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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

5. Economically vchenchenya D. Rіkardo

David Rіcardo (1772-1823) - a prominent representative of the classic political economy. Winnings were born in the London London broker. Two rockies having gone to school in Amsterdam. Turning to London, he helped Batkov in operations. To engage in bargain operations independently and nagromaju significant value.

Rikardo didn’t have to systematically teach, but he himself taught mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology, theology, literature. The singing hour of win over mathematics, two of them were robbed of the sheriff, and from 1819 to 1823 p. win buvit member of the English Parliament. Rіcardo is actively praciє in parliamentary committees, often in concert with promises from economic food. Yogo pershі ekonomіchnі pracі bulo devoted to the problems of a penny obigu. 1817 p. Bulo was published by the head of the head of the “ Fundamentals of Political Economy and Opportunity ”.

I have praci, as in the past, Ricardo vistupa, as an ideologist of the industrial bourgeoisie. It’s not only the economy of the bourgeois development program that is economical, but the active participation of the political bourgeois bourgeoisie with zemlevlasnikami.

Yak і Smіt, Rіkardo to recharge capitalistic natural and natural. Vin rozvivaє I’m the idea of ​​my successor about the specialties of interest to head rushinu power of suspension for the minds of free freedom. But Ale for not all his іїїstichnі і interests н rіvnotsіinnimi. To put the interests of the industrial bourgeoisie at the chisel mіssets vіn, rіshuche vistupayuchi against the great zemlevlasnikіv - Lendlordіv.

Basically, the policy of the economy of Ricardo is entered into the laws of law. Yakshcho Smіt doslіdzhuє nature zrostannya bagatstva (tobto ekonomіchnogo zrostannya), then Rіkardo factor zrostannya vvazhaє rozpodil. At the forefront, I see my own praise: “Know the law, as you can do it with a paycheck (for rent, pay rent. - L.K.), - the most important thing is to pay attention to political economy” * 31. In the front view to the third view, Rіcardo pіdkreslyu namagannya again, lower in the front view, in the power of your eyes look at value.

* 31: {Ricardo D. Works. - T.I. - M., 1955. - S. 30.}

Theory of Wartost . Rіkardo, yak і Smіt, rozrіznya ogozhivnu y minova value. Corinth (good value), having won the win, not with the last of the values, although it is absolutely necessary for her. Their goods are to be valued to draw from two dzherel - ідкісності і кількості праці, що necessary for іх complements. I understand the comrade, the appreciation of which can be signaled exclusively by the uniqueness of the church (statues, paintings, rare books, coins). The value of these goods is not to be disregarded by the great number of people who have been invested in their purchases, and that they are inseparable from the work of bagaty and relish. Protein іkhnya kіlkіst u zagalіі masі goodsіv insignificant. Minimum value of the most important goods is the name of the country.

Oskіlki іnova іnіnіnіst - a category of віднінна, yak is represented through the singing інкіст іншого goods, Rіkardo zaprovadzhu є understandable absolute value, the substance of which I become praratsya. Protein himself win the highest respect for the last minute values.

Rіkardo pіdtrimuє Smita in the explained values ​​of prace and criticism for the recognition of pracey, which will bathe. Not spriimє Rіkardo y tlumachennya A. Smіtom tіnnostі yak sumi income_v. Rіkardo's value is the first value, which means being recognized as a prize and being profitable.

For the sake of commodity, having been interested in Ricardo, the flow is not less than pra, it is always expropriated on the third one, and the capital, on the other hand, is turned on the sign, tools, to take part.

Rіkardo, as i Smіt, ototozhnyuє kapіtal iz zobo virobnitstva. Alya yakshcho Smіt qyu a category of sound and capitalism in a viral way, if there is a hired job, then the Rikardo tract is historical. Everything has nothing for Shchi, take the fate of virobnitsti, navigate in the same way as the first people, become capital. The capital of Nyogomadzhen Pratsya. And the star is about the right to a little extra on capital. Resolutions for payment.

