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|home Other disciplines Books International markets and foreign exchange operations - Savluk M.І.|
International Rose and Currency Operations - Savluk M.І.
In case of international deliveries, the customer shall see the documents, as well as re-supply the goods to the seller until the purchase. Їx file documents, as well as signs of valuable documents (eg bill, bill of lading, bill of lading, warehouse receipt (guarantor) and documents, yak_dvertverjuy і supervoduyut goods (for example, utility bills, insurance, transportation, etc.) similar to the goods, transport receipt, upkuvalnaya specifics skinny).
From the international practice and international forms of international documents, you can rely on the delivery of goods, you can see this:
Commercial documents - as a document, in a certain form of groshimi vimogi exporter to importer. Mostly from commercial documents є commercial rachunok, or rakhunok-invoice (dodatok 4), some kind of bag, get into the bag, and get ready to pay off. Commerce rahunki, as a rule of a few German vakazok, are a seller for a buyer. Describe the goods in the commercial rachunka maє buti more precisely and take it from all of the documents - from the viral viras.
With the following requisites of the commercial purchase є: purchase and sale, item of the contract, item of identification and identification of the item, number and date of the transport document, number and date of the contract, renewal of the item, the price of the item payment, think delivery.
At the rakhunku mozhe buti was inscribed the first information on the information, which deserves the characteristics and the characteristics of the goods, the packaging is thin, it is indefinitely subject to the contract of the letter of credit. I especially respect the slid to give the correct value for the delivery of brains.
At a vipadka, if the commercial price tag is displayed in the same currency, while payment is required in the current currency, the price should be changed by the rahunka.
Legislation is applicable to a number of national legal entities, which are officially registered by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry or the Consulate of the Buying Territory. Compliance with the consulate of rachunks is called the consular rakhunk. The winnings are at the consulates of the country where the goods and goods are declared, which is the sum of the actual sales invoice. All information (documents) about the goods consulate will be rejected. Consular rakhunok-invoice I feel better сп the correct payment of Mitya in the Ukrainian importer.
The commemorative rakhunok will be registered as two persons without an invasion and without a signet. As if by brains of the contract (letter of credit) the transfer of payment was transferred, then in the grocery store Obov'yazkovo to try to get the point and pay the payment date.
Transport documents are presented as a merchant as if they were to receive goods before being transported. By transport documents є: when transported by zaliznitsyu - zaliznichna waybill that її duplicate; when transported by repeated transport - avianakladna; when transported by road transport - waybill; with sea transportations - a bill of lading.
Zalіznichna bill of lading that copy (duplicate) vikoristovuyutsya at the international transportations zaliznitsyu vantazhiv. Consignment note - the document is drawn up to the contract of transportation by the client as a guide to the administration and administration room. The main things to do is to pay attention to the waybill, є: name of station, destination and near-station, name of installation, information about freight (chi sum) freight. In the event of overhead zaliznichnyh invoices, special respect is attached to the graphs of "Oderzhuvach". This is due in the winter, but a specific owner of a venture should not wait to buy a product. Zalіznichna invoice, as a rule, to subscribe to foreign countries, I will reject goods. Naymenuvannya goods in the consignment note may be inscribed in foreign viras.
At the customer’s waybill, it’s necessary to try to get information about the goods and the product, however, most of the goods have been submitted, the number of goods is invisible, the majority of the goods are available.
Copy (duplicate) of overhead documents and documents, like appearing as a transferee, getting involved in the paperwork correctly, as if they put stamps of the transponder on them, set it up, as if I saw the document, but I’m standing on the side of the sign.
It is imperative that you mother to respect, as long as you have a transport document є invoice, then you have to original these documents, please wait for a supervised ventilation and smelly stink, as a rule, for im buying.
Aviakladna, but receipt, repeat receipt - a document, which is dedicated to the contract of carriage as a guide to the courier and contractor for the delivery of goods by repeated lines. The bill of lading is indicated: the name of the airport and the delivery of the documents, the transfer to the invoice, the amount of payment, the amount of the payment for the transfer, the date of the invoice. Avianakladna maє buti was not signed only by the representative of the re-seller, but by the exporter.
Avianakladna zapovnyuetsya v_dravnikom at hello vantazhu. I have three original and nine copies. Originals are rejoicing in the re-enrollment, the possessing and the returning assistant. Copying is required, as a rule, by the least of the new arrivals, one of them will be lost at the airport of the first arrivals, and the other at the airport of destination.
