, so that they could live on their own land, just like that.

In detail to the inland, one of the first provisional modernization has become zaliznitsya. Keruyuschim yak vonnymi (the main reason for the defeat of the Russians in Krimskiy viijn buv marriage of the previous communes), so іkonomichnymi mіrkuvanni, tsarskiy unit having learned to fit in the middle of it. In the Russian Federation, the first number of bulloons was laid in 1866-1871. between Odessa and the Baltics for expedited transport zbіzhzhya. In the 1870s, they began to peak at the paved openings in Ukraine, the stinks got together all the main Ukrainian ones, which are most important, they recognized Ukraine from Moscow, the center of the international market. In the meantime, from Ukraine there was a production of syrovine on a regular basis, and at the same time, on a weekly day, at an unobtained number of drinks, there were grown-up viros, the economy of Ukraine, and a complete and independent system. Before that, I’ll need a new one from Vuglill and Metal. Unsuccessful deposit of vugіllya and zaliznyh ores, such as bulo vidomo, began to swear at the great branches on the fifth gathering of Ukraine, especially in the Donetsya pool, they became no more valuable, but more accessible.

At the period between 1870 and 1900 rubles. The most popular stretch of the bourgeoisie of the 1890s was found by the most overgrown industrial regions of the empire, and the whole village was welcomed by the Donetsk swimming pool and Kriviy Rig, which was on the Ukrainian descent. Tsey rozvitok zooms poєdnannya such chinnikіv, yak generous Uryadova pіdtrimka Rozbudova promislovostі (novі pіdpriєmstva boule practical bezrizikovimi) nevpinne zrostannya vnutrіshnogo popitu on vugіllya i zalіzo, nayavnіst in prosperity zahіdnogo kapіtalu scho nashtovhnuvsya on zmenshennya pributkіv in visokorozvinenіy Єvropі th throwing vikoristovuvati vigіdnі mozhlivostі, scho vkrikrivalsya in Ukraine.

The signs of the impending boom were overwhelming at the industrial activity of Donbas. Mizh 1870 and 1900 rr., If the video boot vugіllya pіdstrіbnіv yіl yak for 1000%, then the area giving mezhe 70% usyogo vugіllya іmpperії. From the number of mines in Donbas, the number of robots grew: in 1885 registered 32 yew. pracіvnikіv, in 1900 - 82 thousand., ay 1913 - 168 thousand. Nearly 20 spontaneous joint-stock partnerships, i for 1900 p. Nearly 94% of the equity shares belonged to French and Belgian investors, as they invested millions of carbovants at mine development sites. The partnerships approved the syndicates, and in fact they clipped the monopoly on the video footage and sales of Vugill. Vidtak capitalism appearing in Ukraine at the whole form of a rogue.

In the 1880s, even a decade later, a large-scale videoboot of open-cast ore rumbled through a boom. The development of metallurgy, concentrated in the region of Krivoy Rog, is generally more hostile, and is not in danger of industrial activity. Soil for ny pidgotuvalo laid at 1885 p. zaliznitsі mіzh Krivim Rog and the coal mines of Donbas. In metallurgy, they started up the first few steam, the order spontaneously gave them an incentive, some kind of know how to guarantee, and the very guarantee of buying in them the product after the arc of enviable prices. Zakhіdnі depositors, who were the first to go back to the French, came to their senses with enthusiasm. Until 1914 p. In the equipment of the shower, from the technical point of view, they ranged up to the largest and most popular ones, the stinks were invested 180 million carbovans. Acts of this kind of industrial enterprises grew at such a pace, they often turned their backs on a baggage-populated city. For example, Yuzivka, named after John Hughes ’name, who had become the main steelmaker in a large factory, became an important industrialist - a real Donetsk. In the 1870s, the rocks near the Krivorizk Basin are less than 13 thousand. robіtnikіv, and on 1917 p. ıhnya kіlkіst virosla 10 times - up to 137 yew. More hostility, more rapid growth in Ukraine’s metallurgical industry in Ukraine with old metal centers in the Urals: almost 1870 and 1900 pp. archaic Ural plants removing four times more ore than four times less, then in Ukraine it grew at 158 ​​times.

