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History of Economic Studies - Kornіychuk L.Ya.

5. Theory of "industrial suspension"

The science-and-technology revolution has celebrated a great deal of energy for the entire system of modern political economy. Having kindly imagined і ститу ц ститу ститу нов так ститу,,,,,,,,,,, ив ив ив ив образ ив ив ив образ образ ив ив ив ив ив ститу ститу ститу ститу ститу ститу ститу ститу ститу ститу є є є є є є є є ститу є ститу є є є є ститу є ститу ститу є є ститу є ститу ститу ститу ститу є ститу ститу ститу ститу ститу є є є ститу ститу ститу є є є ститу є ститу ститу є ститу ститу є ститу є ститу ститу є ститу ститу є ститу є є є ’ The young adherents, the victorious principle of technological determinism, have begun to see more of the ideas of industrial concepts of transformational capitalism.

The foundations of the industrial concept bulo were laid at the ends of Veblen. In the 40-60's pp. Vaughn Znula nabula relevance in zvyazku rozgortannyam NTR. The ancestor of the concept of “Industrial Suspension” is to respect the American economist P. Drucker, a man from the 40s. having published the news, the related problems: “Maybud industrial people” (1942), “Corporate Idea” (1946), “Great Business” (1947), “New suspension. Anatomy of the Industrial Mode ”(1949).

The formation of the “industrial system” is brought to the twentieth century. Основуї basis is being established by the great corporations, which is the main thing to do in the world. "Industrial system" is the banner of transition to "industrial suspension". The Central Institute of "Industrial Suspension" is a great specialized agency. Drucker is the visitor of the two species of "industrial suspension": capitalist and socialist. Capitalist “industrial suspension” Drucker called “vilnim”, and socialist - “slavish”.

At the 60th pp. the theory of "industrial suspension" was extolled by American social scientist and economist Walt Rostow, French social scientists Jacques Yellul and Raymond Aron.

I ’ve Rostub published the book “Economic Development. The Non-Communist Manifesto ”(1960), a kind of viclav in the concept of suspension development, as an alternative to the Marxist theory. Win the view of the stage of economical growth: 1) traditional suspension, 2) preparation of change of mind for Friday, 3) Friday, 4) down to maturity, 5) era of high mass living.

"Tradition slurry" is characterized by primitive manual technology, manual prace, re-lenders of the state gratitude. Persha stage chronologically ochoplyuє all history of humanity until the XVII century.

“Another stage of growth - all suspension in the transitional station” * 33. At this stage, change your mind for a day. By the initial rice of the stage є the approval of the centralized national powers. In the economy, “there are new types of friendly people ... like to mobilize yourself to see for yourself a rhizic, knowing a little about modernization” * 34. At the other stage, win the banks, grow the investment, receive the offer and the internal trading.

* 33: {Rostow WW The Stages of Economic growth. A Non-Communist Manifesto. - Cambridge University Press, 1960. - P. 6.}

* 34: {Ibid., P.7.}

The third stage, the stage of the day, is to be timid, in order to repair economic progress, repair the houses in suspension. Viduvayutsya rosette in the interests of lousy suspension. Qiu stage іzіnі rіznі kraїini passed at historical іzіnі vіdrіzki hour. In England, there are (approximately) two remaining decadres of the 18th century, and in France and the USA there are two decimal places before 1860.

The fourth stage is characterized by constant progress, more sophisticated technology, wider new technology in the entire sphere of state-owned dyalnosti, a large number of fast-moving products and a wide range of population. The very same stage of Rostow is called "industrial suspension".

Naiharakternіshoy rice of the fifth stage of economical growth є the release of goods in trivial coristuvannya. At the stage of development, priority is given to suspensions. It’s not the first thing to enter into the viral plan, but “living and prosperity in the broadest range of reason” * 35.

