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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

2. Winery of classical political economy in England

William Petti (1623-1687) - the founder of the classic political economy in England. Vin was born in a remix book. At 14 rokіv having become a young man on a merchant ship. Zgodom vivchiv medicine, mathematics, physics, drowning in music. Z 1650 p. Vin - professor of anatomy in one of the English colleges. Pid hour of the choking of the arbitrary ruhu in the Irish Republic of Boulevard. For the crust of lands, confiscation at the Irish, becoming a great earthman.

Evaluation of economic glances of U. Petty є ambiguous. One of them is a mercantile merchant, and one of the most prolific Marxists is the heir to the classic political economy. A detailed analysis of yogo praz yes, but, please give me a look for a new article, an economist of the transition period of mercantilism to a classic political economy. Yogo Peru can be attributed to a small number of scientific works: “ A treatise on tidings and zbori ” (1662), “The Word is wise” (1664), “Political Anatomy of the Ireland” (1672), “Political Arithmetic” (1676), “Risen about pennies” (1682 )

At his prazakh, especially early, Petty viddaє Danina mercantilism. Higher economic policy of the state, higher development of the theory of the trade balance, interest for premiums in gold and silver, maximum right for expansion, interest in the hands of the state.

Water time is already in the first place for Petty to go far beyond the food, and they should take a good look at mercantilism. Win write about pennies, interest rate, promissory note rate, taxes, land rent, monopoly and more. Staging і virіshennya cikh pitan іdrіznyayut yogo vіd merkantilіstіv.

For mercantile economists, there is less need for specific foods, for Pett - for self-sustaining theory, so you can practice it. Do not vipadkovo yvozhayut "first professional economist" * 3. Karl Marx calling him the most genuine and most economical interlocutor, "Old Man of Political Economy".

* 3: {Mayburd E.M. Introduction to the history of economic thought. - M., 1996. - P.92.}

Petty himself, having recognized his role in developing new science, called Yak Vin “political arithmetic”, but rather “political anatomy”, writing, scho Vin having magnetized “... in the anatomic rice the first drawn four * anatomical.

* 4: {Petty W. Economic and statistical work. - M., 1940. - P.90.}

Pettici started the science of studies by explaining to "nature of nature" a whole series of appearances, and the essence of economic processes is explained.

Zastosuvav Petty the new method of achieving economic savings. Rebidding themselves with a significant influx of such philosophical materials, like F. Bacon and T. Hobbes, in them themselves, having posed the deeds of methodological ambush, as well as having supplemented them with fragmentation by the statistical tables themselves. Nedarma Petty is called the Old Man of economic statistics.

The physician is for the blessing, the desire to look more economically, the country is a living organism, the "politically sound", and you take it for the meta for the "anatomy". Such pidkhid pushed the yogi on the bench about the recognition of the laws of the functionalities of the "political identity". Win pose the problem of economic law. From now on, on the subject of mercantileism, as vikoristovuvali empirical, descriptive method, Petty, the title of the basis of the abstract method in the political economy. Having come to grips with the method, I want not to be completely fragmented, є one of the main merits of Petty.

Visnazhennya bagatelstva . Already the statement of the whole nutrition of the Bula in Petty Institute, at the mercantile school. Winning is not just the date of the first visit, but the first and last winter, so that you can order the orderly tidying up.

On vidmіnu vid merkantilіstіv, win bahatism like a bag of ruined and unbreakable lane. At the “Word Wise” prats, there’s a change in subject matter, it’s necessary to become more stupid, - more land, more money, thinness, more ships, more gold and more coins, more dishes, more furniture, more furniture, more goods, more , grain, sіl), koshnovnyh stones and that.

The order of such specific viznazhennyah, Petty is the most irrelevant (abstract) viznazhennya bagatstva. The “Political Arithmetic” principle is better written, the treachery of skin and national revenge is better, that way, there is some kind of great trading, more than that, the big deal is delivering more gold, more money, more money.

Proteus, as it was already indicated, is gold and medium - it is not a single kind of treachery. Merit Petty є acknowledgment of the “virobicheskiy” resemblance to bagatelism, as a dzherel кого is not a sphere of obigu, but prac, virobnitstvo.

