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International markets and foreign exchange operations - Savluk M.І.


Pislya vivchenny tsy rozdіlu v you can:

  • Be aware of the undocumented forms of rozrahunkіv in the international spheres;
  • acquisitions of particularities of the main forms of retail sales at international trade;
  • Explain how the advance payments and the payments for credit cards are;
  • zrozumіti mechanism rozrahunkіv for another bank order;
  • Explain how to win bills and checks in international rozrahunok.

4.1. Especially vikoristannya in the international sphere of the main forms of roses

Upcoming foreign exchange and financial minds of foreign trade contracts showed that when conducting trading operations, we need to have the right vibra form of fractions, the remnants of win and win the contract of counterparties.

Form rozrahunkіv - which is governed by the legislation of the krai-participant in the way of the completion of the groshovy goiter'yazan for the new trade contract. At the same time, the procedure for the implementation of forms of international roses is also governed by international documents, as well as specially organized organizations - the International Chamber of Commerce and the Commission for the Rights of International Trade of the United Nations.

Forms of international razrakhunіv intelligently submit to documents (letters of credit, insurance) and undocumented (payment of credit cards, advance payments, bank refunds, bills and checks).

International razrakhunki are a whole system of self, as it is bound up with the ruins of the countries of commodity and material values ​​and pennies and yakas singing specialties.

In the first place, the international laws on international law are not regulated only by national normative and legislative acts, but by international laws, bank rules and such laws, such as: Є A single law on renegotiation and a promissory note adopted by the Geneva Bills Convention in 1930; Uniform rules and rules for documentary letters of credit, remaining public (No. 500) are recognized by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in 1993; Unifikovany rules for Inkaso, the remainder of the editorial office of Yakib Nabul of the order of 1 sichnya 1996 p. (Publication of ICC No. 522); Unified rules for contract warranties, type of ICC in 1978 p. (Publication No. 325); Uniform rules for warranties, pay attention to the payment, view of the ICC in 1992 (No. 458), that is, how to regulate the environment and methods of international participation, recognize the nature of mutual participation in the operation. Close rozmakh unifikatsіy mіzhіdіvіvіng international razrakhunіv іn thе side іnum іnі іnnіvіtіvіvіvіvіvіnnosti otlichnosti іnternationalіzіnalіzatsііu state gіdarskyh zvіyazkіv, zbіlshennyam іmіlіzhіvііnіvііvііvііііnі інінії інікірінішніні інізнізніціції, іннізіції, унізініціції, інізніції, інізніції, інізніції, унізніції, унізнізнічнізі,

In a different way, international rozrakhunki are healthy in different currencies. Moreover, from one side, on the other hand, there is a dynamic dynamics of exchange rates. From the side, the normal function of the international commodity pennies is to reach for less than the total exchange of national currency for the currency of the indigenous, non-repetitive ruble of pennies. In other words, the most effective inclusion of the international territory in the international guarantee of international currency is possible on the basis of the converted currency.

Currency conversion nemovbi rozmivaє natsіonalnalі cordon pid hour rukhu goods, services, moving capital in scale of the global market. So, for an exporter, a kind of realizaєon of products for a cordon with payment from currencies, importers, and foreign currencies, conversion of currencies as a matter of safety, the possibility of uninterrupted remittance of the acquired virus at the most common level. There is a similar problem with the issue of import for import goods, as well as payment in foreign currencies: through the mechanism of conversion of health, exchange of national currency of import and payment is possible.

The conversion of the national penniless units is not only the form of the link between the national and the state thanks. I won’t forget it.

  • Vilnius vibrov virobnikov and spozhivachami nayvigidnyh of the market for zbutu and buying in the middle of the country and beyond the cordon;
  • the expansion of the possibilities of the acquisition of foreign investment and the development of investment beyond the cordon;
  • Stimulating the need for foreign competition for efficiency, nullity, and precedence to the point of mind;
  • national development of the national standards to international standards, prices, vitality, and assortment;
  • the health of international roses for national pennies.