* 35: {Ibid., P.73.}

At the fifth stage Rostow I will not complete the periodization of suspension development. Maybut suspension in favor of living “for living”, as the USA has already reached it. It is not characteristic for a важ rewind of family and intellectual values ​​over living conditions. I’m growing up, I’ll live in the temple of Masov and ignore the people.

Raymond Aron is a French sociologist. Such conceptions as “18 lectures on the industrial suspension” (1962) and “Three Narisi about the industrial era” (1966) have their own concept of industrial suspension in wiklaw.

Industrial suspension is a sign of such a kind, for which the most extensive form of virology is great. Such suspension is entrusted with the idea of ​​technological integration, technological cooperation, the provision of capital, and the concentration of robots. From now on, the term for the industrial suspension in Aron ить is to be finished, we will overhang. There are two types of industrial suspension: capitalist and gladianske. To sacrifice sacrifices between them in the form of moisture on the side of virobility and ways of regulating the economy.

The capitalist type of economy is privatized in its own right for the benefit of the economy, the decentralized regulation of the economy, the benefit of the suspension for the economic and the indefinite period of time, is unavoidable. Significantly dominant capitalistic type of industrial suspension - pure capitalism. The real capitalism, according to Aron’s thought, cannot be “cleaned up”, the fragments for the low sign of win are getting closer to socialism. With socialism I’m close to the nature of moisture, vikoristannya aide, rozpodilu.

Shchodo power, then the similarity of Aron to recession in practice at the call of the so-called “collective power”, scho wines as a result of nationalized deceitful galluses of words of praise for other news. The side street is a category, lured by a kind of industrial suspension, and not by the specialty of capitalism. Similarity is observed in the ropes, in both the planned and the planned ones, and the return on the income, the main pay is the main payment.

For Aron’s methodology, it’s for Rostow, the first one is technological technology to analyze the most economical processes, if the development of the suspension is the same, the type and the social structure is being developed to develop the technology. Schopravda, Aron himself, having embraced this method, is incomplete, the fragments of winnings and forms of moisture and the class structure of suspension. Prote tse didn’t obstruct yomu through this method. Win in categorically stating that the nature of the economy is not possible to recognize as the nature of moisture in the headquarters of the virobility, as though K. Marx. Yak butt vin naming Spain, Argentina and the USA, the economy of those who thought, it’s impotent to overtake one understanding — “capitalist”. At the boundaries of economy, it’s necessary to rely on private power for a large number of decentralized and decentralized control systems, fewer times, having less money, no longer needing more productivity, we understand that we’re more comfortable. In addition, it seems, Aron is reluctant to discard the fact of a different level of economy in the boundaries of the capitalist system.

Aron put a meta closer to the social and social systems, the fragments of the stink of offense are understood by the understandings of industrial suspensions. There’s a way to overcome the critical critique, straightenings against capitalism, so this very world will be straightened and against the regime, that’s socialism.

Jacques Ellul - French sociologist, having scrapped the concept of "technological suspension". The basis of the "technological suspension" of a new є technician, is a pan є over suspension and humanity. I won’t follow the laws of law and I’m not pleased with people. Vona is autonomous and economical and political. “Technique,” ​​writing Yellul, “is the reason for the zoom in social, political and economic vows.” Tse - pershorushіy the rest of the rest "* 36.

* 36: {Ellul J. The Technological Society. - N.-Y., 1965. - P. 134.}

The concept of Yelllya’s mother is not less than fetishizatsiya, but the first universal technology. Technology in the rozumіnnі do not share machines and technology, but a whole range of human activities: 1) economical technology (included with the law), 2) technical organization, including 3) human technology (ohoplyuка medicine, genetics, skinny propaganda).

Imparting the technical role of the virchal factor of economic development, Ellyul z'yasova, as well as the development of economy, is designated for the economic development of suspension. The very development of technology, at one thought, zoom in: 1) enter a dual-use one to the “economy of corporations”; 2) the kind of “liberal” economy is dominantly regulated; 3) type of market economy to the planned economy. I’ll explain the process of explaining the development of technology, the best news, the investment. For these minds, it is economical to enter beyond the boundaries of individual abilities.