Ale yakshcho base, vidobuvnі (scho synovy shchuvili) galuzі in Ukraine fluttered, then they stood on the spot. Tse, zokrema, 100% finished products. In evil, with the only gadgets in Ukraine, they’ve been able to completely beat the whole crook, boules, the natural chain, the backwaters of the city’s biggest cars and a small world - locomotive. Behind the magnificent bіlshіstyu of ready-made products Ukraine lies in the form of Rosії. So, in 1913 p. 70% of the virophotography syrup of the empire fell to Ukraine; less than 15% of the need for ready-made goods. Viddak, I want a lack of help and a shaky vibuh of industrial activity in Ukraine, having done a little more hostility, having won the one-time, non-neglected character of the whole development.

Catering Colonial Operation . In assessing the results of the industrialization of Ukraine, often break the nutrition about those who have won the price of corisna for Ukraine as a whole. It’s been good time to finish it all, but in the main there’s a small positive impact. Unuslocated transportation of goods and supplies in exchange for products and services of the Russian Federation and the State of the Russian Federation of Ukraine remained integrated irrevocably. Tse led to the introduction of the All-Russian market - a large-scale, productive and effective economical whole, which brought about the shade of both countries. So happy people of historical economy, like Ivan Gurzhy, to respect the day, in the new economic context, Ukraine felt more beautiful, lower in Russia: not less than the rest of the world. . Any kind of interference with those that the center of Russia has denied more economic vigodi vid vid zv'yazkіv in the Ukrainian periphery, gladdeny vcheni angrily vidkidayut. On the basis of proving their own stench, I’m sure that I don’t have any more, like a Russian empire squad, stimulating the pace of economic growth in Ukraine.

Ale radyanski vchenі don’t wait for it yourself so we looked at the food. In the 1920s, before the introduction of orthodox steel, such as science, like Mikhailo Pokrovsky in Russia and Matviy Yavorsky in Ukraine, they didn’t repeat them without saying that they were independent in Ukraine, Russia. In 1914 p. at his own promo in Switzerland (since he didn’t get to see the joy of his work) Lenin himself declaring that Ukraine “has become for Russia, for England, Ireland, it has been mercilessly exploited, not indefinable”.

So how to reconcile the fact of exploitation of Ukraine with industrial development? At 1928 p. Mykhailo Volobuyev, the Russian communist economist in Ukraine, explaining this as follows. Ukraine, having shown wine, is not an "Asian" type of colony - poor, without vyslovy promyslovosti, the resources of the empire, scho її exploitation, just vikachuє; it’s not long before the “European” type of colony is established, that is, a promiscuous word, yak will not allow for resources, skills for capital and potential benefits. The head vinuvatts tsyogo, at the thought of a thought, is Bula Rosіya, and not the capital’s capitals. Tsey kapital having pumped over from Ukraine to find a simple way: the empire policy was upsetting the situation, as long as the availability of ready-made goods in the store was super-high, at that time they deprived us of the low price in Ukraine. The owner of the whole rossiysky virobniki of finished goods in Mali has big incomes, lower campaigns from the video of the ore and the ore in Ukraine, but it accumulated in Russia, but not in Ukraine. So, the economy of Ukraine (right now, having numbered Volobuyev, the bull of the most independent autonomy) allowed us to take advantage of the potential benefits and to serve the interests of the Russian center of the empire.

Opera House in Odessa. Kinets XIX

Opera House in Odessa. Kіnets XIX century

Rosvitok Mist. At the XIX century. the great serpents were also won in the cities of Ukraine, at the pace of new development and territorial distribution. Until 1861, behind the vignette of such shvidko-spawning Chornomorsk ports, like Odessa, the place was flowing in a rush. The small and middle towns of Livoberezhya, such as Poltava, Romney, Sumi and Kharkiv, have numerous trade fairs, were famous for their kind of land, and they spied to the deceased population. On the Right Bank, there’s a little more than three trophies, some time ago I’ve got a lot of fuel from such a lot of trading crafts, like Bila Tserkva, Berdychiv and Zhytomyr. Most of the population of Ukraine (which became 10 % of the largest population) lived at the city, but 20 thousand people did not overreach for the majority of the meshkans. Lache Odesa Mala Ponad 100 yew. residents.