The third peculiarity of the international drawbacks is that in the countries with often converted currencies the power of the Viktoristov has been exchanged for foreign currency, so that they can be infused without delay onto the currency draws. Currency exchange - legal and administrative fence of the fence, limitation and regulation of operational residency and non-residency with the currency and the highest currency values. Foreign currency exchange can be exchanged and paid for the exchange of foreign currency and payments for international pleas. The main reasons for currency exchange є obezhnenie нест: lack of currency, the clutter of foreign trade, the difference in balance of payments. The head of the meta introduction is the concentration of currency values ​​in the hands of the state, as well as the balance of payments and balance sheet exchange rate of the national penny. If you can reznі form currency exchange obezhene fallow vіd іх internal zmіstu і structure:

  • blocking viruski exporters іv sale of goods at Dani Krai, sharing of their abilities to dispose of these cats;
  • about the sale of foreign currency virus exporters in a wide variety of central and / or upgraded banks;
  • exchanges of sales of foreign currency to importers (less than expressly to permit a third-party installation);
  • fence of payment to import of goods of foreign currency;
  • regulation of lines of payments for export and import;
  • the number of foreign exchange rates - different rates and different currencies for different types of operations, commodity groups and regions.

In Ukraine, it’s important to keep in mind that you need to ensure that the exporters sell 50% of the currency virus per market, regulate the lines of payments for export and import, protect the advance payments for import and foreign currency payments, 90-day exporter's jar.

Currency and foreign currency exchange, as well as providing for the best possible operations, to tempt the trading companies with all of them, carefully supplying the export and import license, foreign exchange control, and tax legislation; vimogs with environmental protection; legal vimogi to goods (services), ix of packaging and markup; special rates and quotas; trade embargo; anti-dumping legislation; manifestations of the converted currency and stability of the currency in the potential partner. With the help of trading companies, you can identify the best agents for collecting the necessary information in the country of potential purchase (sales), marketing marketing.

In bagatokh pidruchnik to the peculiarities of the international rozrahunkіv to introduce their documentary nature. In order to achieve a better understanding, fragments of bagato kraj svitu have been victorious for a long time as documentary, so undocumented form of roses. At the time of staying for the rest of the years, the popularity of short documentary works has grown significantly through their simplicity and cheapness.

At rozrahunki mizh kraїnymi z izvynuyu rinkovoy ekonomіkoy conquer the undocumented form rozrahunkіv. The documentary is wider in rose-trees with the territories of the third suite, as well as with the deceased regions of Europe. Then it is necessary that the documentary form give the opportunity to significantly reduce the risk of non-payment or non-delivery of the goods.

Documentary forms of participation in the market are widespread in the Ukrainian foreign trade practice. Secrecy, documentary letters of credit for import operations are closed in partnerships with partners from Western Europe, Japan, Japan, and other countries, as well as from Ukraine - Ukraine. During the export operations of Ukrainian enterprises and banks, there is a shortage of letters of credit in fraternities with the territories of the third world, and the payment for such transactions is low. The water hours of the bagato of Ukrainian enterprises are successfully victorious in the undocumented form of roses.

The leather form of the roses to protect the part of the song for the exporter or the importer and to keep the bag: the type of the product, the degree of mutual agreement, the presence of credit, the cost of the business, the cost of the business and the business. To that the leather counterparty is reckoned to take advantage of the form of rosrahunks, for a certain kind of rhizic. The form of the roses of the sacrament of the image of the image in Fig. 4.1.

Otsіnyuvannya Riziku default

Fig. 4.1. Otsіnyuvannya Riziku non-payment / non-delivery of goods for counterparties with r_znih forms rozrahunk_v

You can see it in fig. 4.1, advance payment and payment for vidkritiy rakhunok interchange at the poles. To clarify this, scho given the form of roses to become one-sided ones as sellers, as buyers. In addition, in the case of a documentary letter of credit, the fate of the bank with these forms of distribution is significantly less. Stink є less than the conductors of the groshih cost.