Technique, to rob the Ellyul gadgets, transferring to centralization, and that, at her own house, plan. Plan for business is not for the prerogative of socialism, but for the necessary intelligence of the “technological suspension”.

Ellul vistupa against the indicative plan. Shchob buti we will realize, the plan should be taken out from the apartment to a primus. "... Planuvannya, - having written vin, - intently zv'yazane with primus" * 37.

* 37: {Ibid., P. 181.}

At the current suspension of Ellul, there are two systems: “corporate” (capitalist) and “planned” (proletarian). Offend the system of a new dispute, the fragments are primed by technology, and the way they approve even the more identifiable suspension structures, which include the technical elite.

Effectively functional economy, to the thought of Ylluly, I save the very “planned economy”, prote maybutny vіn vn with it not zvyazyu. Rozumiyuchi pid "planned economy" socialist, in the name of the authoritarian and antidemocratic, as well as in the hands of the sovereign and technological elite, which will operate the people. Tsіkavo, scho in the "corporate", but to capitalize, save in such wads do not help.

Technological determinism, which is tackled by understanding concepts, in Yllul is manifested as much as possible. I need to bring technology to the absolute, and I will explain the civilization of humbling suspension by technical development.

J. Gelbraith having stepped up with his own kind of theory of the “industrial suspension” theory, as pidsumovuval and developed the science directly. Winning by trying to “synthetic”, like winnings, theories, the theory, which would have covered all the legitimate laws of ordinary capitalism.

Qiu theory bulo was taken up by Gelbraith in the book “ New Industrial Suspension ” (1967), and Yaka became a bestseller on the American book market. He called the author of the book Fortune magazine as Keynes.

The idea of ​​the book, as I wrote Gelbraith at the front, was born on the soil of the forefront of the scientific achievements of the author.

Gelbraith became the same person as the author of the theory of “temporary capitalism”, the same as Victor Wiklaw in praci “American Capitalism: the concept of temporary capitalism” (1952). The essence of the theory of the pole in the world, which should not be strengthened by competition in the concentration of capital, is not upheld; Yak “vrvnovovuyuyuuuuuuu power” Gelbraite rozlazdyє rznomani_tnі cooperative organizations, farmers, professional associations, rznі trading commercially thin.

Meaning tsієї "vrіvnovazhuyuchoї Sealy" polyagaє not lishe in tіm scho Won pereshkodzhaє utvorennyu monopolіy and th at tіm scho Won zamіnyuє konkurentsіyu buyout kolis Bula regulator market analysis. Having written Gelbraith, which is competitive, like panhandling A. Smit’s hours, “it’s actually overlooked by the typical market for a small hour with a small number of sellers, since they are not actively competing, but another big market is a strong buyer” * 38.

* 38: {Gelbraith John K. American Capitalism. The Concept of Countervailing Power. - Boston, 1958. - P. 119-120.}

Gelbrave buve of comprehension, which has seen new strength, some kind of capitalism, one kind of monopoly, one kind of competitiveness, and one can have a great deal more negatively.

Gelbreit is a representative of neoinstitutionalism, which, at the thought of a henchman, is in sight of the traditional tradition of socially-economical minds formulated, so the formulation of the problem. Itself is so rosimіu qiu rіznitsyu American institute Institutsionalist A. Gruchі. “Veblen of the uninterrupted post-soviets,” wrote Gruchі, “boules, by the day, by the representatives of the theory of industrial economics, was clearly populating. Neoinstitutionalism is an economical theory of industrial economics, so that it hasn’t been developed, but now it’s rebuilding itself for the suspension of mass living. I am old and old by Veblen and neo-institutional by Gelbraith, Mydral, Colm, Low and Perru є, and I don’t need to cut between 20 and 60 rock * 39.