Rikardo's theory of value is interconnected with theory. Vin vvazhaє, scho zmіni zarobіtnіy platі do not spryininyayut vіdpovіdnih zmіn valuable goods. "The value of the product, - having written the win, - but the quality of the product is good, the price is good, the quality of the product is necessary, the price is necessary, but the price is not limited to 32. Servings in paid wages are less than the size of the surplus. Rіkardo not pogoduzhatsya іz tverzhennyam Smіta, scho zrostannya price signs to bring to zrostannya price words goods.

* 32: {Ricardo D. Works. - T.I, p. 33. }

Rіkardo, like Smіt, having incurred significant difficulties, if the problem of value is on a capital basis. Win bachiv, schoch lane for capital is considered to be rozmіramy capital, scho the norm for a little increase in tendency to virvnyuvannya. But it would have been impotent, the Yakby comrades exchanged more than once before the vitrates of living. Todi galuzi, de main є capital є insignificantly a little shyly wrapped, Mali used to move in front of the galleys, scho in them the main capital borrowed a lot of them anyway wrap around more.

Persha of a group of goluzeys was selling more comrade more expensive, which is why in them they had more big prices and more labor costs, more bias was done. Ale Todi vidbuvalosa used overflow capitals in galuzi, and the rashta of galusas could not bifurcate.

Schob podolati qiu superachnіst, Rіcardo modifіkuє his theory of value. Vіd vіdmovlyaetsya vіd tverdzhennya, scho payroll is not vlivaєє on prices. Rozglyadayuchi rіznі zmіni will she spіvvіdnoshennya main st working kapіtalu, Rіkardo robit visnovok scho zrostannya nomіnalnoї zarobіtnoї pay zbіlshuє tsіnnіst benefits vigotovlenih for Relief kapіtalu of short-line service, abo s Relief maloї kіlkostі tehnіki, vіdnosno benefits vigotovlenih for Relief "dovgovіchnogo" kapіtalu anyway great technology. Itself in such a way ur_vnyuyutsya norm profitable irrelevantly vіd articles vitrat.

When there is a reason for the preservation of the value of goods, Ricardo visibility is weak, such that it is necessary to incur a liability. Significantly important є zbіlshennya abo zmennshennya kіlkostі pratsі. Tsey piddіd Rіkardo prior to the recognition of values ​​recognized gostroї critics on the side of the economy, as a half-timed character of the repetition of the concept.

Rikardo takozh rozrіznyaє "nature" and "rinkovu" price. Pіd natural wіn actually rosumіn value, pіd rinkovoyu - price. Rinkovi priznayut vipadkovih and timchasovih kolivan. A short hour of spirits on the vіdhilennya rinkovih price іn vіd natural will celebrate a drink and a proposition. The protest for the minds of strong competition and the overflow of capital market prices cannot prevent the emergence of natural ones. In the pre-prepared aspect, the price is explained by the winter vitrate of virobnitz.

Groshі . Rikardo bagato respect, having come to analyze the pennies and the penny obigu. Tse is not vipadkovo. Thoroughly know the rules of birzhovo gr, win to be theoretically overlooked the problem of a penny obigu. In addition, the price of Bulo Todi food is super-topical in the name of the Bank of England in 1797 p. the exchange of banknotes for gold, what hnє znetsіnennya buzzed with. By the same token, Rikardo, having taken an active part in the field’s fight, flared up to drive.

The theory of pennies Rikardo will be based on their theory of values. Groshin vin rozglyadє yak goods, scho maє tsіnnіst. The basis of the penny system is gold. The value of gold and medium, as if it is a good product, is signaled as vitrats. For a given value of pennies ıhnya kіlkіst in obigu to lay down the total amount of commodity prices. Proteins of gold of Ricardo vvazhaє dear and unreasonable and rozroblyaє project of a system of papered penny obigu.

Paperov pennies , writing Rikardo, do not have internal values. For the above, it’s necessary that the house is "regulated by the principle of metal, which is to serve as a penny unit." Recognize, however, Rіcardo vidіishov vіd prіsії correct conception і having stepped up as an henchman kіlkіsіnoі theory of pennies. Winning, saying that for the sake of obezhu mogut buti be yaka kіlkіst is not less than the papierovyh signs, but th gold coins, which is the proto-cost of succulent masa goods. The comparison of these values ​​and the value of the price is the same as the pennies themselves.