Dokorіnnі vryushennya began to vidbuvatisya at the other half of the table, secrezh mizhzh 1870 and 1900 rr., As long as the temp rozbudovi mіst, especially great matured. At 1900 p. in Ukraine, there were four great centers: Odessa - a quarter of the trade and industry of the city, the population of which pulled 400 thousand; Kyiv is a center of internal trade, machine-building, administrative management of cultural life, and now 250 thousand. meshkantsіv; Kharkiv - 175 thousand places, the trade and industry of Livoberezhya were among the most prominent, and Katerinoslav - the industrial center of Pivdnya, the population of which is ten years old grew from 19 to 115 thousand.

The great growth was spurred by the great world, the greater rubleness of rural settlements in 1861, the transfer of industry words and trade, and especially - the living room. Because of the rise of the great worlds, they began to take over the minority, and in the evil world there were overpopulated populations at the great centers. However, the succession did not even mean that Ukraine was becoming increasingly urban. Зовсім ні. At once, from the populations of the Mist there was a multiplied number of sіlskih meshkants. At 1900 p. less than the ІЗ% of the largest population of Ukraine was bullish (the figure for Russia was 15%), but it wasn’t close to the indicators of such Western European countries, as in England, 72 % of the population lived in cities.

Winery of the proletariat . In the case of expedited economic development, the first significant social benefits were won. Nayvazhlivshoyu of them, the Bula of the belt of a new and essentially unlimited class - the proletariat. On vidmіnu vid peasants of the proletarians (as well as industrial robots), they did not have a small number of virobnitsva. The stinks did not sell their virobi, but I’m dreading my strength. Pratsyuyuchi on the great and folding enterprises, promislovі robіtniki boulevards, better recognition, lower villages. Having sold at the magnificent factories with thousands of their comrades, they stole the shvidshi in their own way, almost respecting collective collective bridges and solidarity. Y, who is even older than that, is highly organized, interdependent for his nature, the pratsya handed down to his new lung, lower among the villagers, zgurtuvannya.

On vidmіnu vid Rosії, de s of the XVIII century. most of the creeps were called up at factories, in the Ukrainian industrial robots appeared at the smaller branches in the middle of the 19th century. A hint of reckoning from them took the boules on the virobnosti kharchovih products, especially on the majestic tsukrovarny Pravoberezhya. Ale is magnificent, the robbers were not proletarians at the right meaning, the little ones praised the stench seasonally, and at the high season turned to their strength to become more powerful. Nap_vselyanska, nap_vproletarskaya nature of this labor market is a typical type of locality for the middle part of the empire, and especially for robotic Ukrainian tukrovaren.

The reference proletarians were in fact blasphemed by robbers of important promises, such as the mines of Donbas and those of Krivoy Rog. Here the largest storehouse of goods was stored here, the old men and women were at the promislovost. І all the same bagato hto navigate from them і nadalі zberіgav zv'yazok with their villages. At 1897 p. abroad, the number of industrial robots in Ukraine amounted to about 425 thousand, and even half of them earned it from the important promises of the Katerynoslav province. Z 1863 p. Our number has grown by 400%. However, the promising robots more and more piled up less than 7% of their work, and the proletariat lost a small minority to the villagers.

Witness the pracis in the industry of Ukraine, as in the Russian Federation, the boules, for European standards, are simply crassy. Navigate through the introduction of the 1890s local laws of the Republic of Poland, the working hours were torn every 10, 12 and 15 years. The technical safety of medical attendance did not practically disappear. And the pay-per-pit (which was even later turned around for that evil life) of the average Ukrainian in Ukraine became more than a small part of that, which had denied its European collegue. It’s not marvelous that the grandfathers were often struck by the strikes and the main features of the robots and developers.