* 39: {Gruchy A. Contemporari Economic Thought. - Clifton, 1972. - P. 8.}

To the next, it’s obvious that I have brought more critical criticism of Veblen’s constitutionalism to the apologetic neo-constitutionalism. In praises of neoinstitutionalism capitalism is seen as “suspension of prosperity”, “suspension of mass living”, “suspension of ignoble prosperity” is skinny. This very image of Gelbraith. At the book “Sustainability of Prosperity” (1958), I’m trying to beat the bench, which problem is violated, all the problems are complicated, and all the thorough technology is lost, there’s no more problem. Gelbreit is critically placed on the orderly system of distribution and the ability to reform the country, and expanding the suspension of servants and better ones. Win propon to complete the system of sanctifying victorious resources for struggling with hunger and hunger.

At the “New Industrial Suspension”, Gelbraith is rewarded with a comprehensive understanding of the entire economical system of capitalism, the sound of technical progress. The technological progress of a new “day”, which is self-cultivating, is spawning itself. Technical progress and organization signify the economic form of suspension.

Gelbreit is a view of the two forms of capital economy in terms of technology, the scale of technology and the organization of large enterprises - great corporations and other technologies. There is no need to play a significant role in the current economy. Основуї basis to become a great corporation, generated by advanced technology. Part of the economy, represented by great corporations, Gelbraith is called the “industrial system”, which is the essence of the “new industrial suspension”. “... The industrial system,” wrote Win, “is all about the rice of the“ new industrial suspension ”* 40.

* 40: {Galbraith J. The New Industrial Society. - M., 1969. - S. 45.}

The industrial system, behind Gelbraith, at one’s house, is identified with a highly acclaimed technology, which will zoom in all the latest signs: panovanny corporation in the major areas of economy; the need for great capital investment; accelerated brain drain and clockwork for a weekend to attend, ask the public to attend scientific and research labs and necessary laboratory tests; vimog to qualification of robots and corporations; I, for sure, need for liquidation for great corporations, which will require planning.

In the “industrial suspension”, the role and power of the country is to ignore the part of the vitrat for securing technological progress and changing the practice of industrial protection. That is the very technology of visibility — the whole economical structure of suspension.

Gelbreit Viokremlyuє two rivnі rozvitku corporation: "pіdpriєmnitsku" і "« zrіlu ". At the "business administration" (20-30th r. Of the twentieth century), the ruler and clergyman, bouv okremiy kapitalіst, the foreman of kapitalu. The main method of this method is maximization. The control over the corporation is zoomed out by the capital of the company, and not by its competence. Such a corporation did not require a plan and a sovereign hand.

To the winter of "corporate corporation" come "mature corporation." Tsey perekhid zumovleniya technical progress, yoga vimogami. “Corporate Corporation” is a collective organization, to which private power is classified as “suspended capitalism”. At the point of "mature corporation", it is not okremiy pidprimets, but the "technostructure", before which you pass the Vlad.

Що розуміє Гелбрейт під "technostructure"? Vin Viznacha її, as the "Union of Knowledge and Qualification". All the main core staff of great corporations, who are stocked up of people who specialize in core business, business, finance, corporate plans, are quiet, and I’m accepting the business. Vіn pіdkreslyuє, scho ce Keruyuchy ntelekt - the brain pidprimstva. I have a group of people (not only managers), a yak “okhoplyu vseh, hto volodya with special knowledge, talent, as well as dosvid of the group accept the decision” * 41. The very same group of people Gelbraith will propone проп be called "technostructure."

