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|home Political economy History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.|
History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.
In the 60s-70s pp. In addition to the fact that there is no regulated energy supply, it is not enough to ensure unbalanced and stable economic growth;
Існує two steps to the assessment of ochikuvan: "adaptive ochkuvannya" and "rational ochikuvannya".
“ Adaptive ochuvuannya ” revolve around the number of dvos: knowledge of the best singing ekonomіchnyh dіy, urakhuvannya kolishnіh grace. At the front of the “adaptive experience”, the company attaches itself to an economical situation, violates the behavioral strategy.
The “ National Opportunity ” is based on science-based forecasts, and the cost-effectiveness of the real-world model: dynamics of the price, vitrat, interest rate reduction, additions to specific economic policy, and a better view of the macro.
I am the author of the idea of an ideally “rational vision”, I’ll recognize it as like a rational person, I’m sure that they’ve got a forecast, we’ll deny that we’ve submitted a model analysis, I respect 19 This is a postulate and imagining a yogi in a model inspired by him. Less than 10 rokіv to tsії іideї turning і and the vikorist її R. Lucas.
Robert Lucas (1937), Nobel Prize laureate 1995 p., Professor of the Chikazky University, becoming a funder of a polytechnic school, which she put in the 70s p. For the sake of justice, the basics are like Keynesian, so are the monetarist doctrines. Tseyam straight forward vidomy pid name "new classical school ekonomiks." Win against the be-yak form of the sovereign hand in the economy and base on the sub-active approach to the analysis of economic manifestations.
To the thought of Lucas and the last agent, economic agents, they predict the results of any kind of economy, while they are aware of the laws of function, and they can form their own behavior. It’s stinky to forecast your activity, and predict how much you can do it quietly, so that you can express yourself on the previous model.
For example, as a rule, people know that the budget deficit is due to the stimulation of the economy, then it’s good to check with the closest Maybot price tag and the price tag. For thorough competition and quick adaptation of the risk of such a kind, it’s not necessary to neutralize be-yak a systematic policy of stability.
Відтак Lucas to rob the gown about the principle of inefficiency of Keynesian analytical models and the politics of regulation in pit. A 1975 p. T. Sargent and N. Wallace were informed on a regular basis, of course, because of the lack of activity of active fiscal policy and general business policy.
An important sign of a new straightforward є thesis, be it the economy of politics, the power of the rule, the power of the house, I can regulate the structure of the radio, and the economy of the clock, the manager of the economy. The same thesis is validly true for both Keynesian, and monetarist doctrines.
Lucas, having curtailed respect for those who are in theory of adaptive freedman’s responsibility, need less than the maximum number of people and the whole day. Fredman’s model of ignoring, for example, a set of economic policies, policies, proteas, is expected to be designated for the behavior of an economic sub-project.
Lucas will be a model, who will be able to understand all the implicit information, so I’ll be able to learn more at the Maybane’s economy. This requires a folding mathematical apparatus. Pershu such a model Bulo prompted him that L. Repping 1969 p. Vaughn demonstrated with the adoption of robust solutions of one-hundred-and-one-day Maybut living on the front of the newly-purchased house at the price per hour. Authors actually formalized important for the classical theory of the optimality of the economic behavior of the sub.
The hypothesis about rational ochuvannya has become a new impulse for vikoristannya method of functional analysis. Lucas, having encouraged the function of the offerings, included the exact details of the offer, and the previous part of the environment, when he refused the functions of the service. The second two functions enabled us to stimulate the functions of a more accurate proposition, which was the first time that we had a beginning relationship with the other.
The main visions, formulated on the basis of their functionality, clearly emphasized the Keynesian thesis about the primary role of food, the regulation of which is not to be impaired to the other parameters (for the most part), and the main obligation is to take the rest of the time.
Representatives of a neoclassical school, napak, sternjuvali, scho rivny virobnitstvy i zanyatostі not to lie in the middle of an ordinary meal and the absolute rivial price, but to clarify that, browning by perfect methods, could not. Freedman, for example, doviv, scho Phillips curve is more appropriate for the next hour or so for the pre-trimmer, stimulate stimulation of inflation.
New neoclassics have explained the obviousness of the call between those who want to engage in subnational mercy of economic agents, and to reflect on the lack of information. For example, don’t expect to see the rest of the world don’t wait to talk about growing up for a comrade, ale the merchants need to repair their goods, and investors can invest, and their information. However, we owe the obedience to the law and the proposition of the price and pride, and the price did not beat the real pop. Fix the virobnitzvta, and then, in the Krajnice rahunka, bring up the virobnicho that and the investment activity and the lower price.
At one glance I looked at the principle of the neoclassical school about the adequate reaction of the economical sub-subject to the situation. In real life, there is simply no way for adequate reaction, if such a sub-project is broken, as a rule, it’s less necessary to complete the information that is completely economic.
