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Penny-credit systems and foreign countries - Ivanov V.M.

11.3. Groshovo-kreditnі systems kraisk, scho are developing

In the midst of a great deal of economical models in the Third Country (the third, you can develop), you can violate the singing process of formulating your penny-credit systems. Rosvytok and the current camp of penny-credit systems are enlarged by the colony of the minimum and the economic and economic development of the most important country.

A penny-credit system in Ukraine will need to be developed , interrupt at the embryonic station and include these basic elements:

• two sectors of a groshovy system;

• I will establish the central bank;

• foreign commercial banks, as a rule, financial support, generally, to domestic market and export;

• Miscellaneous commercial banks, retail banking;

• I measure informal credit attitudes, such as servants and informal Moscow virobniks, often with more than one mind.

In most countries, schwas are developing, the groshov system is stored in two sectors.

Pershiy - the organization of the penny system sector and the organization of the penny market. Win, as a rule, is small, often controlled by the call; the maximum rіven of nominal interest rates; Such a way of power regulates the price of pennies. Organizing a groshny market for servants and financially consume medium and great business and foreign enterprises in the traditional industrial sector.

The other sector is the great, ale chaotic and non-organization penny market, uncontrolled, illegal and often more livvar. To the whole sector of the zmushene, the population with low profits is being covered.

Such is the structure of a penniless system that is less vidbivaє dual economically structure of a looser weakly guilty country. In addition, there’s a great trend characteristic of the country, and I’m developing myself - I need to serve a consumptive elite, out of the ordinary consume more people.

The main reason for the instability of national penny units є weak is the control of the state. The need to manage the territory of the Third Third Regulate the mass of pennies is shared between each other, first and foremost, the economy of the economy, in other words, the instability of such an important resource for the economy is important in terms of economy and economy. Vimiryat rosmir groshovoї masi is even more important, more complicated for the central bank to establish control її.

Due to the instability of the national financial instruments, which are also the result of ineffective control, there are more people who want to get stuck and get stuck with the problem of currency exchange. The effect of currency winnings, if foreign currency is to be edited for an alternative instrument, vimiryuvannya wartosta and nagromadzhennya (for example, US dollars at pivnichny Mexico).

Credit system with non-refundable markets to secure the necessary financial services: mobile loans, loan repayments, loan repayments, insurance and currency currency management. In addition, икh victoriousness for a penny-credit regulation of the country with a method of macroeconomic instability, characteristic, for example, for some baggage in Latin America (high inflation, great budget and trade deficit). Credit system є the main instrument of health policy stabilization.

The flexibility of central banks in the country has effectively eliminated administrative regulation of the function, so that in general, there is a high degree of integration, a more flexible and comprehensive system, I’m able to complete a wider and more comprehensive system.

The particularity of the sovereign regulation of penniless credit systems in Ukraine is growing, there is a strong political thrust and control on the side of the central bank for interest rates, exchange rates, and low import prices.

The main loan to the central bank for a regulated penny system is the large number of large business partners and foreign trading partners to the national currency, as well as a stable single rozrakhunka; reconfigured in the supranational national credit and credit system.

The central banks of the Bagatokh Krai of the Third World are obliterated to control the supremacy of currencies. I am overwhelmed by such factors, as a large fiscal policy detachment and that great budget deficit, which is guilty of financial support because of the help of other trivial pennies, but of the help of foreign and internal posic. Deficit will inevitably lead up to a minimum of inflation and a double down to the minimum currency.

It is characteristic of the re-dominant nature of the Third World that those central banks do not have the necessary clutter and independence for completing the macro-economic and regulatory functions that dominate the central banks of different regions.

The development of the credit system of the group of citizens of Kazakhstan having generated a low industrial and specific forms of financial attitudes, they have funded the functions of the central bank. The promo form of the foreign currency management and the central bank є the central bank ustanovka, the financial dyalnist such as the interchange є we will control control. The butt of the transition forms є banks in the colossal British colonies and protectorates (Fіdzhі, Belіz, Maldіvy y Bhutan). The scale of such activities lies in the need for legislative bodies to incorporate the most recent policies of the credit and penniless institutions.

Prior to specific forms of credit institutions, it is possible to insure the central bank in small countries, which is included in the currency and foreign currency accounts - the supranational central bank. By application of foreign currency loans from the system of regional central banks, there can be a Western African currency split (franc zone).

