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|home Other disciplines Books International markets and foreign exchange operations - Savluk M.І.|
International markets and foreign exchange operations - Savluk M.І.
Pershochergovy and necessary mental health of the international trade operation є a new trade contract, a kind of license rights and obligations of the parties, their complete operation. When a contract is concluded, the value of the currency and financial and payment brains is more significant, it’s worthwhile to lay down some kind of profitable commercial transactions, refusing to pay them on a regular basis, paying them back on a regular basis, and insurance.
When there are currency-financial and payable minds, often the protest of interest is often manifested. So, the exporter exposes the goods to the іmporte іnteresters otrimati maximally large amount of currency in a short term, to win the vіdpovіdnі guaranty і wіth wіth tо pay securely. The importer, at his house, in Prague, will soon take away the goods, repay less currency and, as much as possible, maximize payment, so as to be able to sell the loan on commercial loan.
Vibration of currency and financial and contractual minds to lay the law on the bureaucrats, on the other hand on the nature of the economy and politics, on the average, on the basis of the legal, commercial and commercial conditions rules and conventions, so regulate rozrahunkovі v_dnosini, skinny.
As a matter of fact, I will settle the foreign trade contract before transferring money (for example, about the delivery procedure and making payments), as much as possible for foreign currency and financial considerations, then in the contract I will fully relate to such a favor. Then it’s important to take a look at the contest of disputes, which can be violated by the parties in the course of the contract.
Currency and financial payments and pay attention to such basic elements:
- currency price and method of value;
- the currency of the payment, the exchange rate for the currency change, the price of the currency of the payment, it’s not possible to pay;
- umov rozrahunkіv;
- the form of the roses and the banks, through which the roses will be healthy.
View the value of the currency and the value of the payment to deposit a significant amount of currency effectiveness.
Currency price - the price currency, in which the price of the contract is calculated. If the currency is valued, the price is higher for the international traditional trade in the given goods, think of the middle ground. When a contract is negotiated for the price of the goods, the goods may be fully fixed in the currency of conversion: sales, purchase and sale of third countries. Yakshcho mіzh kraїnymi laid in favor about the order of roses for clearing, then the price of the goods is set in these currencies, yak adopted for clearing rozrahunіv. For Ukrainian foreign trade trading organizations, the value of the currency is folded through the exchange of the national currency of the Ukrainian hryvnia in the international operations. As a practice, the main currency is the price in the razrahunka for Ukrainian export є American dollar. The water hour in import operations is that the currency is often reckoned with the heavily converted currencies of the most advanced countries. All of the above are for sellers who want to accept their national currency.
Export and import contractual prices to ensure that they are up to date and up to date, so that they can be included in them at the time of the sale of goods from the exporter to the importer. At international practices there is a way to visually identify the price of goods.
- Hard fiksatsіya, for such a fixed price do not piddyagayut zmіnam pid hour of the weekend of the mind of the contract. The method of solid faksatsіy effektivnі with vіdnosnіy stability prices on the individual markets on the vіdpovіdnu group of goods. Win in additions for short-term deliveries, but we can buy victories and for the sake of better delivery terms, especially in case of repeated contracts with long-term partners.
- When signing a contract, the principle of price recognition is considered (for example, on the basis of quoting the current market price on the day of delivery), and the price itself is included in the process of completing the weekend. There is a way to identify the price, if the trend is up to the price of the goods.
- We’ve gone through two ways in advance: how to establish a rude price, if the price is firmly fixed at the moment the contract is settled, you can have a look at it, but the indicators have been lower than the price of the contract, for example, the price has been lower . But, we can re-evaluate the contract price for the product of the market for the price of the product more than 5% lower than the contract price.
- Zmіnna price is fallow vіd zmіni element_v vitrat. Vona rozrahovuetsya at the time of completing the contract with a hat, I will look at the basic price from urakhuvannyam zmin іnoutvoryuyuchyh elements, (secrement vitrat virobnitsva), під hour to complete the contract. Look at the sale of products, like buying and selling lines (folding folding complete possession).