In most macroeconomic models, one official, who means that he has a large drink, is a grocery proposition. Lucas and his followers confirmed the monetarist’s gossip about the underpricing of policies of penniless stimulation to drink through the method of problem solving. Having established a subnational nature, we’ve reduced the number of children and children, the representatives of the Russian school have acted against the policies of the frantic shockers, they bring attention to their attention, and we recommend that you not to forget them. rinkiv.
In the first tests of Lucas, this one-time odd function, investment, financial rationale, rational rationalization, retention and retrieval were repeated
The authors came up with the idea that the process should be accepted by subcomponents of economic activity and wait for the same rules. In the course of the process, it became clear that the political course of the country is focused on economic behavior, because economic agents do not ignore the rules, as long as political policy is in force, and it is important to predict and formalize that. That through the singing hour, she will behave the new type. To that, as Sargent said, the hypothesis of rational ochkuvan is strong in terms of transferring to the corner of the world for the typical behavior.
Neo-Keynesian models for those who want to give you a pre-real-life effect, monetarists for the sake of protecting and maintaining, of which you will be able to be more secure, do not have to be more adaptable. New Classics approve the classic postulate about non-reactionary reaction and non-repetitive reaction and proposition.
The Theory of Racial Ochіkuvan I will forbid the policy of the sovereign regulation with the help of arguments. One of them - undervaluation, fragments of being hand-in-hand with the behavior of economic agents. The other is the point of view, such a policy of politics (through rational and adaptive activities) results, predictability predicted. So, the regulation of gross food called up before the growth of the inflationary processes, although the zanyat was lost on that very rvnі. (B іnshogo side, monetaristskі Recipes takozh not give neobhіdnih rezultatіv, oskіlki ekonomіchnі agents adaptuvali his dіyalnіst to ekonomіchnoї polіtiki.) Tretіm argument CCB that scho Derzhavna polіtika stosuєtsya makroekonomіchnogo rіvnya, іgnoruyuchi mіkroekonomіchny de sama i priymayutsya rіshennya about ekonomіchnu povedіnku in konkretnіy ekonomіchnіy situation.
New classics love to shape the economy of the power of the country so that they won’t forget the stability of laws and laws, the rules of the money and the fiscal rules weren’t ignored by the hourly needs of the sovereign budget, so we’ve got more time to go. dії. The direct succession of the whole was used for the depolitization of important short-term processes of fiscal and penniless regulation.
The new neoclassics' parasite was formulated as follows: the results of the politics of bagato show what are the sub-active estimates and the very best agents that can be supplemented on the same basis with the other economic ones.
Criticism by the new neoclassics of the inflation credit and pennant policy of "mounted stability", distributed by the monetarists, the book has been updated with criticism of the sovereign fiscal policy from the side of the theory of the proposition economy.
Economy of a proposition. For reporting the analysis of the economy, if to respect, undertake sub-active and obsolete officials, science and technology, the policy of stimulating food is less effective, but it’s possible to do so. I’ll accelerate the pace of the inflation, more securely, the short-hour positive influx on virobnitstvo that will take.
But Ale, from the first side, and the monetarist model, I’m insane, I am able to control the pace of the inflation, bring it to the destabilized growth of unemployment at times, if the market is not sensitive to the situation.
Having asked for help, it’s impossible to finish the policy of financial and penniless money for a stable economy. Tom bagato ekonomist virishilo scho politics in a rush to drink the demand to replace the politics of rush on the proposition. On vidnom vid keynsіantsіv, both respected, scho will drink brewed vidpovidnu proposition, the stench hung the thesis about the accumulation of subsistence vid vidnogo propositsі. The very idea of bulo is laid as the basis for debate about the problems of "economy of the proposition", which is directly related to the stability of the economy.
Authors of ideas and ideas have a great deal of politics, yak, critical criticism of the system of mutual powers and markets, they have come in for the reform of the country, based on the principle of the original role of the principle of independence and independence.
The economy of the proposition for the basis of the model is not to take money, not a company, but aninduma - anindividual capital and an indispensable praise, as if by singing method. That power is regulated by the market, but it’s straightforward to get more information, to get more information, and not to worry about the budget and the problems for the additional support.
The principle of politics knew the further development of the principles of economy. In the meantime, quietly, if you theoretically rounded them up, blame the American professors A. Laffer (University of Carolina) and R. Mandel (Columbia University), while respecting the fact that you are presented with a formal understanding of the problems of meeting your needs.
We rewarded us with a set of sums of Keynes’s baubles, which is important for the reason for the hassle of virology, economical activities, the same, busy work, and the fact that we recommend that you keep them busy for a long time.