* 41: {Galbraith J. Name. tv., p. 113.}

Change in corporations owned to the "technostructure" of the winter meta of corporate corporations. I’m reminded that there’s no image of interest and interest, but of suspension, not a maximization of the damage, but a suspension method. On the forefront of the “technostructure” is to put economically more efficiently, as well as effective functions of the corporation, as well as more interesting interests, as well as more interesting interests. Effectively func- tioning corporations to secure the highest level of dividends. Otzhe, the mother of Uzbek interests of suspension, corporation and industrial. Але Гелбрейт неправомірно відриває прибуток акціонерів (дивіденди) від решти прибутку корпорації. Неправомірним є й визначення грошових доходів «техноструктури» як заробітної плати, що нібито не заохочує її максимізувати прибуток корпорації в цілому.

Важливою рисою «індустріальної системи» Гелбрейт називає планування, яке теж породжується розвитком науки і техніки. Велика корпорація з її складною технікою, значними капіталовкладеннями не може ефективно функціонувати за умов ринкової стихії. Ринок перестав бути надійним регулятором виробництва. Йому на зміну приходить планування корпоративної діяльності. Планування має забезпечити здійснення передбачених фірмою, корпорацією результатів і «замінити ціни й ринок, як механізм, що визначає те, яка продукція буде виготовлятись, авторитетним рішенням, котре встановлює, що буде виготовлятись і споживатись і за якими цінами»*42. Якщо раніше Гелбрейт сподівався нейтралізувати монополію і конкуренцію з допомогою «врівноважуючої сили», то тепер він намагається замінити конкуренцію й ринок монополією (великою корпорацією) і плануванням. Щоправда, сам Гелбрейт вважає неприпустимим ототожнення великої корпорації з монополією.

*42: {Гэлбрейт Дж. Назв. tv., p. 61.}

У «індустріальному суспільстві» формується, як зазначає Гелбрейт, нова класова структура. За умов «зрілої корпорації» і панування «техноструктури» нібито зникає конфлікт між багатими і бідними. Йому на зміну приходить новий конфлікт, породжений науково-технічним прогресом — між «класом освічених» і «неосвічених та малоосвічених». Вирішальною силою «індустріального суспільства» стає «клас освічених», складовою частиню якого є «техноструктура». Ця теорія Гелбрейта, на його власне визнання, мала на меті спростувати марксистське вчення про протилежність інтересів праці та капіталу.

Проте Гелбрейт не міг ігнорувати реальних суперечностей капіталізму, не міг не бачити бідності, безробіття тощо. І якщо в другому виданні «Суспільства достатку» (1969) він називає бідність «пережитком», «залишковим явищем», то в книжці «Нове індустріальне суспільство» він заявляє, що ці вади притаманні лише тій частині економіки, що перебуває поза «індустріальною системою», тобто сфері дрібного виробництва. Що ж до «індустріальної системи», то вона керується суспільними інтересами, а відтак не призводить до злиднів, бідності і класових антагонізмів.

Велику роль в «індустріальному суспільстві» Гелбрейт надає державі. Технічний прогрес у нього автоматично зумовлює необхідність втручання держави в економічне життя. Він визнає необхідність планування на державному рівні, регулювання державного попиту, перерозподіл національного доходу через систему податків, сприяння розвитку науково-технічного прогресу, освіти, національної оборони. При цьому він підкреслює незалежність корпорацій, їхню самостійність, «автономію» щодо держави. Державу й корпорації Гелбрейт розглядає як дві незалежні сили, котрі плідно співпрацюють одна з одною.

У концепції «індустріального суспільства» Гелбрейта почуваються й критичні ноти. Він критикував мілітаризм, гонку озброєнь, пропонуючи навіть націоналізувати корпорації, які виготовляють зброю. Гелбрейт розуміє складність вирішення соціальних проблем у межах «індустріального суспільства». Майбутнє «індустріального суспільства» він зв'язує з діяльністю інтелігенції, яка на противагу «техноструктурі» керуватиметься тільки економічними пріоритетами, сприятиме розвитку «естетичних цінностей», спрямуванню «індустріальної системи» на служіння широким соціальним інтересам.