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Criminalistics - P. Bilenchuk

11.3 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

Viyavlennya zmіn at zmіstі dokumentіv. Using the most prevailing methods, you can add the document to the document documents є document, pickle, copy, add and insert.

Підчищення - a mechanical view from the top of a document of letters and other signs, letters, strokes, words and symbols for an auxiliary gummy, pumice, gostrich subject. Oznakami pidchishchennya є scribble of fibers to the papier that yogo shabby, filling in the finishing touches to the text on the cleaned message, the excesses of the parts of the barvnik of the visible text, the destruction of the dirty text in the document.

Etching - ruinivnee chi zarlebenlennya barvnik text of the document with chemical reagents (causes of acids, oxidizing). The essence of etching the pole is that, as a result of the reaction of barbarian with rechina, yakosutovy for etching, to assert a new spoluka, which is the same as the background of the document, that it’s impotent to open one’s eye.

Zmivannya - the presentation of the text and the barcode in the text from the top of the document. For the whole, water, alcohol, special chemical stores, barns are stored. With the signs of etching and zmivannya to the text є the destruction of the sizing of the papier and the approval of the matte zones and the beaches; ruynovannya zakhisno і sitka; razplivannya blacked out, almost always strokes applied on the middle etched, as well as the red color blacked out on the open dilyany; mikroslidi barvnika at the folds of papier. As a rule, follow the etched and the crooked ones for the other luminescence in the UVP and the ICP (some of the signs on the last etched and on the document, they didn’t recognize the etching, they’ve got to be recognized).

Supplements and inserts - insertion of the document before the document without the first mechanical postcode. It’s nice to add a word to the number of words on the cob, but in insertion, insert - to insert words in the middle of words, words, numbers to skinny. With the signs of supplementary entries and inserts є the destruction of the topographic text; winter color abo vidtinok barvnika; the width of the strokes is not the same; the width of the bar is nil; the form of the signs in the form of such signs themselves in the main text; appendices the mark is applied, the main text, the strokes of the first rosette for the strokes of the main text, the strokes of the signature of the print, the stamp is thin.

Use that method of visualizing documents for documents based on organoleptic and technical (instrumental). Before the organoleptic ones, we must take a visual look at the light, oblique light, original document with copy, analysis of the document number, stamping and printing, identification of the document, it is recognized. Technical (instrumental) data transferring the microscopic, photographic, visual, luminescent, spectro, radiographic, color and other methods is convenient. Okremі іnstrumentalnye methods can zasosovuvati next, however, more than them vikoristovu specialists in laboratory minds.

Vіdnovlennya zmіstu dokumentіv. Inodnye records, zroblenі in the documents, shkodzhuyut intently, but it’s okay to get weakly visible or invisible for different reasons: unreserved minds zberigannya, old version of the document is insignificantly old. INODI DOCUMENTS PIDDAYUT THERMAL INFLUENCE.

Viyavlennya texts, shaded by a barvnik, to lay down the form of physical and chemical power of speech, such as a document, and a barvnik. For a better review, the text in the documents is closed with documents to capture the photos in oblique light, the color and color, the photo technology, the diffuse copy method, and the digital method. Dyakі s them sіldchy zastosovuє independently. Sightseeing, to read the filled-in text, to change it, you need to look at the enlightenment, then take a picture with the light filter of the same color, like a dance, and take a look at the information exchange for the help of the EOP.

I haven’t had the chance to read the text for the help of Polish people and methods, special knowledge: special knowledge in the forensic expert; Priznacha techno-criminal-stichnu examination.

Forward to the next service, please contact me in the office, and ask for a special service. It is important to remember that I want to be biased so much that I’ve got a special note, the document will not be lost.

Expert advice on special services to experts in the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Internal Affairs With the usual tricks, it’s possible to introduce even more texts, fill them with barvnik and cover with thin balls of wood, a paper, as well as bedroom texts, but the document is not mischief, but only charring.

There are two steps to the bedroom of documents: both Obvuglyuvannya vinikaє heir to the city in the middle of the middle of the otmezhenoyu kіlkіstyu kisnyu. A charring document is often a medical form of chi rumbling in parts. Shchob zafіksuvati such a document, it is recommended that you let him go to a water bath to be watered with a 10-15% price of glitserinu at water, and then let the rozmistiti mzhzh two at a time with clean plates of warehouse and in such a submission before examination. Fiksatsіy charred document bazhano to hand over to the specialist.

As a matter of fact, on documents to burn documents, you need to immediately gain access again (initiate dimoids, oven doors). I have a great time to repent, and documents to be charmed. Necessarily neatly fade in and out of the oven. It’s sounding to get caught in this order: cover the bottom of the box with adhesive and curl with a ball of cotton wool, put documents on it a little, but not in bulk, but in balls; a leather ball of documents is tied with a ball of vati; the remaining ball of documents should be tied with cotton wool, glued to the box’s crowbar, so that you can turn on the ball of cotton wool in the box and, therefore, save the charred documents. Inodi recommend that I sprinkle these documents with hairspray with chichin rosin in water (one teaspoon of zucru in a vial of water).