Theory of Wartost . Pettis become the mainstream of the labor theory of war. Prior to the problem of visibility, it is necessary to go to a position of proportional exchange, which should be considered vitrates of goods for goods and to store product productivity in open galleries. In the Treatise on Tidings and Zbori, Petty writes: “I really want some kind of video ... I’ll deliver one ounce to London in one hour, for one big bushel of bread, then the first will become more natural * 5 . Ya, well, at the thought of Petty, the productivity of the product from the video clip is in good condition, for example, in duplicate, then a bushel of bread will be primed up to two oz. Otzhe, "natural price" by Pettі - tse, by the day, wart. Ale at Pettі nema rosumіnnya vartostі yak ob'ktivno ї reality, yak internal power of goods. Vin is not a good for a product, but it’s good for a penny, it’s not for a long time there’s a price, a penny for a penny.

* 5: {Petty W. Economic and Statistical Work, p. 40.}

Vartіst, on Pettі’s thought, isn’t aiming not at all, but at the same time, you can go around looking at the video cube and the middle, just like the cob itself. Resht products in pracis - for the best vartosti, as much as possible in exchange me with new vartosti. Petty has a clear understanding of the difference between vartosti and survivor vartosti. But fragments from virobnitsvіy surviving vartosti take care not less than prac, but nature, then Petty will expand on the goal of vartosti. Zvіdsi krilatij vyslіv Pettі "Pratsya - the father and the most active principle of bagatism, the earth - mother" * 6. The land of Nizhny Tag has become a factor of vartosti.

* 6: {There by itself, p.55.}

Want to know the one-stop factor, the more that you’ve written yourself, “the more natural way and the more land and the world”, the more you enter one more card, the world, and the nature * 7. Петї Petti Visnakak yak "middle subsistence living of tall people." So, the wisdom of the Irish hut is the most affordable rations that have been awakened by the weekly guests. The cream of “natural value”, the name of Petty is actually rosimistic, the view is more “polite”, to the price. Величинаї value is not deprived of vitamins pratsі, but the first factors, the sight of the drink and the proposition.

* 7: {Petty W. Economic and Statistical Work, p. 35.}

Zarobіtnu fee Pettі rosumіє yak prіts pratsі. Since mercantilism simply grasped the laws, since they fixed the maximum pay rate, then Petty should be aware of the real factors, recognizing the natural value. Її value vin visnachaє vartіstyu interests іsnuvannya. However, I appreciate the right thought. There is a low salary, a little thought, a guarantor, a gain in capital, a great deal of labor, and a competitive one in English on a healthy market.

Wisnowka, who won’t win the fight, isn’t completely upset by his wartime, but he’s less than necessary to take care of Petrov before looking at food about an additional product that wraps his hairline on his brow. The main form of the supplemental product in Petty is land rent.

Rent is also a product. Величинаї value - the price is lower than the minimum price of the product, up to the price of the fee, pay the fee for payment. Otzhe, rent, as a Visa Petty, is the result of an unpaid public law.

The water time of Petty is called “natural and true” land rent, the pure (natural) product, the products of the state thanks to the other virobnik. The analysis of petty land rent, the security of the land should be done in one hour, at this hour, and the analysis of differential rents.

Merit for respect and goodness Petty business price of land. Вї vіn correctly zv'yazu z pributkovіst land plots. The price of land in the new house of song rents.

The prototype of the self-contained petty rent is not the last. For the basis of wine, take land rent for 21 business. All that term, if representatives of three generations can live at once: dіd, father, onuk. There is a large number of rents, a lot of people, so you can keep yourself and your closest friends. The water hour at the time of the self-titled “Treatise on trivial taxes and taxes” is the number of rents, which are the basis for the price of land, Petty should put in place the deposits of the “moral humility” of the earthman from the steel of their income.

Theory of percent . Percentage of Petty is called “penniless rent” and prettiness to higher rents. The value of the percentage to lay down in the form of land rents and small amounts of pennies. Prazі "Rіzne pro grosі" vіn tract є percentage as an insurance premium and payment for utrimany. Petty will block the need for legislative regulation of interest.

Winning idea is wrapped up in proportionate deposits between the size of the penny and interest rate.

By the great merit of Petty є the proven principle of the highest level of national wealth and national income. Win the first viokremim category of national income and healthy rozhrahunki. National dokhid, at a thought, get up at the sphere of material virobnitz, at the sphere of services. She categorically re-called the Marxist theory, the protec- formed the basis of the rooted in the 30s-40s of the twentieth century. system of national rakhunkіv.