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A penny is a loan - Savluk M.I.

PART 2 CREDIT I ​​BANKS

ROZDIL 8. NEOKH_DNIST THAT DIMENSION OF LOAN

8.1. ZAGALNY REINDEMIN AND ECONOMIC OFFICERS OF NEEDED CREDIT

Do not wait for a loan. Win vinik at the singing stage of the development of human suspension. Yogo vinaydennya vpayvayut one of the most authentic vidkrittіv humanity order iz vinaydennyam pennies. The reasons for this winnings are not foreseen in the sphere of virology, but in the sphere of exchange, sellers of goods to resist one and the same hairline, as a legal self.

If commodity-groshyni vidnosini felt like becoming more regular, at the same time more than one commodity-merchants and children bought a special character: sellers needed to sell the goods, but not a penny to buy when you bought them. selling yogo for quieter reasons). For such minds, the act of buying-selling goods is not possible. I’m here vipadkovo, like a bag of the most important winemakers of the people, buv vіdkritiy credit - for the obviousness of the seller’s sales before the purchase the goods buv sales with the latest payment, with a loan. Thus, a loan winik i rozvinuvshis on the basis of the functions of pennies as I want to take advantage. With the first penny, surrounding functions, and the need for payment, we have become the payment function, one at the same time, when I transfer the goods and the pennies in my hands. Otzhe, a loan having settled down realizatsii goods. The reason for the need for a loan is broadened for itself in the first place. But credit began to develop, and the need for a new one began to be dealt with not only by the needs of the sphere of exchange, but by the first areas of suspension — the realization of life.

In the minds of the ordinary development of commodity distribution, as long as it’s full of an outrageous character, the countries of economical sounds are not only in the borders of one country, but in the fastest growing speed. For such minds, it is unreasonable to navigate without credit. In addition to being a specialty distributor of viral products on a variety of singing products and her cooperation, the virology suspension was redistributed from its own family, the largest closed range of goods, the most commercially-available products are sold. I can bring about the first destruction of be-yakіyh chih lank before you won’t go for your goiters with knowledge of yankee lankas.

Yak naslidok, maybe a lot of the normal depletion of goods exchanged between okrimi participants in commodity-groshovy vidnosin, so that the lanceyu can "rozvrvatsya". Itself in the middle of the pole is abstract-theoretical, the ability to criticize the goods from the suspension, which is now real, but almost completely destroyed, put on a masculine character. All that can be achieved negatively can be attributed to financial and state support for a whole series of participants in suspension of business. Therefore, motherhood is guilty of one’s own orderly and economical tools, because of this, it would be possible to prevent interruptions in the sphere of suspended virology, with the burden of suspended vidvorennya. One of the most important such tools and becoming a loan. Sounds of the release of the commodity virobnitsva and related to him the commodity turnover є the best possible economic reason for the necessary loan.

Historical science of research, credit for more than 3,000, more than 3,000 in Assyria, Babylonia, and Egypt. Recovering from XII Art. Dyala is a comprehensive system of trade credit in Europe. On one side, merchants sold their comrade on credit, and on the other hand, they pushed advances to merchants and workers on delivery of goods. Actively borrowing credit for the power of the government and middle trading in the territory of Ukraine today.

Yak showed vivchennya with comparisons of the Lviv city book for 1382-1389 pp., At Lviv (without refrain, in the first Russian cities) they booled to pay for the extended credit card. The pennies got to know pid outpost with a repayment of bids. Surrounding him, giving credit to a loan would entail bargaining, securing it with so-called warehousing rights, if the seller didn’t sell them for an hour the goods were credited (with absolute folding rights, the merchant did not owe their own goods).

That same XIV Art. an increase in the term of discounts and increased credit for commercial loans. Schopravda, middle bills of exchange were discounted quickly and translated with the help of a second endowment. Credit mav buti of security for capital, it was simply imposed on bills. Pay a bill of exchange with gold or any other coins. Although coins in Ukraine were at a loss in the 10th century, through the availability of lavish gold and the obligations, the bonds of their coins (mints in Kyiv and Lvov) were insignificant; Money was sent to Lviv coinage from Semigraddy, to the Ugorshchina [Kotlyar N. F. Treasure hunting of th numismatics. - K .: Science, Dumka, 1974. -P. 50 -63].