For aviaperevezen av_anakladna им by ourselves, sho th bill of lading at sea transport. At the same time, there’s one principle of presentation: an availed invoice is not a negotiable document, you cannot transfer an incentive for an additional endorsement, but it isn’t a є document, but I have the right to have a right to stay. The invoice is not limited to the original, it will be handed over to the owner for the right to grant the right to use the goods. The distribution will be handed over to the order of the named owner by submitting documents to them, who should be consecrated to the person, and also when signing the receipts at the place of receipt and payment of the necessary picks.
The road bill of lading is in the role of the contract for vikoristannі car transport. I will indicate: the date the goods were rendered, the name is the name, the name is shipped, the name is rendered, the name is rivimuvach, the wart is transported thinly.
The waybill is not a є document of title, and the view is indicated in the specified note.
The bill of lading is stored at the chtotirokh primaries (two for the re-seller and one at a time for the seller and the buyer), the subscription is rewritten and the guide is shipped. For example, it’s possible to change the price of the goods, then store the goods, the goods will be transported, the goods should be transported.
Coverage of motor transport bill of lading, with the right to arrange for the delivery of the following documents: packing lists, shipping specifications, certificates and other documents, as well as transportation for international purchases.
A bill of lading is a document that appears to be a guide to a vantage about taking goods for transport by sea (additional charge 5). Bill of lading for three main things: dedicate to take a stay before transfer (date of receipt of bill of lading є date of check); a servantє a document of title; sv_chchit about oblazhennya contract Morskogo transported.
Vikonuyuchi persuasion function, bill of lading, delivery certificate for shipwrecker of any prior order, who should be ready to ship goods at the ship’s ship for transportation to the established destination.
Another function of the bill of lading is to grant the right to the head of the house the original order with a fidget - to rob him with a document of title. Tse means, more often than a person, the yak is entered into the bill of lading, but the bills of lading are given to the predecessor, and we can see the goods ordered from the bill of lading. Schob to sell the goods, which has been disbursed at the expense of presentations by the bill of lading, to the order of the owner it is sufficient to sell the rights to transfer the bill of lading.
The third function of the bill of lading - the whole health of the buti - is one more proof of the fact that the sea was transported. I appreciate the function of the bill of lading for the transport of goods on ships of regular lines or for deliveries of goods in full batches. Yakshcho p_d vantazh freight for all vessel of any part, the agreement for sea transport is registered as a charter party or charter.
Bill of lading to vidomosti about the name of the vessel і yogo hairline; tonnage of the vessel; name the ports of navigation and rozvantazhennya, the number of views is primitive and original; win the captain of the vessel as a steam-melting agent. As a rule, a bill of lading of a document that was received by the Drukarsk method (my letter of credit), to which I enter the signified item vidomosti.
Rzrіznyayut bill of lading іmennі, orders і on the predecessor. The first bill of lading to verify that the goods are available for delivery to the authorized seller of the assigned address. Such a document cannot be transmitted beyond the support of a loud end of lading.
The order of the bill of lading shall be written down on the basis of the official certificate, but for the second order and transfer, the person may send the right to the third person, and the bill of lading will be signed, so that they will put the seal on the bills. Such a bill of lading shall be quiet in vipadas, as long as the payment is due and the above documents are in the bank.
As if in the column “Oderzhuvach vantazhu” of a small German inscription, but the term “Prejavnik” is indicated, then I will call such a bill of lading “for the predjavnik”. On the pre-party є there is also a bill of lading, which is necessary to follow the order of the exporter and to take revenge on the form and form of the endo (sign and I will name the exporter).
Bills of lading are issued at three and more primaries. Usі primіrniki or even a new set of bill of lading є originals, і they bear the stamp "original". The leather note of the bill of lading is signed by the captain of the ship whose agent. In devious vipadok, the ordinal number of the original is designated - the first, the other, the third. At the bill of lading obov'yazkovo to get the evidence of the original originals. In addition to the original, maybe but vipisana is necessary, there are no copy of the bill of lading, since there is no legal force. Copy of bill of lading may stamp “Copy”. Kіlkіst copy to the warehouse primіrnikіv not enter. We clean the bill of lading. We clean this document, which is not a small number of signs, but at least about the defect of the goods at least upakuvannya.