Інші соціальні зміни. Great violation of the law and in the midst of the intelligence - only one newly formed group. Promisloviy rozvitok, serpents in a slurry order, modernization of legal attitudes, belts of zemstvos viklikali gostra need in the rest of the staff. The department reacted to the workshop, mainly for more professional and technical schools. In Ukraine, the number of students grew from 1200 to 1865 p. up to 4 yew in the mid 1890s rock. On 1897 p. nalichuvalosya nearly 24 yew. osib, scho mali tu chi іnshu the form of sanctification. Zmіnilosya so ozh otsotsіalnee similarity іntelіgentsії. On the cob of the stately grandeur, the nobility became noble. Ale at 1900 p. Less than 20-25% resembled noblemen whose most faithful identities; The blue mishchan, priest and rznochintsiv reigned peremptorily. Proteins of villagers and robots more often than not have been drifting around at universities, mainly through marriage of apprenticeship training. In the middle of the most important mortgages for the stinks, they also seemed to be infused into the middle of the intelligence. Shvidko grew the number of such fakhivtsiv, yak engineers, lіkarі, lawyers, readers. Otozh, hovering around on the grandfather to the widest social base, the intelligence went into the vanguard of modernization.

It was divided by the suspensions of Western Europe and the Ukrainian Empire in Ukraine and was characterized by such a sociological anomaly: the bourgeoisie here was unlimited and numbered, but it’s not unimportant. In Ukraine, for that reason, the bourgeoisie vinikla simply rejected capital. Uryadov’s policy led to the capital’s capital on Pivnich; the interior of bargaining (especially fairs) was overbearing in the hands of merchants, and the promiscuity, as it were, was redistributed, even the majority belonged to foreigners. In Ukraine, soundly, boules (for dey scores, ponad 100 thousand) are supernaturally bagaty people. Ale bіlshіst from them didn’t take advantage of their profits not from factories and commercial enterprises, but from powerful mothers. The Ukrainian Bulo has little to do with the middle of the middle bourgeoisie, that is, the remnant and the kramar. Yak the great, so і maliy bіznes zoseredzhuvavsya in the hands of rosіyan that єvreїv.

Modernization of Ukraine and Ukraine . Modernization in Ukraine has led to a series of paradoxes. From the role of Ukraine, the European breadbasket lost its teeth in the village. I want a boom booming here trochs are not nibbling in Europe, Ukraine prodovuzhvala lost excessively over agricultural land. Naybilsh hostile, chantingly, blatantly, those who want to be great. The majority of the population of Ukraine was stored by Ukrainians, but they stole the fate of these events. Nayperekonlivіshe about price statistics. Some of the most important workplaces of the industry were 25% of miners and 30% of metallurgy stockpiled by Ukrainians. Replaced in their professional groups rosiyani. Navigate on the right bank of the right bank of the rostysky robniks registered in May even in Ukraine.

It’s more likely that it’s the middle and middle of the world. At 1897 p. less than 16% of lawyers, 25 % of teachers and may 10% of writers and artists in Ukraine bully Ukrainians. Z 127 yew Osib, occupied with the “rosum pracet”, the Ukrainians became a third. And at 1917 p. less than 11% of students from Kyiv University were bullied by Ukrainians for their holidays. It was the enemy of the Ukrainian nation at the mists. On evil, the stinks were stored less than a third of the entire Moscow population; Rashta fell on Rosіyan and єvreїv. As a rule: what’s the biggest Bulo Misto, Tim less lived in New Ukraine. At 1897 p. Less than 5.6% of Odesa’s meshans were buoyed by Ukrainians, and in 1920 p. The house often fell to 2.9 ° F. At Kiev in 1874 60% of the population respected Ukrainian Movement; in 1897, This indicator changed up to 22%, and in 1917 p. - up to 16%. Modernization clearly flaunted Ukrainian fervor.

Why then did districts of the non-Ukrainian population live in districts that were recognized by modernization? Важливим чинником, який пояснював велику перевагу росіян у середовищі пролетаріату, було те, що в Росії, на відміну від України, промисловість існувала ще з XVIII ст. Коли у Донбасі та Кривому Розі виник несподіваний бум, що створював нагальну потребу в досвідчених робітниках, росіян тут приймали з відкритими обіймами. Іншою причиною масового напливу робітників із Півночі було те, що російська промисловість перебувала у застої, в той час як платня на шахтах і ливарних заводах, що бурхливо розвивалися на Україні, в середньому на 50 % перевищувала заробітки в Росії.