In the future, the protection of the accelerated development of the economy of commercial banks in the country of the Third Independent Government has been promoted. Actively, the role is played in the provision of new and innovative banking services. Stink the guilty buti dzherel kapitalu and immediately pomagadzhajati knowledge about the commerce diyalіst і dіloviy dosvіd. Itself through the lack of business of commercial banks to such activities in the territory of the Third Third Winning New Financial Institutions - establish bank cards.

Banks for development - for special purpose and private establishments, establish on the middle and second basis to provide money for the purpose of expanding industrial enterprises. They have to win loans in commercial areas of the Third World, and if banks need to give loans to commercial banks (commercial banks), the central bank controls and regulates the money. In addition, commercial banks give loans on such minds, as if they weren’t for loans, but they’re working out, but for financing great projects. Often the stinks give the koshti to the “overhead” clergymen (we’ll see what kind of baggage it’s, to have a lot of bones to belong to foreigners, but to understand how much to drink).

The right way to take advantage of the growth of economy in the economy, such as marriage of financial capital, development banks, succinctly ways to earn money, go to the two main banks: two international credit agencies of the United States international agencies Posik at the hairless department.

Could you get the capital of the bank? Development of the guilty accumulyuvaty singing party schodo evaluation of industrial projects. In bagatokh vipadokh іх dіalnіst go far beyond the roles of a sound lender of the plateauing clients. Business banking often involves direct transfer to private owners, governed by incentive and quiet funds, and you have to finance them, including the number of sovereign industrial corporations. In this way, banks are developing the role of a grandfather for a greater role in the processes of industrial development of weakly fraudulent Ukrainian.

Banks for distribution are a new place in the territories of the Third Suite; In the mid-40s, there weren’t 10 or 12 such attitudes, up to the 80s of hundreds of thousands, and hundreds of financial resources became milyardi dolarіv.

For example, in India in 1954 Bulo approved by the corporation for the promisional credit and investuvannya, who won a vid india order for an interest-free loan in the amount of 75 million rupee term for 30 rock. INDUSTRIAL SPECIALIZED TANKS Banks can be distributed in two categories - regionally and regionally. The main functions are financing and the creation of new products, as well as modernization and expansion, and a new hat, a guarantee, a guarantee and a limited amount of money.

Zbіlshennya financial resources of the bank in the development of a significant world to take care of the frame of private, private and international and investor funds. At 1980 p. Foreign investors owned at least 20% of the share capital of these banks.

Banks for development are important in their role in expanded virobnitsva in the territories of the Third Suite, but they are characterized by the overwhelming accumulation of great loans. Acting private financial companies (yakі can also be insured up to bank dealership) I can see credit less than 20-50 thousand. dale It’s stinky to impersonate, but such loans are not required to pay for the project. Such financial companies are always willing to help others, I want to help them more important for securing an economic development. For more information about the shukati koshti on the grabbing non-organized penny markets. In this way, it’s independent of the required number of bank cards, you’ll be too lucky to provide the guest with the security of the other financial resources, because there are many non-formal sectors who have access to more information. Mamagayuschatsya pleasures, consume other credit card holders, credit system of the Third Country to get unique informal, see credit servicing.

In the countries that are currently developing, more and more lawyers and businesses are taking care of the kinds of economic dyalnosti. The small business sector has taken up 40 to 70% of the work, as I save a third of the release of the national product. Zdebilshogo the price of unincorporated, unlicensed and unregistered pidprimstva of other farmers and virobnikov, remisnikov, trading agents, indiviualnyh traders, mainly from informal sectors of the country. They will rely on financial resources of a special character and do not fit into the norms of a sound bank credit. In such cases, sound commercial banks do not have to be prepared and do not have to satisfy the consumer needs. Oskilki to go about small sums (less than 500 dollars), and administrative and higher flow rates may be greater than that, as for great loans, and if you need more informal ones, there is no need to forget about the need for more information. zatsіkavlenі in such operations. There are more commercial banks in the country, they are developing, they can’t stay away from the city center, there are small cities, but on the outskirts of the great cities, it’s a lot of informal activities.

Through the price cards, the clerks get caught up with a penny before friends, and even later, as a reserve option, to the professional professionals, from the pawnshop to the trading agents. The main characteristics of Likhvarsky loan :

• Tsі dzherela finansіv overly expensive. For example, if you are more likely to be able to steal 20% per day for a short-term loan by a merchant abo remisniku;

• other farmers, in order to demand seasonal loans, you can present the livery to one of the pawnshop, one of the most secure is the land, or one of thinness, but at the same time, you can add to one’s other interests.