Theory rozpodilu . The main problem of political economy Rikardo naming rozpodil. The very basis of this system is to become the theory of paid pay, a rent of rent. The category of views is from the view of the magnitude and diversity.

The salary at Rikardo tse - dokhid robitnik, payment for pratsyu. Pratsya as a commodity is also natural nature and price. “Of natural value, that is, what is needed, that is why robots of Mali are able to sell and sell their products without any changes or changes” * 33. From now on, the natural price of being recognized in Ricardo is appreciated because of the experience of the future. The natural value is not є unavoidable: В Won,, having written Rikardo, з to be remembered in the open in the separate hours in the Soviet Union and be independent in the different lands ’* 34. I want Ricardo rosum, today the understanding of “take care” to be historic and to lay down the tradition and level of development of productive forces, because of this, there is a tendency to increase the natural value.

* 33: {Ricardo D. Op. - T. I, p. 85.}

* 34: {There by itself, p.88.}

Rinkovoy value pratsі є that, what actually to pay to the robots. Rikardo to put Ії in the deposits for the first time and for the offer, so that uzalezhnuyu rokh zakonitno pay and vid ruhu population. For the minds of the shvidka zrostannya, the population will drink at the hands of the hands of the present and the pay is reduced. As a rule, the increase in population in the market will be rejected by shaking hands - the pay is paid. From now on, in full heat, the population of Rinkov’s labor market has a tendency toward closer proximity to the natural.

Rіkardo, on vіdmіnu vіd Smіta, having respected, scho stavis robіtnikіv іz rozvitkom slustilstva will be awaited. I will explain the reason for explaining to the population, consume and consume the products of the state gratitude zrostatime value. Groshov’s salary is payable, then it is significantly higher than the price of food comrade. From now on, the real pay will be changed. Rіkardo, solіdarizuyushіsyz іz Malthus, meaning, shcho robitniki not guilty of claiming for the most part in the slurry product. Їhnya zarobitna pay mєє are regulated by the law of food and nutrition. Rіkardo vistupaє against the hand of power at the function of the market of the right to the necessary requirements for the seizure of the past.

Joke. The side street at Rikardo is the reincarnation of value over pay. Winnings are not small sums, so that a robotic person can do his own good and have a great deal of money, but I’m not at all worth paying for it. Golovne, who wants to reclaim Ricardo, is the problem of the size of a side income and a payroll.

Rіkardo pіdkreslyuv, scho rіvnovelіkі kapіtali give the same benefits, surely, besides, yak kіlkіst prazі stink lead at dіyu. Having recognized the water hour, by the amount of a gain in productivity, the increase in productivity is worthwhile. Viddak, a new way, is either related to capital, or related to prazn. Сієї superachnostі Rіkardo navіt i not having helped.

Win detailed analysis of the supply of paid pay and income as two warehouse values. As a matter of fact, pay, meaning Ricardo, then the change in capital is changed. To carry out the qiu dum wine to complete one by one. In addition, win payable, which means paycheck is the principal for paycheck paycheck and paycheck. This is due to the fact that schratz є djerel values, and the function will need vitratum for the utilization of the robot and the SIM card. Prote zarobitna pay, pidkreslyu Rikardo, you can not nastily nast_lki, so that nothing was lost on the side.

Great respect has come є Ricardo problems iznizheniya normi to a profit. From the development of suspense, meaning vin, the norm is a slight increase in tendency to lower. Vaughn is zoomed in on the thought of Ricardo, and so on, the productiveness of the law in the state thanks to the law is reduced (the law of the “declining family soil”), and all the way to the price of the product, it’s necessary to increase The factor that protidіє decline is the norm for a profit, Rіkardo vvazhє development of productive forces.

The change in favor at the expense of pay and pay Rikardo I look so I add up to the problem, I’ll block the piled up capital, so I can change the perennial pound and I know “stimulate to the pound”.