Insurance documents are presented when goods are offered on the minds of СІФ (CIF) or СІП (CIP). Prior to insuring documents, apply insurance policies and insurance certificates. All documents are seen by insurance companies and to talk about the appearance of an insurance contract.
Іmporteri, as a rule, insure a comrade on their own greed, but on the basis of grease іshih oshib, so as to clear the shunt. If the insurance is included in the terms of the exporter, the contract with the insurance company should be placed on the importer of the third person. If you are the only buyer of nevdomii, then the insurance policy may be succumbed to the predecessor.
Have a statement about compliance with the insurance contract, please contact us as follows:
- the name of the installation is exact, the type of packaging, the number of those and the masters;
- numbers and dates of bills of lading for any transport documents;
- type of transport;
- a way of guiding to the plunge (at the hold, but on the deck, with the help of one at a time, etc.);
- fiddles, re-installation and reassignment;
- vartіt vantazhu (insurance sum);
- type of insurance vіdpovіdalnostі (think insurance).
We agree to enter into an insurance policy at the time, if we accept the insurance insurance company at the written view. To the insurance carrier, the insurer of the goiter'yazaty vidati yomu insurance documents (policy a certificate).
Insurance documents are not guilty but are paid on the date of delivery. Insurance policies, as a rule, correspond with currency payments. The amount is minimal, the goods are insured for yak insurance, 110% vartosti СІФ vіdpovіdnih goods.
The main requisites of the insurance document are to provide the required documents, and to: name the product, date of issue, number of the transport document, name of the holder, the exporter is thin.
In addition to one of the main types of rizika - the risk of frequent abortion, the insurance document may be issued and supplemented, as well as engage in force majeure.
Insurance policies, such as the bill of lading itself, purchase the first name, the order for the pre-party, and be transferred for the help of the simplest standard name and the last ones.
Before financial documents, submit checks and bills (simple and rebooked). International payment turnover has the largest number of promissory notes.
With the help of legislation on promissory note legislation and the consolidation of the number of promissory notes in international conferences, I will stop the meeting at Geneva in 1930. Three robotic conventions have been adopted for the result of the robots. Protes not all lands came to the given convention (fig. 3.1).
Fig. 3.1. Rosmezhuvannya krask for third generation to singing systems of bill right
Bill of exchange - Це вінний папір, що звідчує madly and without a cross to the boborg of goiters. There are two main types of bills: simple and renegotiated (tratti).
A promissory note is a bargain of goiters, importer of importer, pay.
A resale bill is a written order to pay a singing person at a song line, which is a kind of exporter for an international importer.
At the stock of a promissory note, take the fate of two individuals - the promissory note holder (payee) and the promissory note holder (withdrawn money to the bill), the promissory note - three individuals - the trasant (the person who saw the bill and the order to pay), the trasat (the payer for the bill) , a bill of exchange is seen on the corrugation).
A bill of exchange is stored for a clearly fixed form. Its form and viglyad are regulated by the singing system of international and national bill law. At bagatokh kraynah for the unified state of health operations with bills, divided bills of exchange. Іnkoli vekselі vipisuyutsya i not spetsіalnih forms against the stench povinnі mіstiti Pevnyi perelіk obov'yazkovih rekvіzitіv.
Before obov'yazkovih requisites of a promissory note should be:
- the name "bill";
- simple and not numbered obitsyanka pay back a song bag of clothes;
- payment lines;
- month payment;
- naymenuvannya otrimuvacha koshtіv;
- month and date of deposit of the bill;
- p_pisp bekslededavtsya.
Obov'yazkovimi requisites of a promissory note є:
- the name "bill";
- crazy command to pay back the song bag of bags;
- name of the payer (trasata);
- payment lines;
- month payment;
- name otrimuvacha koshtіv (remіntenta);
- month and date of deposit of the bill;
- pidpis of the bill of exchange (trasanta).
As a rule, a bill of lading would like to have one of the required details of a simple bill of exchange, whose document is not matime si tratti, of a simple bill of exchange for a small bill of credit, but itself:
- for all the bills on the payment, the payment is due to the payee of the payer and the payment to the bill;
- for the absence of an order on a promissory note, a promissory note, an order is issued on behalf of a promissory note;
- a bill of exchange, for which there are no lines of payment, є a bill of exchange, a kind of payday payment for pre-occurrences.