Change the reasons, as well as the need to expand the mindset, if you want to get married for the most important things, it’s without interruption to talk about those who need a loan that is already functional for the merchants. However, it’s more important that, if it’s less important, I’m better able to understand everything, I don’t have to save money for the whole capital. The situation is similar to that of the vine in the sphere of coexistence. Call on young people to consume their income, that is why they often have to win a loan. The situation is different from the power of the country as a whole, but I also want to zoom in on credit. From now on, without credit, the normal function of commodity distribution, commodity circulation and living with an ordinary suspension is inferior. Vin became obov'zovkovym attribute gospodaruvannya. "Buy at a time, pay it," - this is the principle of credit gratitude, as I call the annual economy, which is all riddled with credit loans.

In addition, there are a number of specific reasons for the need for a loan, є a number of specific officials, as well as details. Sokrema, a loan of money for a singing change of mind. One of them, and no doubt the feather, became the main part of the suspension of relations with the first part of the communal fret, as long as the last muse is pulled to the baggage one. In ordinary minds such a law is not є obov'yazkovoy. Due to various reasons, hourly freedom of ownership is possible in some natural forms in some jurisdictions, and the need in them is unique. That’s why you need a few hours and hours of credit for the posture є one of the main changes of mind about credit cards.

Ale for winnings of credit loans on a first-come, first-hand basis, so that one who needs a loan, completing one who wants to give up their loan. Adje the very word "credit" is like Latin credere - do, but credit is loan. Dovіra is the foundation of credit loans, one of the most important changes of mind. Protein nya tsya peredumova often vіdstupaє to another plan. For the winnings of credit loans and the arrangement of credit loans for self-trust, it is not a problem at all, but you may also want to wait for the loan of an irreplaceable loan. And to the lenders, as a rule, they’ll have to pay the guarantee, turn off the person who is the principal (for example, at the front of the guard), as well as have a small capital, as well as the insurance company.

Okrіm dovіri, obov'yazkovoy pre-remuneration winnings of credit vidnosin б zbig economic interests of the lender and the principal. Win is reached through negotiations between them for the most basic parameters of credit ñ rozmіr and termіn pozichki, the value of the posichkovy percent and the order of the second payment is skinny. Thus, securing the interest of creditors is the result of a compromise reached by them.

For its nature, it is a loan for the sake of lying about an hour at a time due to foreign power, considering the need for material participation in the weekend for taking the goiter. To this, participants can give buti legally independent individuals. Individuals can become sub-credit credit entities for understanding the legal nature of the matter. Tse takoz є one of the changes of mind winnings of credit loans.

Another one before the end of the mind is vidnosin ри wiped off by the clerk of regular incomes, for a rachuk yakin vin you can repay the loan. They can be a little bit of a virus of realizable goods, wage wages, pensions are meager, adequate income and taxes. As a rule, you don’t have to get a loan for your daily changes of mind. For example, you can’t put pressure on the organizations, mortgages and preferences, as a rule, you will have to redeem for budget financing. Ale in okrimich vipadki, if є nadіyna garantіya vidіlennya budgetary asignuv near the near maybutnomu, ime we can also get a loan.

For legal reasons, it is a subheading of a state grant that is one and the same unequivocal economic change of mind, a grant of credit, a strong return for the future, and a new function in the ambushes of the commerce of the state grant. The first issue is that there is a good structure for health, as it seems, for fear and risen. Another person has a vipad (dyalnost in ambushes of the state insurance company) є the ability to at times and need to give up help in the form of organic organization (ministry, viddomstvo so much).

