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Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.


8.1. Evolution Groshovo System

Until the 70s of the rock of the 19th century Nimechchina is not small є a single penny system. On the territory of Ukraine, 20 countries and principalities were registered, as a rule, there were two different coin systems (six were grounded on a single one on the gold standard). In total, boules of paper money, 21 German powers and banknotes of 33 bank accounts.

An exalted ob'єdnannya Nimechchini on the cob of the 70s rockіv of the XIX century. united one groshova system. Nimechchina at 1871 - 1873 rr. went over to gold monometallism (1 mark = 0.3584 g of pure gold).

The gold standard has been packaged on the cob of the Persian Light Bulo. Thanks to the war, and especially war, the inflation of the brand, the brand’s popularity has gone down by 1.6 trillion times. Groshova reform of 1924 p. in the exchange of new Reichsmarks in the old days, for the renegotiation of 1 Reichsmark = 1 trillion marks. Nіmechchinі Bulo has a gold standard. The Central Bank has secured 40% bank and bank gold and currencies. Nimechchina posed for the United States to act in the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 p. For stable currency, 20-30-th rocky vikoristovuvannya inozemnі posiki.

Svitova ekonomіchna crisis of 1929-1933 pp. the collapse of the gold standard in Niemechin and the establishment of a system of unreasonable pennies made sense.

At the preparation period and at the other hour of another holy war, the fascist detachment grasped the law on the protection of banknotes not by commercial bills, but by treasury bills. Without interruption, the vitrines of the Wikrats revived the growth of pennies. Over the Frames of Other World War II, the Gotіvkovo-Groshová Masa has increased by 10.4 billion to 73 billion Reichsmarks, and the deposit-check emіsy_ has been four times lower. In addition, in the buried territories 84 billion occupation marks were sold.

The fight with the other svіtіvі vіyіnі called for the final collapse of the economy and the penny-credit system of Nimechchini. Groshovy obig having lost time at the station of chaos, having developed the "black" rinok.

At 1948 p. Nіmechchinі’s health reform is gross. The leather giant Mig replace 60 Reichsmarks for the new brand for the nominal, and the reshut for the special 10: 1. So the contributions of credit institutions were reappreciated. Half of the total re-investment in the bulo was re-insured for blocking the rakhunka, 70% of the blocked rakhunk in the bulo were canceled. In this way, in fact, revaluation of the bulo was carried out at the company with 6.5 new brands for 100 old ones.

The infidel of the groshoy reform of the masses spent 95% of their income. Immediately with the release of a new penny unit, the exchange of goods for sale was taken away, and the brand’s inflation was strengthened.

Equals 1949 p. With the adoption of the Constitution, the legalization of the FRN was legalized, the rate of 3.33 marks for 1 dollar was set up. Odnak 28 spring 1949 p. the brand devaluated by 20.7%, the rate went down to 4.2 marks for 1 dollar. Tse bula єdina ofitsіyna devaluation of the brand.

At 1953 p. FRN joined before the IMF. Bulo was secured with a golden gold brand of 0.2116 g (before 1976).

FRN s 1955 p. sposteredіvіlnі perekhіd groshovoі masi from one unit to the last. At 1955 p. M1 aggregate becoming 31.48 billion marks, M2 - 42.68 billion marks, in 1975 Відповідно 183.3 and 284.22 billion marks. Tobto groshova was more than 5.8% for aggregate М1 and 6.6 times more for М2. At 1987 p. M1 aggregate with a pull of 385.2, and M 2 - 645.6 billion marks.

The indicators of the groshovy masi were doubled for the ragas of unprepared pennies (deposits of the populace and consumer goods). Otzhe, groshova masa mistila інфляційний Potential. Inflation was manifested in a zagalny, trivial and irregular pidvishchennі price.

At 50 rocky prices for industrial production and the rate of livelihoods, approximately 2% per week. In the 70s of the Rocks, inflation from peace gradually turned into galloping and became 5% on the river. The reasons for the inflation are the low price, the deficit of the sovereign budget, which is at the average of 35 billion marks for the average, and the low deposit and check emisi. The relaxation of the inflation rate for the hour of economic growth in 1984-1996 (tab. 22).

Table 22

І Yandex Industrial Tax Code Nimechchini%

1980 p.

1985 p.

1990 p.

1991 p.

1993 p.

1995 p.

1996 p.








From now on, N_mechchini has a foundation for completing brand stability - positive economic dynamics, as a safety measure, high competitiveness of the economy. About the price of exporting goods, work and services from Nimechchini from 410.1 billion dollars. at 1990 p. up to 521.1 billion dollars at 1996 p. In the 90s, the price of goods for the most goods was 1.5% per day (1996 p.), And the inflation rate was average. Moreover, the brand of the 90s rock is a friend of the currency for the value of the US dollar, the share (wag) of a cat of currencies, which means sign the SDR, become 21% (US dollar - 40%).

Groshova Odinitsya FRN - Nimetska mark - rebuilding obigu s 1948 p. One brand dorіvnyuє 100 pfenіgіv. Ofіtsіyne sooner designated - OM. Vinyatkovo the right to emit banknotes of FRN to keep Bun-desbank. Nimetska brand druchitsya on the replacement of the Bundesbank in sovereign drunkards, roztashanovany at Berlin і Noi-Uzerburzі, and that in the special іzіlіzіvііііііііrіііііііііrііііі = іірії і Дервієнт (Munich).