At international razrakhunok, most often, accept bills . Acceptance of a bill of exchange is the only way to repay your debt to a payee for a bill. I accept the acceptance of a bill from a viewer on a face-to-face document and sign an acceptor. The need for acceptance is due to the fact that scho’s need for trasata for the re-promissory note is to blame for less than acceptance.
Guarantee for simple bills and drafts є є õx avaluvannya. Aval - as a guarantee of payment for the forgiveness, we will rescind the bill on the side of the avalist, as if the bourgeois did not go round his goiters for the bill. Vin zdіysnyuєtsya on the face botsі bills promissory notes, but on the pre-adornment arkushі - alonzhі i pidpisyuetsya avalistom.
Vekselі є wereworthy financial documents. Їx peredannya zdіysnyuє be a transmitting hat I will write - іndozamentu . Such write hello on the revolving botsі promissory notes and signatures
Bills, bills and payments are paid in one country, they are called internal. Bills of exchange, in particular in one country, and pay for payments in foreign, foreign (foreign).
Basically, when trading with foreign bills, a significant exchange rate is more important . Під the bill exchange rate of the price of the foreign currency bill in national currency. When quoting short-term bills of exchange, the basis is the "spot" course, while when listing short-term bills of exchange, they take the course "forward".
The order of commercial bills is wide in terms of circulation and bank bills. Bank bill - a bill , as a rule, banks on their foreign correspondents. Importers, buying promissory notes from national banks and repaying for exporters, redeeming such a way of their own trading of goiters.
Victory checks at international razrakhunok are regulated by one-check check law, a certain bulo was adopted from 1931 p. at the Geneva conference. Vin visnachaє form, requisites, remember the date before payment, the endorsement of the check that is.
Чек — це безумовний наказ чекодавця банку-платнику чи іншій кредитній установі оплатити за пред'явленням певну суму чекодержателю чи за його наказом за рахунок наявних у банку (депонованих) коштів чекодавця . Для клієнтів зі стійким фінансовим становищем банк за наявності відповідної угоди може видати чек без депонування коштів. Такі чеки називаються безвалютними, їх використання дуже обмежене.
Розрізняють чеки фірмові та банківські. Фірмовий чек — це чек, який виписується фірмою на отримувача коштів і виставляється на свій банк. Банківський чек — це чек, який виписується банком на банки-кореспонденти. Оплата за таким чеком здійснюється за рахунок коштів на кореспондентських рахунках банку.
Залежно від характеру використання чека і умов передання виділяють кілька видів чеків (рис. 3.2). Чек може передаватися однією особою іншій через індосамент, який здійснюється на зворотному боці чека. Індосамент засвідчує передання права за чеком і передбачає відповідальність особи, що здійснила індосамент, — індосанту перед держателями чека.
Іменний чек — це чек, який виписується на користь певної особи. Передання чека проводиться за допомогою передавального напису з поміткою «не наказу», завірену нотаріально.
Ордерний чек — це чек, який виписаний на користь певної особи чи за його наказом. Передання чека здійснюється шляхом індосаменту (інколи з поміткою «наказу»).
Чек на пред'явника — це чек, який виписується на будь-яку особу і може передаватися як з індосаментом, так і без індосаменту.
Як гарантія платежу за чеком використовується аваль. За законодавством США дозволяється й акцепт векселя. Аваль на чеку здійснюється на лицьовому боці написом: «вважати за аваль» чи «як аваліст».
У разі відмови від платежу за чеком держатель чека зобов'язаний заявити протест у встановлений строк. Відмова від оплати чека має бути підтверджена нотаріальним протестом або підписом банку на чеку про відмову здійснити платіж. У разі такої відмови держатель чека має право вимагати оплати від чекодавця, індосантів, авалістів тощо.
- Що являє собою зовнішньоторговельний контракт?
- Які ви знаєте умови поставок?
- Для чого розроблені правила ІНКОТЕРМС?
- Що являють собою комерційні документи?
- Які ви знаєте страхові та фінансові документи?
- Чим відрізняється простий вексель від переказного?
- З якою метою використовують переказні векселі?
- Що таке чек? Які форми чеків ви знаєте?
- За допомогою чого здійснюється передання векселів та чеків іншим особам?
- Які документи відносять до фінансових?
- Що таке вексель і які є його види?
- Які реквізити простого та переказного векселя?
- Що таке банківський вексель?
- Що таке чек і які є його види?