In the minds of dyalnosti in the ambushes of the commerce charity of the State Bank, the advancement of the advances by the sub-state government grant capital (G) is round, which can be represented by the formula:

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Formula krugoobigu kapіtalu

At the top part of the induced formula, a circle is shown of the main capital through one cycle of viral goods and real goods. When there is a need for praxis (T), to some extent you should be awake, equip, install, machine, mechanically lean, in the process of virobnitztva (B) carry on goods more than a part of your cartel at the sight of the depreciation of goods, more Vid realizatsії goods in the sum (g). The amount of depreciation in the third-quarter hour is determined (that is, the maximum hourly) in the depreciation fund of the merchandiser and serviced by the merchant in order to receive new technology. Increase capital, advances of goods by the merchant in the main, turn around for the rest of the hour, which can be seen as the normative line of the service. Before you want to know the main concerns with the new cost of the depreciation fund, you can take out deposits with financial intermediaries, invest with the valuable partners, and you will be able to buy the goods yourself for an extended scale.

The lower parts of the formula depict circulating circulating capital, some advances for the return of items (prices, main and additional materials, fuel, tariffs, surplus unfinished goods and goods), and the form of the goods is ready to be replenished ( At the part of the formula, deltaГ and deltaГ mean Dodatkov’s wartiness, which is adjusted by timid power in the process of virobnitz. In general, the formula shows that amortization should be placed in the main, and not working capital.

Vidomo, especially when there is a great deal of high-ranking officials of consumer goods at the working capital, they are pricked like a stretch of one cycle, so і (especially) in the open cycles round. The number of days is two types - seasonal and regular. Seasonal colony is overwhelmingly Wiklian with natural officials, and the main one is mainly

vipadkami reasons. With the help of security of continuity of the individual circular circle of capital offense, you see the need to zoom in on the necessary credit. Behind the character and obedi tsi kivivannya іstnotno іznichatsya mіzh themselves (Fig. 8.1 and 8.2).

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Consumption consume revolving capitals pidprimst with the seasonal nature of virobnitztvaKolivannya consume in a revolving capitals pidprimst іz not seasonal character of a virobnitz

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In fig. 8.1 depiction of consumption consume revolving capital from enterprises with the seasonal nature of the virobnostva - a cereal plant, which is a little more expensive than the factory. In Persha kvartalі, if vzhe zakіnchilos pereroblennya tsukrovih buryakіv, vitrachenі dopomіzhnі materіali (kamіn-vapnyak for vіdbіlyuvannya tsukru) mіshkotara, palivo for CHP, zakіnchuєtsya vіdvantazhennya vigotovlenoї produktsії pokuptsyam, tobto pochavsya perіod seasonal downtime, require a werewolf kapіtalі zmenshuєtsya to mіnіmumu, yaky in such galoshes, it is recognized as the norm of the volatile circulating capital.

All the same, from the other half of the second quarter of the need for working capital for the preparation for the new season (repair work, storage reserves, tar, lean) it is necessary to fix the growth. Otzhe, the need for working capital is progressively increasing. Especially shvidko won zrostaє in Kіncі NІ quarter - at Veresnі, if repairing zukrovih buryakiv is repaired. In the middle of the fourth quarter, if the main end is the redistribution of the obedience to the procurement of the syrovini over the obedience of the oversize. Dalі need for working capital is reduced. Відповідно change the need for creditі. In offensive rotsі such a cycle is repeated.

Quite naturally, the need for working capital, which is overreacting the standard, which, on the basis of the seasonal nature of the virobnitz, could be seen as a demand in that quarter, if there is a naked woman, could have been shagged by hairy cats. But for the whole party, it would have been necessary to have the highest power for the rosary of maximum consumption in them, as in our application of the winery in the fourth quarter. Protein in foreign period means a part of this book in the boulder.

