Groshovo-credit systems for foreign banks - Ivanov VM


8.1. Evolution of penny systems

Until the 70's rockies of the ХІХ century. Німеччина not small єдиної грошової системи. On її території налічувалося пона 20 states and princedoms, якиі were correlated with сімома rізним monetary systems (шість were grounded on срібному й one on the gold standard). In obygu buli paperovi groshni 21 nimetskogo sviwi і banknote 33 імісійних bankів.

Внаслідок объєднання Німеччини on the ears of the 70th rockies of the ХІХ century. Folded a system of pennies. Nimecina in 1871 - 1873 rr. Went over to gold monometalism (1 mark = 0.3584 g of pure gold).

On the cob of the Pershoto svitovoi vinyi boulo the gold standard is shaded. Внаслідок воєнної, і especially the povієnії, інфляції купівельна проможність марки знизилася більш ніж у 1,6 трлн раза. Groshova reform of the 1924 р. Polahala in the newly-elected Reichsmark on the old for the spices of 1 Reichsmark = 1 trillion marks. Nimecchin boul has a gold standard. The Central Bank has secured banknotes in gold and currencies by 40%. Nimecchina has set the United States on the basis of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 r. For the stabilization of the currency in 20-30-ti the castles were vikorostovuvalis neosemnyi pose.

Світова економічна криза Year of creation: 1929-1933 Marital Status: Citizenship: рр. Zamovila the collapse of the gold standard in Nymecchin and the installation of systems of non-recurring pennies.

У період підготовки та під час Друї світової війни fascist detachment, praising the law on pokrittya banknotes not only commercial, but treasury bills. Bezpervne zbilshennia vinechnih vitrat viklikalo zrostannia emisіії groshe. For the rocks of Drukya svitovoe vinyi gotivkovo-groshno Masa in the Ob zbilshilasya from 10.4 billion to 73 billion Reichsmark, and deposit-check the amount - bilsh nizh 4 times. In addition, on the vacant territories, 84 billion of profitable marks went into the sea.

The tie at the Friend of the Holy Wills called for the economy of the economy of the penny-credit system of Nimeccini. Groshovy obig perebuvav at stanii chaos, protsvitav "chorny" the market.

In 1948 r. At Nimecchini, the reform is worth a penny. Kozhniy gromadyanin mіg obmіnati 60 Reichsmark on new marks for a nominal, and for a solution - for a 10: 1 spivvodnoshenny. This is how the contributions from the credit institutions themselves were re-evaluated. Half of the sums of reassignment of contributions to the boo were re-refurbished to blocked blocks, 70% of blockages were lost. This rank, in fact, the reorganization of the bulo was held at a snowdrop of 6.5 new marks for 100 old.

In vsledidok grosnovoy reform gromadyani 95% of his zaoschadzhen. One hour in a row with the news of the new groschinoi oditnitsi boolo, it is understood that there is an exchange of goods for goods, goods, goods, goods, and services.

In herbs of 1949 r. Z priinyattyam constitution, yaka legitimized the line of the FRN, boulo set a course of 3.33 marks for $ 1. One day 28 September 1949 р. Brand zdevalvuvala at 20.7%, the rate of znizivsya to 4.2 brands for 1 dollar. Tse bula єdina offitsyna devalvatsіya brand.

In 1953 r. The FRN joined the IMF. Bulo zafiksovano zolotiy vmist brand 0.2116 g (until 1976 p.).

In the case of the Federal State Reserve in 1955, Sposterіgavsya vіnny perehіd groshovoi mas i one unit in the other. In the 1955 р. The M1 aggregate was 31.48 billion marks, M2 - 42.68 billion marks, in 1975, In the amount of 183.3 million and 284.22 billion marks. Tobto penny Masa Šodo aggregate M1 zbilshilasya in 5.8, and shodo M 2 - in 6.6 times. In the 1987 p. Aggregate M1 after landing 385.2, and M2 - 645.6 billion marks.

Pokushniki groshovoi Masi zbіlshilisya udvіchі for rahunok безготівковикови грошей (депозити громадян і підприємств). Otzhe, grosva masa mіstila інфляційний потенціал. Inflation was manifested in a fatal, trivalous, and unstructured pinnacle.

In the 50-ti cynics on the product promislovy pidpriemstv і pokazhchuvali vartostyvalisya approx. 2% per rik. In the seventies, the decline in inflation began to go down and became 5% in the ric. Causes of inflation - zbilshennia tsin, deficit of the state budget, sho zbilshuvavsya at the middle of 35 billion marks for the ric, and zbilshennia deposit-checkbook. Послаблення інфляції відбувалося під час економічного зростання in the years 1984-1996 of the рr. (Table 22).

Table 22

The index of promiscuous vibrobitveva Nimeccini%

1980 p.

1985 р.

1990 p.

1991 p.

1993 p.

1995 p.

1996 р.








Otzhe, at Nimecchini - the foundation for the prefatory valuation of the brand - positive economy, dinamika, yaka zabezpechuyu vysoku rivalprospozhdomnist ekonomiki. About the company to export goods, goods, services and services to Nemecchini from $ 410.1 billion. In the 1990's. Up to 521.1 billion dollars. In 1996 In the 90's, the number of goods sold for goods increased 1.5% on the territory of the river (1996), and the inflation rate for the bula. The brand of the 90's is the mark of the 90's for the friend of the znachennyam currency svitu після долара США, її the parcel (vaga) at the koshika currencies, yakі viznachayut vartim SDR, become 21% (US dollar - 40%).

Groshova odinitsya FRN - nimetskaya brand - perebuvaє in obygu since 1948 r. One grade is 100 pfeng. Ofitsyne skorochene poznachennia - OM. Vinyatkoff the right to hold banknotes of the Federal Republic of Germany lie on Bun-desbank. Німецька the brand to be drunk on the bank of the Bundesbank in the state drukarnyh, roztashovani at Berlіni i Noy-Uzerburzі, ta in the specialіzіnіі фірмі Гізекс і Дервієнт (Мюнхен).