Yakshcho document zovsim zgorіv, I received the necessary packing for examination. Дос Instrumental doslidzhennya yes I can fix it, some papier burned down, one imenny warehouse, chi buv on nyu drukarsky text. It is not permissible to file a document with information, but also with the help of documents, such as version one, bully bedrooms. You can add the form of the document to the previous ones, add the text, which can be used as a guide for identifying.

Viyavlennya technical p_droblennya p_pispisu. Technical description of the document - the whole presentation on the documents from the original. I can copy the copy of the copybook through enlightenment, through the copybook, for the additional front-end preparation (nakolyuvannya, peretis-nennya), photocopying, photocopying, we can copy the copy of the promo page.

The leather method is characterized by technical interruptions and characteristic signs. At times I can write a letter to educate me on how to get more information on the day of the week. These signs of characterization are also for copybooks, seen through copybooks. As a rule, there is an endorsement of visions with previous preparation and guidance, you may be left behind overwritten, nakolyuvannya, as you can see for the additional lateral illumination of the document. If the preparation was healthy, however, through copybook, then at the strokes of the copy the pieces of graphite copy are missed.

As a rule, the copy was copied to the document for an additional promising class, the number of barbniks is weak, and the paper in the main list of the win-win matte zone is through those that were allowed. When copying at the strokes of the signature, you can know the surroundings of the barvnik part, and the stroke is small in graphite. At times of photographic copying (which is often needed), at most of them there is a need to take care of the father and that of processing chemical reagents.

Doslidzhennya vidbitkіv signet and stamp. The codebooks are stamped and stamped - both are required to fill out official documents, for the sake of which there are good facts and good news, as well as good news.

Signet - an extra note for the depiction of the signs for the application of the битdbitkіv on the papyr, the village, the metal is thin. Signets used for rubbers - for flat video and metal - for relational video on solid materials. Flat wedges of seals for the most part to farmer with mastic, paste; don’t farfire reliably (put them on passports, dedicate documents and documents, on seals, wax and plastic plastics). Behind the shape of the signet, I am round, oval and trikutn. Straight lines and square prints are called stamps.

Zlochintsi digest stamps and stamps in such main ways:

• virіyuyut z gumi, villages, plastic;

• engraving and stasis galvanoplasty;

• victorious set of ready-made drusky standard letters;

• Victory of a set of Humorous Letters, holding of ready-made standard stamps (for the whole take stamps for printing blank forms, which are for sale);

• Prepare rubber seals for factory technology (with lead and other letters, vibrate the shape of the seal, re-fill it with a gray dummy and vulcanize). The coat of arms is engraved in gravity.

Using the method of interrogating the print bits, it is possible to apply such a method to a document:

• seamlessly in the documents;

• vologim kop_yuvannyam s original_vidbitka;

• we’ll be able to copy and paste from the promo flat flat class, wiggated with a set of graffiti.

Oznaki pidroblenih vidbitkіv signet characterize the way pidroblennya.

At times small in the document’s image, the image has the form, shape, size, size, stroke width is non-standard; the number of elements can be but tricky and vikrivlenі; get lost due to overwriting, punctures, parts of graphite; it is possible to celebrate asymmetrical rosette, unequal radial nihil of the same letter.

In Vologda, copying from the original to the image is more precise, therefore, it’s possible to find out more quickly.

In Vologda, copying from a flat malovanny key is all the signs of an uninterrupted malvuyditka in the document, for a different character there is also a permissive folder and the impaired sizing in the textbook. On the beatings, applied to such a way, the form of choice is standard, the mark is on the beat for the bar, the border is on the fill, the sheet is matched, the sticky. Yakshcho induce promo cliché so that you can give a little bit of information about the barbnik, more than one bit of all the signs of the induction - the curvature and the irregular rosette of the strokes, the mirror image “okrechim litter”.

Vidbitki, applied from a wide range, may have a non-standard shape, unequal width of strokes, cutout shape of ovals, it’s not visible, it should be repeated, interrupted and imposed.

As long as there is a bit of application with a fixed number of engraved keys, then before we go forward, we’ll have a rough bark at the strokes, unevenly intervened in letters, and often radiated the signs. In addition, metal keys are redistributed on the papier, re-embossed, extraordinary barvnik s-pid liter, and that the strokes in the center may not be so intensive, not lower margin, no middle-tier bar.

For the additional technical-criminal identification of the video bit in the print, you can add the same number of flat letters on the bit-printed documents. For the sake of examination, you need to submit a document to be broken down and the original to be reliably printed flat, and for the remaining days, they will be printed on any documents.