Ale dosvіd robots for consumer goods, since they have a lot of clothes, they have, like in similar situations in people’s environment, a win-win of a sense of vitratity, and often without special consumption. We are trying to disrupt the economic regime, which is one of the most important principles of the rational state grant. Koshti’s big world is victorious in Gospodar’s way, as long as they take over the "hungry financial rations’. For that reason, it’s unreasonable to consume power on the reverse side of the market when you consume them for a long stretch of rock. If you want to provide mothers with money when you have a minimum of consumption - the standard, and if you need more money - you can pay for the standard loan, there are no additional costs, there’s a large amount of money skinny). As such, there aren’t enough such dzherels, it’s enough to stash positi koshti, but in the last ones, but at the financial intermediaries.

The individual circle and the turnover of capital okramich sub'kktіv state donations are closely intertwined and intertwined on the scale of the process of suspension with the round and turnover of capital sub_kt. If in some of them there is a winnings needed for a loan, in those who have an hour of money vivilnyayutsya. So, take our butt as a rule, then, if you need a winery, you need a credit for a loan, you don’t have to sell goods to the farmers, they’ve been taken away for selling the sweets. Pislya realizatsії tsukru vilny koshti maє tsukrovy plant, and the need for credit vinikaє at purchasers tsukru (pidprimstv trade and a huge amount of grubbing, confectionery industry and that.). Timchovo’s strengths can be greater than the salvation of the population, the reward of the sovereign power and the koshi on the cobblestones of budgetary organizations, the most powerful of the middle and the middle. The very idea is that you can redevelop koshti in suspension on ambushes by turning with another loan.

I need to transfer money to the registered cats on food due to the seasonal nature of virobnost, to some extent I must have the best prices, the peat prices, the prices for the holidays, and the Aje vіdomo, if it’s time to do it, I’m going to process it in that period in the economy. It is logical that the exact oath of consumption for the hosted cats ahead of time should be a little folding, but the meaningless value is not important. Golovne, who knows how, in the same period and in some approximate oaths at a new winnik, need to get a loan. The water hour at the last business at which you can see is almost hourly money, which can be used on credit without any interruption by banks, and there are no money left.

The process of revolving around the return capital at enterprises with the off-season character of virobnitz is more important. As a rule, as a rule, enterprises of hospitality, metallurgy, chemical, machine and home industry, great number of easy industries and industry materials and industrial materials. You have no power for seasonal growth Consume in working capital, nor for seasonal downtime. However, on the demand side of the need for working capital, it’s a long stretch of rock. Це пов'язано з нерівномірним надходженням і витрачанням товарно-матеріальних цінностей (сировини, основних і допоміжних матеріалів, палива, тари тощо), наростанням витрат на незавершене виробництво, випуском і реалізацією готової продукції та іншими чинниками. Такі коливання, як показано на рис. 8.2, мають значно меншу і завчасно непередбачувану амплітуду.

Норматив власного оборотного капіталу на підприємствах з несезонним характером виробництва також установлюється не за найбільшою потребою в коштах, але й не за найменшою. Нормативом тут є середня потреба в оборотному капіталі, яка визначається на підставі середніх величин (середній інтервал та величина поставки товарно-мат еріальних цінностей, середні витрати часу на розвантаження, маркування і складування тощо), а середня із середніх і є середня величина. Фактична ж потреба в оборотних коштах на таких підприємствах постійно відхиляється від нормативу в обидва боки.

Відхилення від нормативу вниз викликає вивільнення, а вверх - Додаткову потребу в оборотному капіталі. Якщо у розпорядженні підприємства немає відповідних джерел коштів, то у нього виникає необхідність використання кредиту. Звичайно, вона дуже короткочасна, але виникає досить часто. Тому механізм задоволення такої потреби має бути іншим, більш гнучким, ніж для підприємств із сезонним характером виробництва.

Але в цілому можна зробити висновок, що коливання потреби в оборотному капіталі є однією з причин необхідності кредиту. Ця причина визнається майже усіма економістами, проте у більшості випадків поза їх увагою залишається необхідність кредиту, яка випливає із коливань структури джерел формування оборотного капіталу. Щоб це довести, розглянемо умовний приклад, наведений у табл. 8.1, в якому застосовано метод абстракції, який часто використовується в економічній науці. Припустимо, що у підприємства ідеально однакова потреба в оборотному капіталі на всі дати, але обсяг окремих джерел покриття цієї потреби постійно змінюється.