When the contract prices are fixed, the following are set: the basic price and the structure, the moment of the cob of the price, the way and the time of the remaining price, the maximum distance (the maximum and the minimum contract price). The distance between the two, I’m overwhelming is 15-20% of the basic price, but not to the importer.
- The form is: the part is firmly fixed, and the part is established in the form.
Vibirauyuchi currency price, importantly vrahuvati kind of product. One of the rules of private trade is the annual currency price on the territory see the goods are not subject to the use of goods, so as to be the currency is not satisfied with the whole world of sellers and buyers. The price is low, including syrovine, sold on standard markets for standard brainpieces, divided by the General Law on tariffs and trade (GATT), as well as international exporters and exporters. Understand the trading of these goods (prices, currency of payment, currency and baggage and foreign currency insured in contracts) and registration of foreign trade documents (re-negotiating of invoices and insurance documents) according to strict rules. Zokrem, price for syra naphtha, gas condensate, tsukor-syrets, cava, color metals, virobi and shkiri are quoted in US dollars. In English pounds sterling prices are quoted on the Western European commodity-silver markets on cocoa beans, cartoplyu, barley, color metal, rubber. The order is quoted on the stock exchange, the price of goods is set, the currency of the payment is denoted.
Currency of payment - the whole currency, in which the goiter’s purchase is paid (importer). As long as the currency exchange rate is unstable, then the price is fixed in the most stable currency, and the payment is in the currency of the importor. As long as the currency is вЂ ‹вЂ‹ вЂ ‹вЂ‹ вЂ ‹вЂ‹ вЂ ‹вЂ‹ вЂ ‹and the payment currency is not paid, then the contract will pay the price of a change to the other (for the parity, the IMF will fix it on the basis of SDRs, or for the exchange rate of currencies).
Have a contract and re-establish a change of mind:
- the rate of a particular type of payment plight - telegraphic banking or bank transfer order for payments without them;
- Hour of Corriguvannya (for example, on an advance day of payment per day) at a specified foreign exchange market (selling, buying, or working in a third country);
- consider the exchange rate, for such a healthy re-runner: as a rule, the average course of the day, the average rate is the seller’s one-time purchase for one hour, but one hour to close the currency market.
More important is the time for re-framing. Yogo is incorrectly installed, you can bring up to the great gates the inheritance of the currency exchange rates. One of the most pardoning things, often spoiling, є re-adjustment of currencies for the course of the day laid down on the contract. Due to the instability of the currency of payment and the tendency to devaluation, the exporter can recognize the great zbitkiv at the time of payment. For example, an importer from Ukraine, September 15, 2001 I will sign a contract with a post-master from Russia for the amount of 1.5 million Russian rubles. Have a day exchange rate of the hryvnia and the ruble dorіvnyuє 0,19 UAH for 1 growth. rub. The exchange rate will be included in the contract, from the same time, importer of respect, who will pay 7 894 736 million UAH. However, the day, if it is payment date, the exchange rate is 0.15 UAH per growth. rub. (to the hryvnia cheapened the price of the ruble), the first importer has already paid 10 million UAH. The importer’s bits are 2 105 264 UAH.
Nezbіg currency value and currency payment - one of the simplest methods of insurance of currency exchange. As long as the currency rate is lower (for example, the British pound sterling) having decreased, then the amount of payment (with the German brands) is proportionally changed, and it is not so. For the exporter (creditor), the price is lower and the rate is lower, and for the importer (bort), the price is lower.
Surrounding the right amount of currency price and currency payment, payments (companys) can be vikoristovuvati y іnshі hassle, direct insurance for currency rzikіv. Prior to such incentives to introduce: the ability to pay for the contract, the imbalance of the grocery vimog and the cribs, the currency and commodity zherezhenennya, the barter, the inclusion of the price of the possible zbitkiv at the price. In addition, I take an active part in the process of insuring foreign currency risks by taking banks, as well as hedging our way with the land of forward and optional lands, as well as of regional discounting, factoring and non-refundance.