In the country where you’re developing, you need to get more efficient, see informal finance, as well as change the number of liabilities and pawnshops in deedy vipads. It’s stinky to include public loans and credit schemes and group credit schemes based on the principles of rotation. Such a credit-and-credit agreement is available from Mexico, Bolivia, Egypt, Nigeria, Gani, Filippi Shri-Lanci, India, China and Korea. The mechanism of such a loan transfer, a group with 40-50 chol. vibira є skarnnika, like a skin member of an є є н н перед перед перед перед є сум сум за за за за за ощ ощ. The foundation fund on the basis of rotation is distributed among the members of the group at the interest-free postcard. In the countries of Shchov, I’m developing, the number of people in the world is low, I’m giving a push to these very forms of mercy and repentance.

A group of loan schemes will form a form of assotsiatsiya, scho posici koshti at a commercial bank or a sovereign bank for development. Potim group rozpodіlya є koshti mid іndivіdualnykh participants, schо vіdpovіdayut for paid off posiki before the group. The guarantor group itself will repay the loan to the third-party lender and bear the repayment for the first repayment. Having learned from the group, the other members of the group may have the opportunity to lower the great position, so that they can gain access to a formal commercial loan. Members of the group are in a state of credit for success, that’s where there’s the principle of shared performance for their daily poses. Characteristically, the rates for the posic here are lower, for the formal sector.

Butt programs of a group credit є Program at Bangladesh , a yak di 1974 p. For the price of the sovereign budget program, they are rewarded for giving credit to the landless residents of Sіlsky districts. Klіnti the bank to organize with the group z p'yatokh unforgettable masses. The skin group is guilty of nadati dani about sumi schotizhnevih zashchadzhden. The two members of the group are supposedly granted a loan, so be sure to make regular payments on a regular basis. The program maє ponad 300 відділеньь, as a service staff 5400 villages and 250 thousand. chol. Bangladesh, 75% of yak zhinki. Loans are small (less than $ 100), and the repayment is significantly higher, lower at the system of commercial banks. Zvichayno 97% of such loans are repaid by a stretch of rock, 99% - by a stretch of two rock. Ale treba mean, what is more important in the territories of the Third World, the greater strength and the strength of life are practically impossible to get loans.

Control food

1. The nature of the rebuilding of penny-credit systems in Ukraine with a transition economy.

2. Officials of the inflation processes in the krains with a transition economy.

3. Peculiarities of reforming penny-credit systems in the republics with the transitional economy of Central and European Europe.

4. The main warehouses of credit reform in the economy of China.

5. Peculiarities of penny-credit systems of the new industrial regions of Latin America and Pivdenno-Shіdnoї Azії.

6. The effect of replacement in groshovy systems kraїns, scho bifurcate.

7. Functions to the bank in the country, schwo are developing.

Test for self-control

1. Financing of pre-investment investments at industrial enterprises in Ukraine, I’m developing, it’s important to:

a) Banks;

b) Central banks;

c) transordination of foreign banks.

2. The informal financial sector in the country, which is developing:

a) stimulate economic growth of the card;

b) galmaє ekonomіchny tsikh krask;

c) not to overstate the pace of acceleration of economic development of this country.

3. Liberal currency exchange market:

a) є the necessary mental security of conversion of national currency in the country with a transition economy;

b) є the necessary and adequate mental security of the conversion of national currency in the country with a transition economy;

c) to cut across the process of securing the conversion of national currency at the borders of the country with a transition economy.

4. Treasury bills are widely victorious in the goth money market in the economy:

a) rozvinenich;

b) with a lack of well-grounded market economy.

5. The sector of sovereign valued fairs for the financial market in Ukraine with the transition economy of Central and European countries:

a) the role played in the development of the problem of non-inflationary finance of the sovereign deficiency;

b) є Nameshin with a separate sector of the whole market;

c) do not pour on the price of pennies in the economy of this country.

6. Shokova therapy in Poland was transferred to a long list of inflationary processes in the economy:

a) stimulating the development of marketed vidnosin;

b) liberalization;

c) the introduction of control over prices and equal pay;

d) vіdmovі vіd regullyuvannya price.

7. Yavisch currency substitution characterize ро grošovu system of such lands:

a) with a rooted market economy;

b) scho barking;

c) new industrial.