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Залежність потреби в кредиті від коливання в джерелах формування оборотного капіталу

З даних таблиці видно, що на ті дати (на 1.01 та 1.04), на які підприємство не мало у своєму розпорядженні достатньо коштів для покриття загальної потреби в них, у нього виникла потреба в кредиті. На решту дат воно обходиться тими коштами, які в нього є, а тому потреби в кредиті не має. Таким чином, кредит є балансуючим джерелом, за рахунок якого покривається різниця між загальною потребою підприємства в оборотному капіталі та обсягом коштів, які воно має у своєму розпорядженні на конкретну дату.

Наявністю коливань потреби в коштах і джерелах їх формування викликається також необхідність кредиту на капітальні вкладення підприємств. В умовах ринкової економіки і належності суб'єктів господарювання переважно до приватної або колективної форм власності амортизаційні відрахування як складова їх

основного капіталу (див. наведену вище формулу кругообігу авансованих підприємством коштів) у них не вилучаються, а перебувають у їх розпорядженні для самофінансування відновлення об'єктів основного капіталу шляхом їх ремонту, технічного переозброєння чи реконструкції. В окремих випадках (наприклад, коли введені в дію засоби праці дуже швидко морально застаріли) на підприємстві може виникнути необхідність у залученні кредиту. Зараз у багатьох підприємств накопичені ними для капітальних вкладень кошти знецінились внаслідок інфляції, яка стала основною причиною інвестиційної кризи в Україні. Тому майже усі підприємства відчувають гостру потребу в залученні зі сторони інвестицій або кредитів.

Особливо цю потребу відчувають підприємства, які перед запровадженням ринкових умов господарювання, тобто ще за часів існування Радянського Союзу, залишились з дуже зношеним виробничим апаратом. Адже кошти, призначені для фінансування капітальних вкладень, у них вилучались у безповоротному порядку для фінансування інших підприємств. А черга на виділення їм централізованих джерел фінансування цих вкладень так і не підійшла. Перехідного ж етапу від адміністративно-командної до ринкової економіки, по суті, не було. Звичайно, такі підприємства опинились у дуже скрутному становищі, з якого без державної допомоги, зовнішніх інвестицій чи кредиту на капітальні вкладення вибратись не зможуть.

Для розширення діючого чи організації нового виробництва кредит необхідний не лише на відновлення об'єктів основного капіталу, а й на будівництво чи придбання нових. Адже власних коштів для цього суб'єкти підприємницької діяльності майже не мають. Ці потреби в кредиті на цілі нагромадження є навіть більш об'єктивними, ніж на відновлення зношених об'єктів основного капіталу. Джерелом їх погашення буде майбутній прибуток від експлуатації придбаних за рахунок кредиту основних засобів.

Значні коливання доходів та видатків населення також зумовлюють необхідність кредиту. В умовах нормального розвитку економіки у молодих людей потреби часто перевищують їхні доходи. Адже часто необхідно платити за отримання освіти, купувати житло, меблі, побутову техніку, автомобіль тощо. Але доходів вони або зовсім не мають, або ці доходи ще незначні. Водночас у людей похилого віку в нормальних умовах розвитку економіки часто є вільні кошти, які вони зберігають у фінансово-кредитних установах. Це створює передумови для надання кредиту.

Отже, можна зробити висновок, що необхідність кредиту викликана існуванням товарно-грошових відносин. Його передумовою є наявність поточних або майбутніх доходів у позичальника, а конкретними причинами, що обумовлюють необхідність кредиту, - коливання потреби в коштах та джерелах їх формування як у юридичних, так і у фізичних осіб. Коли в одних із них кошти вивільняються, іншим їх не вистачає. Ця суперечність розв'язується за допомогою кредиту, котрий необхідний позичальнику для розширення виробництва або для повнішого задоволення власних потреб.