This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

Political economy - Krivenko K.T.

1.1.2. Laws and categories of political economy.

Doslіdzhuyuchi subject vivchennya, politekonomіya to rob vіdpovіdnі visnovki, zagagalnennya, klasifіkatsії skinny. The result is a great understanding of the great apparatus. It is important for the system to understand the importance of the following: economic category, economic law, economic principle.

It is an economic category - a science that is understood, in a way characterizing the surroundings of an economical apparition.

Sutility of economic categories are recognized by such criteria:

the image is not the natural power of speech and subject matter, but the power of the singing system (element, lanka) of economical people’s personality is characteristic;

maє ob'єktivny character, fragments vіdbivaє ob'єktivnu dіysnіst;

the historical character, the fragment is significant part of the category of political economy in the singing stage of development of suspension virobnitz widmira.

The political economy has a wide range of categories: power, goods, wartime, pennies, capital, capital, economy, market, paid labor, and mainstream wages.

In the economy of low economic laws.

The economic law of viyavlya є suttvі, the rules and the necessary causalities and interconnections and the given economic process.

Economic science classifies the economical laws of suspension for such great groups:

Useful laws, sovereignty of any type of economic system. Stink to directly rotate the progressive development of suspension virobnostva, the basic basis of effective efficiency, the development of vosnosin moisture so much;

special economic laws, such as the special economic requirements, and the use of special types for economic systems. Before them, lay down before the law of commodity distribution and market;

Specific economic laws, so that less is needed in the minds of the singing economic fret, for example, a capitalistic chi social.

For successive laws, formulate a system of laws of economy and law of development.

Thus, the economic law of the warehouse subject of political economy. Vivchayuchi is the object of its own achievement, because it is more suspension of virobility, it is more economical to face the problem of the sharing of viral resources (native land, coriander kopalins, arctic and civilian resources) Know that you have the right to administer the law, to distribute and to benefit from any kind of suspension, to save money, so that people can help you to be more healthy,

From the side, as it was meant, economically vidnosini people implicitly associated with polity, social and vidnosiny and social institutes. Science doslіdzhuє vliv flow of this vidnosin on economical processes.

Once in a while, you can formulate the subject of science as follows: the political economy of the whole system of economic activity in the interconnected and productive forces of the social, social and political. Look, know the law, show, like people and suspension, may I have a great deal of great resources, like a few more people, and give them the maximum need.

1.1.3. Zarodzhennya and development of political economy, direct education and schools.

Political economy as a self-science of the wining in the period of the birth of capitalism, the form of the national market. Vaughn was turning the interests of the bourgeoisie like a class, scho zhudzhuvav at that time. The yak was meant earlier, the term "political economy" from the French economist Antoine de Moncretien (1575-1621), aka 1615 p. having published the law “Laws of Suspended Statehood (Treatise of Political Economy)”, de jusla about the laws of development of suspended statehood.

Capitalist business at the time of their birth gained the most outlets at the bargain. Vidpovidno, and the first direct political economy - mercantilism (see the Italian word "mercantile" - merchant, merchant) - coming from the fact that trade is a treasure trove. In the past year, precedence was given to people who borrowed money from bargains, first for everything in the world, Oskilka won a lot of bugging, and Yoda was redeemed for money, in gold.

At the world penetration of capital in the sphere of virobnitztva was formulated in a classic political economy. Persian representatives - fisiocrats at the chorus of Francois Quesnay (1694-1774) - transferred the food about the similarity of baggage baggage from the spheres to the sphere of virobnitz. Schopravda, I’ll leave the stench offended by tilka with statehood, respectful, but the fussiness is lost in the middle of galuz.

Nayvishchogo development is classic politekonomіya reached in the parts of the prominent English economists Adam Smith (1723-1790) and David Rіkardo (1772-1823). The main object of the agreement is that the economy was like that, regardless of the specific features, as well as the blessing. The stinks hung around and made the system understand and categorized, which are science in the image of economical processes.

At the middle of the 19th century having formed the proletarian direct at the political economy, a certain founder of Karl Marx (1818-1883). Marxism is in its position, with the subject of political economy of people with their mutual understanding with productive forces. Within the framework of the Marxist politekonomii bulo, a scribble about the suspension and economic formations, the law of development of the law and society has been scattered. The Marxist politekonomia drowned out the speech about the work of the theory of Wartosti, and also drew up the theory of the Dodatka wartosti.

The other half of the 19th century the theory of boundary corinosity - marginalism is formulated in a bulletin, the role of establishing an Austrian school is visible in the becoming obvious, and we take it into account to Karl Menger (1840–1926) and Бvgeniy Böhm-Bawerk (1851–1914). Todin Vinnikla American School of Boundary Productivity, founded by founder John Clark (1847-1938). Great importance for the development of the politekonomi mali of the great eminent English economist Alfred Marshall (1842-1923), aka 1890 p. having published the “Principles of Economic Science”. Dana praczya has conceived a new direct in politekonomії - neoclassical.

Tsey direct є one і zі і warehouse parts of ordinary polіtekonomії. The element of neoclassical politekonomіy ейн Keynesianism , the founder of which became a prominent English economist John Keynes (1883-1946), published 1936 p. pratsyu "Zagalna the theory of borrowing, interest and pennies."

The other half of the twentieth century. neoklassichny politekonomіy successfully succeeding prominent American economist, Nobel Prize laureate Paul Samuelson (1915 R. Nar.). At a new school, the school is interpreted as “neoclassical synthesis”. The principles of neoclassical synthesis at the forefront of being in good hands, I may name it “Economy” or “Economy”.

Representatives of the economy respect the subject of the subject “problems of effective vicarious sharing of viral resources, but managing them by way of maximizing the maximum satisfaction of material needs of people”. (McConnell K. R., Brue St. L. Economics: Principles, problems and politics / Transl. From English. - 2 vols. - M., 1992. - T. 1. - P. 18.)

One of the direct policies of the institute , which has become famous for the nineteenth century — on the cob of the twentieth century. at rіznih modifіkatsіyah. Adherents of the Institute for Basic Development of the Economy of Suspension, respect for the Social Institute. Special Institutional Wesley Mitchell (1874-1948), John Gelbraith (1909 b. Nar.), Ronald Coase (1910 b. Nar.) Criticize neoclassical theories, stink up for reform of capitalism.

In the other half of the 70s at the forefront of the political economy, a monetary school has begun. Monetarists faded and extinguished the “Back to Smith”, which meant the vidma method of active sovereign involvement in the economy. The head of the monetarist Melton Freidman (1912), to bring, as a result of the pennies, the pennies by the head regulators, is the way to bring life to the city. Nagadaєmo, which is an economical course, of the names “reaganіkoy”, with a significant amount of knowledge taking a look at the monetarists.

Behind his serpent of pronouncements, the chief counselor is neither neoclassical, nor Marxist, nor constitutional. Win one day at one’s good health neoklassichnogo, Marxist and institutionalnogo voltage and school at politekonomії. Nicholas is gaining access to economical theories, wisdom in prades of A. Smith, K. Marx, A. Marshall, J. Keynes, M. Tugan-Baranovsky, P. Samuelson, J. Gelbraith, M. Freidman, V. Oykenny t . Familiarity with the health of the song-theoretic school, it’s good to know your image in singing topics for the course. To be insured as well as the official access to the regional economy.