The main hat before the growth of the virobnitz stink was injected into stimulated praxis, and that investment.
The main investment investment (to protect the budget deficit) is to protect oneself, even those who are dumb cannot be invested.
High discounts reduce the profitability of the business, speed up the revenue, and the profit and benefit.
Zbіlshennya of the boundary rates of the incremental surcharge є we’ll pay for an economical increase, osklki zmenshuє the oath of the proposition is investment. Investment funds come down with taxes, regardless of whether the budget is balanced.
Apart from negative investment pressure, higher progressive rates of interest, speed up the oath of the proposition praci, scraps of labor and effort cease to pay off. Stimulating the propositional praise directly with the pay-offs, pay for the yak to become a significant part of the available vitrates. Changes in income are positively paid on the basis of higher pay, on the other hand, there is a positive real income, and positively on income pidprimtsya.
It’s rozumna’s tax policy, it’s based on a lower tax rate, on the thought of authors, the announcement of the increase of the liability, and the reduction of the provision of money, which is the basis of the loss of income, so that you are not to lose money. to the budget, not because of a budget deficit, but rather, to increase the base.
Tsey causal-hereditary sound mocking Laffer , showing, as a fiscal policy is pouring in on the succulent proposition.
Vin meaning, schlo vpliv pouring water on drink vіdchuvatsya shvidshe. The short-term period of low income is unambiguously related to the increase in income and the low cost of income. For this reason, having become a vidchutnym pouring in the amount of money to the offer, offer more than three hours, the part of the ring is due to the process, but the positive effect of the other is to get rid of it.
Graphically, I will name the model “ Curve Laffer ”. The economical driver of the crooked Laffer’s pitch is in the same time, as long as the levy is within the optimal range, then the budget needs to be improved, and the situation can be repaired. All of this is due to the fact that the reduced cost of business incentives stimulate the decrease in business activity, the better and the most reliable investment, so that I can hear the rest of the base. In addition, the sphere of legal business is speeding up. Pragnennya sovereign mother stable stability nadhodzhen primusu її postіyno zbіlshuvati rates are subject to as much as possible, docks even nihto not pratsuvatim and not oslushuvatime ikh.
Reduced rates of interest for a short time lead to less need for change, a less stimulated viral activity, which can be used and needed.
Laffer indicating the need to identify the optimal rate of surcharge, yak, at first thought, to lay down the economic situation, the rozmirіv and the structure of the virological sphere, national, cultural, psychological and the latest officials.
Otzhe, mainly in teorії "Economy Offers» Bulo zaperechennya manіpulyativnoї fіskalnoї polіtiki that іsnuyuchoї sistemi Progressive opodatkuvannya yak takoї scho negatively vplivaє on dіlovu aktivnіst, oskіlki not stimulyuє zaoschadzhen that іnvestitsіy, zumovlyuє neratsіonalny rozpodіl faktorіv virobnitstva, pererozpodіl natsіonalnogo income mіzh virobnitstvom that spozhivannyam on keeping the remaining and the old cause of the heyday of income, scho, at the end of the loan, bring up the winnings of the economy, barter exchange, hidden loans .
Mandel pointed out that, for an additional financial policy, it is also possible to cheaply increase the number of viola- tors, and by doing this, by themselves, take an active loan, do not stimulate the inflation.
The hangers of the theory kept in mind that it is possible to immediately lower the inflation rate and increase the interest rate for understanding the change in the additional tax. Empirical data on the complete presentation of the rosaries, the idea of having a look at the bows, the bulo has been evaluated by professors M. Feldstein (Stanford University) and M. Boskin (Harvard University).
There are high prices, for a quick look, because of the reason I have redistributed resources from the private sector to the state, I want to reduce the productivity of productivity until the decline, increase the value of the price and value. Їx lowered spirits used to speed up vitrate virobnitstva, growth of pributkiv, stimulated effective drinking. Tobto inflation is not a penny phenomenon, as monetarists respected. The budget deficit is not zoomed in on oaths, but on the basis of views, which will lead to inflation. As a matter of fact, you need to pass the vidatki, you need to know more about your needs, and you don’t have to pay any money for pennies to cover the deficiency.
The sound of the country’s flagship, which is to be the main goal of the state’s social security is to become a member of the suspension of power of the sovereign vitrats to re-establish stable development of the economy, encouraged by the principle of real estate development. Держава має забезпечувати однакові можливості для розвитку підприємництва, захищаючи ринкові механізми, та будувати соціальну сферу, залучаючи до участі в цьому будівництві через систему державного страхування якнайширші маси населення.
Представники школи «економіки пропозиції», захищаючи принципи вільного підприємництва, піднесли проблему оподаткування до рангу конкретної економічної політики, обгрунтовуючи свої висновки економетричними моделями та програмами дальшого розвитку економіки.