Rіkardo pіdkreslyuо, scho vin analizuє "a way to usagli", so that a way like an economic category. Well, to the size of a margin in okromichi goluzy chi in okremich kapital_st_v, then you can override the average norm. Such a ride Rіkardo nazivє "unremarkable." Ale tse will be timchasovim. Through the overflow of capital, the rate is a little bit longer.

Land rent . The rent Ricardo viznachak yak "a piece of the product of the earth, as if I pay the zemlyaslniku for the shade of the earth with graffiti and such, which do not ruin the ground forces" * 35. Vin vidrіznya є rent of the part of rent, pay as much as you pay for the capital, we are tidying up the land of family property, buddhism of government gifts is very thin. Analizuyuchi rent, Rikardo to put an eye on the future nature of the law and the dynamics of dynamism.

* 35: {Ricardo D. Op. - T. I, p.65.}

Winnings for rent Rіcardo zv'yazuє with the approval of private ownership of land. The main thesis of Rіkardo Polyaga is in that, for rent, you pay for corridor land less than that, as long as the land is segregated, and the land is not identical. With the population it is possible to repair the idea of ​​a lesser family and greater distribution of land. In such a case, land has a margin of rent, while the value of the land is occupied by the owner in the property. Minimum value of goods (including the number of trademarks) for Ricardo is regulated by the highest prices of goods necessary for their work. For these minds on the largest lands, to spend on a single product of production, to pretend to be more profitable. In the midst of competitive competition, farmers are satisfied with the middle move, and the pre-paid farmers can occupy the land owners like rents. Otzhe, rent in rosumіnnі Rіkardo - tse reincarnation of value over the middle income.

On the way, see the rent, having looked at the rent as one of the values, allow yourself to finish your life, Ricardo say, rent is not pouring on the price for bread. The price is not to lay down the rent, but in advance, the rent is to lay down the rent. “Not that the dear bread,” write Rikardo, “rent is to be paid together, and the rent is ransomed to what the dear bread” * 36. Rikardo analizu differentsuyu rent. Absolutely rent Ricardo without knowing. Win Sturdzhuv, scho on girshih dilyanakh farmer has more than an average profit, and the excess here is not a fault. ” Otzhe, from the dead dilyanok land rents do not pay.

* 36: {There by itself, pp. 70-71.}

Criticizing Rikardo і smіtove fіzіokratichnoe rozumіnnya dії forces of nature. Vіn pіdkreslyuvav, scho tsili si dіyut і in promyslovost_. A water hour in a week giving a thought about those that are the basis of any kind of economic development, material prosperity and the growth of industry є additional land product.

The dynamic of rent Ricardo is rightly sounding good for the capital, the development of productive forces, the growth of the majority of the population. Ale I in the whole diet of wine is unforgettable, and look yogo super-versatile.

Zviazuyuchi rents under the law of slumping environmental friendliness, Ricardo wrote, scho rynnalna the value of the first products, so that you can go to the most important parts of the country more often than not. Tse to bring up the price, from the first to the rent. So the very thing is the growth of capital. The growth of capital is also the same as rent, therefore the profitability of productivity is higher. Changing the capital to the reduction of rent, the rents will be gradually changed by processing the rented land and the rental rent from the rented houses. Zrostannya population, for the theory of Ricardo, is also ож immaterial for the minds of food prices for food comrade.

The theory of rent Ricardo vidigra played a great role in the struggle of the industrial bourgeoisie against the land-classman. The bourgeois іmponuvav Rіkardo’s gown about those who are in high school prices for better interest in landowners, which is why I need to save rent for the temple. Promislova the bourgeoisie victorious about the theory of Ricardo for obgruntuvannya vimog shkoduo skasuvannya hlіbnyh laws.

The problem of creation and crisis. Yak is an ideologist of the industrial bourgeoisie Rikardo buv interested in secured post-office growth of business. I will look at the corridor of the bourgeoisie, the prevailing gross and clean income, the win, the idol, the smith, the overdrive. Seeing the reason that the growth of gross income is better, and the better way is to increase the potential of the whole country. But Rikardo pidkreslyuv, scho podatkova to help the country proportionality is not gross, but net income. All of this himself is complaining about all the tributaries. The economic method of suspension of Ricardo imposture is not a nationally gifted problem, as in Smita (the growth of zanyannosti), but in the absence of capital.