Tell the payment to sign the order and line of payment for the goods, which are the meanings of the foreign trade contract. The stinks are installed individually. Vibir umov payment to lay down vid sili partners on the market. When negotiating the minds of the parties, it is important to pay the payment є weather for such meals:
- if you need to lay robiti plat_zh (for example, before, at the time of less than delivery of goods);
- Yakos sposіb maє buti has a healthy pay (form of roses);
- de vin is guilty of buti zdіsneniy.
The analysis of international trade, which is the most extensive, scored two main ways of trading retail purchases: on the minds of non-silent payment and payment by installment. In addition, often see two payable fees - pay and credit combinations with an optional payment option. Look at the two stays of self-confidence that you don’t fully think of, remnants of a stink є less than the last of the main paying minds.
Traditsyno fallow of the households of the counterparties, as well as specifics of the goods that are for sale, the importer of healthy pay for one of these minds:
a) delivery of goods for procurement of goods at the port of destination;
b) when handed over to the importer, a set of commodity documents with abovementioned payments for payment of paid days and one year;
c) when goods are received by the importer at the port, the designator is designated.
The practice was carried out of international razrahunkіv to verify that for the reason you want to pay the goods inappropriately, the importer and the third bank should be given 3-5 days to understand the payment of documents and to pay the next payment. With the maximum number of lines of documents from the bank - this is the day. International practices often require obscuring negative payments for various reasons: third-party counterparties and third-party banks, unnecessary payments through third-party banks, pay in advance. Proteus, from the bank’s look, doesn’t want to get into bad pay, it’s not more than an hour has been spent, but it’s necessary for the counterparties to pay these documents to the banks.
International razrakhunki are interchangeable with exchange of currencies and above-mentioned loans with one-partner trading partners. The whole manifestation of the sounds of international monetary and rozrahunkovyh operations. Commercial trading has a wide commercial loan, which can be realized through an offer by the seller to buy a payment line for deliveries of goods.
Rozstrochka payment transfer transfer of interchange of commercial and credit sites. The conclusion of a trading operation to get paid on the cob of a loan, yak, at your own house, will be completed by repayment of a purchase by a bourgeois bargain for a posichka. The peculiarity of the installment payment is that for the sake of pleasing the poses not by the head method. Vaughan lish suprovodzhuє for the sake of buying-selling goods.
Buyers for a number of reasons will be indulged in a late payment of frequent payments, lower than the termination of a bank loan for non-payment of goods. Let me explain that, often a bank loan is often expensive and don’t wait for affordable. To reach mutual home ownership with partners, make it easier, especially at the time of a trivial and plastivnoy spіvrobіtnitstva. Buying pays by paying by installment is prejudiced by one of the bazhanyas to randomly deny the right of ownership of material values, of the third one of reproductive rights for resale, as well as the other way of paying off the bargain in advance.
Effectiveness of the expectation of commercial contracts to lay down the form of the correct form of the rozrahunkіv . By submitting a form of purchase at a foreign trade, there are a lot of ways to arrange, transfer and pay for goods and documents, as well as pay in international business and bank practice. The main forms of payment, such as being used in international trading, are documentary credit and documentary insurance, bank refusal, payment of credit card and advance payments. In detail, all forms of international rozrakhunіv will be seen in the third and fifth razdіlah.
An important moment when negotiating minds is the payment є vibration of the country, if you pay a fee. There is also a significant influx on international markets for domestic and foreign trade regulation. As a rule, in these areas є mean obmezhenennya, then shvidke and more efficiently held rozrahunkіv in May even immaterial. In addition, the negative impact on the speed of the international competitions for the mother’s system and discipline, for example, for example, in the baggage of the CIS countries, it is necessary to lower the price. So, in Russia, Ukraine and in foreign countries it is often better to have a situation, if commercial banks come with the payment of documents that are immediately hijacked, the cost of the cost of paying for their customers is significant, it’s important that