Російська присутність у містах почала наростати з моменту включення українських земель до Російської імперії. Оскільки багато міст виконували роль адміністративних і військових центрів, вони притягували до себе російських чиновників і солдатів. Із зростанням торгівлі та промисловості збільшувалась чисельність неукраїнського населення у міських центрах. Так, ще у 1832 р. близько 50 % купців і 45 °о фабрикантів (власників заводів) на Україні були росіянами. З причин, які вже наводилися, вони мали більше грошей для капіталовкладень, ніж українці. До того ж багато російських селян через неродючість грунтів були вимушені шукати інших засобів прожиття й знаходили їх у містах. Приїжджі селяни з Півночі часто ставали на Україні заможними купцями, особливо на Лівобережжі та Півдні, де вони знаходили великі можливості й зустрічали слабку конкуренцію з боку місцевого населення.

Іншим неукраїнським елементом у містах і містечках України були євреї. В міру того як центри господарської активності переміщувалися з сільських маєтків у міста, а скасування кріпосного права послабило заборони на пересування євреїв, велика їх кількість переселилася у міста. Внаслідок цього невеликі містечка Правобережжя, де мешкала більшість євреїв Російської імперії, стали переважно єврейськими. On Kinets XIX century. швидко зростала присутність євреїв і у великих містах. Євреї складали більше половини населення Одеси, а саме місто було одним з найкрупніших єврейських осередків у світі. У 1863 р. їхня чисельність на Україні зросла до 50 тис. Освічені євреї, котрі, як правило, розмовляли російською мовою, посилювали російський характер міст України.

Міста були також осередками й культури, а відтак і домівкою для більшості інтелігенції. Оскільки неукраїнські жителі міст мали найкращий доступ до освіти й можливості здобути фахову підготовку, то вони переважали серед інтелігенції на Україні. Представники власне української інтелігенції переважно мешкали на селі чи в невеликих містах, де працювали в земствах лікарями, агрономами, статистиками, сільськими вчителями. Серед інтелектуальної еліти, що зосереджувалася в університетах та видавництвах великих міст, українці траплялися нечасто.

Чому ж українці так неохоче вливалися в міське середовище й брали участь у модернізації? Більшість дослідників цього питання зосереджувалися на його психологічному аспекті. Ті, хто схилявся до українофільства, твердили, що відмовлятися від землеробства українським селянам не давала їхня глибоко вкорінена любов до землі; а ті, хто не симпатизував українцям, посилалися на нібито властиві їм млявість і консерватизм. Але історичне минуле не підтверджує цих доказів. За часів Київської держави надзвичайно велика частина населення України мешкала в містах і займалася торгівлею. Навіть у XVII ст. аж 20 % українського населення проживало в міському середовищі. А на початку XVIII ст. не хто інший, як українці (а не росіяни), переважали серед інтелектуальної еліти імперії.

Малу активність українців у процесах урбанізації та модернізації на Україні допомагають пояснити політичні й соціально-економічні умови, що існували тут у XVIII— XIX ст. Оскільки міста й містечка були центрами імперської адміністрації, в них, як правило, переважали росіяни, їхня мова й культура. Водночас корінне українське населення або асимілювалося, або в деяких випадках витіснялося. Як зауважив Богдан Кравченко, причиною того, що українські селяни не переселялися у міста, було переважання панщини у добу кріпацтва. На відміну від російських селян, яких поміщики заохочували до пошуків додаткової роботи й прибутків у місті, українських селян і далі змушували працювати на землі, щоб максимально використовувати її родючість. Це не лише обмежувало можливості їхнього пересування, а й позбавляло нагоди опановувати ремесла, що давали змогу росіянам та євреям легко пристосовуватися до міського оточення. Тому коли розпочалися промисловий бум та урбанізація, українці виявилися неготовими взяти в них участь. Відтак, якщо росіяни переїжджали на сот ні миль до заводів Півдня, українські селяни — навіть ті, що жили у безпосередньому сусідстві з заводами,— воліли в пошуках землі долати тисячі миль на Схід. Мине небагато часу, як тяжкі соціальні, культурні й політичні наслідки цього явища відіб'ються на перебігу подій на Україні.