Аналізуючи процес нагромадження капіталу, Рікардо помилково обмежував його перетворенням доходу лише на змінний капітал, на заробітну плату. Ігноруючи суперечності капіталізму, він твердив, що застосування нового капіталу не може натрапляти на ринкові труднощі. Рікардо поділяв погляди Сея, який заперечував можливість надвиробництва і криз.

Однак не варто забувати, що книжку Рікардо було опубліковано за вісім років до першої глибокої кризи, яка охопила економіку Англії в 1825 р.

Посилаючись на Сея, Рікардо стверджує, що попит обмежується лише виробництвом. Кожна людина виготовляє продукцію або для власного споживання, або на продаж. Отже, продукти завжди купують за продукти чи послуги. Гроші є лише «мірилом, за допомогою якого відбувається обмін».

Рікардо розумів, що існує можливість виготовлення будь-якого товару в кількості, що значно перевищить попит. Але цю можливість він розглядав лише як тимчасову і таку, що «не може статись одночасно з усіма товарами»*37. Він не погоджувався з висновком Мальтуса про вирішення проблеми відтворення за рахунок споживання непродуктивних верств (чиновників, духовенства, землевласників).

*37: {Рикардо Д. Соч. — Т.І, с. 240.}

Головну причину застою торгівлі в окремі періоди він убачав тільки в прорахунках підприємців щодо виробництва товарів. Але це ускладнення, на думку Рікардо, буває тимчасовим і вирішується швидко й ефективно завдяки переходу на виробництво інших товарів.

Велика заслуга Рікардо полягає в розробці теорії порівняльних витрат як основи спеціалізації країн у зовнішній торгівлі. Про причини спеціалізації писав і Сміт, проте Рікардо розробив цю теорію значно грунтовніше, побудувавши її на трудовій теорії вартості й наголосивши на національних відмінностях у величині вартості, зумовлених різними витратами праці.

Він першим з економістів розробив теорію міжнародної торгівлі і показав, чим вона відрізняється від внутрішньої торгівлі. Якщо внутрішня торгівля розвивається й зумовлюється тенденцією норми прибутку до вирівнювання, то зовнішня — «порівняльними витратами». А. Сміт сформулював тезу про «абсолютні переваги» у міжнародній торгівлі, які має конкретна країна у виробництві якихось товарів порівняно з іншими країнами. Ці переваги зумовлюються як природними, так і набутими факторами. Рікардо довів, що взаємовигідна торгівля можлива навіть за умов, коли різні країни мають відносні переваги щодо виготовлення тих чи тих товарів. Відносні переваги означають, що країни мають абсолютні переваги щодо якогось одного фактора виробництва.

Зазнавши певних змін і модифікацій, теорія порівняльних витрат трансформувалась у теорію порівняльних переваг, яка тепер грунтується на теорії факторів виробництва і врахуванні попиту і пропозиції.

Рікардо, як і Сміт, — видатна, хоч і суперечлива постать в історії економічної думки. Понад півстоліття його теорія була панівною в економічному житті Англії. «Рікардо, — писав Кейнс, — підкорив Англію, так само цілковито, як свята інквізиція підкорила Іспанію*38». Цю перемогу він назвав «явищем дость цікавим і навіть загадковим» і пояснив її тим, що теорія Рікардо багато в чому імпонувала тому середовищу, до якого звертались, зокрема владі. Сам Кейнс наголошував на її цілковитій непридатності для наукових прогнозів*39.

*38: {Кейнс Дж. М. Общая теория занятости, процента и денег // Антология экономической классики. — М.,1993. — С. 159.}

*39: {Там само, с. 160.}

Англійський економіст Блауг, порівнюючи внесок у розвиток економічної теорії Сміта і Рікардо, пише, що «Багатство народів» містить більше суттєвих узагальнень, які стосуються функціонування економічної системи, ніж «Основи» Рікардо. Заслуга Рікардо в тім, що він «винайшов техніку економічної науки»*40, заклав підвалини модельного підходу до побудови економічної теорії.

*40: {Блауг М. Назв. тв., с. 123.}