As soon as the original prints have not been lost, then file an бит ик бит бит бит,,, в в ик ик ик приблиз в в в в в в в в в в в в в в в в в в в в в в в,,,,, то.

Submission of typewritten documents. The document can be used for manual communication with a computer printer. Driving cars for classes for electric and mechanical, for types are stationery, portable, road and special, and for systems й models “Underwood”, “Moscow”, “Eureka”, “Continent-Tal”, “Olimpina” .

Be-yaka drukarska machine maє soі signs:

• all cars - crochet of head mechanism, width of intervals between rows, type of keyboard, typeface (mark), as well as indi- vidual signs of exceptionally typewriter;

• for the text (video bit, way to write the text, the power to hit the keys and the button to mark the sign).

Krok of the head mechanism - all the way, the carriage of the drunk car typewriter is shifted to the yoke by pressing the key on the chi pedal. As a rule, let’s see the same letters on the cob and in the last row and show the indicator for the last few years, they are obsessed with the head croc of the car. For visualization of the interval between rows, we’ll show the number of rows in the vertical content index to extend the number of rows. Piznishe for the catalog with urakhuvannyam of the same tribute to denote the model of the machine, on the other hand the document is overruled.

The type of keyboard of a drupskoy typewriter is characterized by the sign and letter, as well as the type for a skin-specific type of typewriter. I have a call for expert examination to select the bits of all the drunk cars, what to do, and submit an examination to get more and more material. Another one oznakayuyu druskarski machines є type font, brand name. In vіtchiznyany typewriters naychastіsh zasosovyut brand R-1; R-2; P-3; P-4; 125.5; 100, as well as "Zіrochku".

There are defects in the text of an indispensable sign of a fraudulent text;

To establish the class, type of chi model of a Drukarsky typewriter, follow the previous version of the typewritten text. For the whole winnings of the main signs (crock of the head mechanism, the width of the intervals in rows, the type of keyboard, the brand font) and the price for the same with the catalog.

The next day, the next day, I’ll look at the documents in the past month before the appointed experts. For an identifiable driving machine, an expert is guilty of a mother document, applying for examination, filing, folding at the same time, a new document, repair and repair, if necessary, I need to , however, with doslіdzhuvanim document).

For the additional criminal expertise of the Drukarskie texts, it is possible to fix the text; іdentifіkuvati drukarsku machine; viznachiti hour, if the text is worn out, as well as the number of primaries, worn in one mortgage; z'yasuvati, a document was issued for one machine chi on kіlkoh.

The price of the feed is also the same as the hour of analyzing the text, wiggling on idle machines with a monolithic one or a combination of fonts.

The hour that’s left for the most part is the possibility of driving cars for document printing, printing printers, computers. It’s certainly because, for a certain kind of hassle, to put a barvnik of modern signs on the basis of a document, to separate matrix, strummed and laser printers.

In dot-matrix printers, barvnik is applied for an auxiliary goal, for example, for other goals, and far-groomed pages. Fallow in the design of the goal, the signs can be applied 9 or 24 goals. Behind defects of a head (znoshnіsty a head, ikh their form, features roztashuvannya) it is possible to establish, on which printer the document is crooked.

For string printers, barvnik (rooted) saw through nozzles. There are two options for designing such printers: one with a stationary two-headed head (type "Epson") and another with a permanent cartridge (type "Canon" and іn.). Identifiable such a printer is possible for signs of defects in the head, features of the nozzle configuration, and blockages. Identify a printer, have a cartridge stutter, importantly, periodically replace it.

Laser printers have a selenium drum for storing the text of the most recent image. The principle of asserting the image is analogous to stagnant in xerox. Identification of such printers is possible due to another manifestation of a defect on the main element (drum), as well as approval of an exploitation.

If you write on the printers us_x views on the folder, you may be missing the video clip for the mechanics of the feed to the folder.

Installed in the document drawing method. Documents, letterheads, books, newspapers and products that are designed in the Drukarsky machine mode, called polygraphic; there also may be buty pidroblena malyuvannyam with imitatsіyu drukarskogo font; electrographic copy; thermal copy; a flat offset druk in three forms, made by the photo method; Photographic method; hello in a crafty way to the friends of the set; gruff on the printer computer.

Техніко-криміналістична експертиза поліграфічної продукції дає змогу встановити спосіб виготовлення документа; ідентифікувати в окремих випадках друкарську форму (агрегат); визначити застосовувані матеріали (барвники, порошки); встановити приблизний час (давність) виконання документа.

Дослідження матеріалів документів (чорнила й паст для авторучок, штемпельних фарб, мастик; чорнила для фломастерів, канцелярського чорнила, туші; копіювального паперу; картону і виробів з нього; клею; захисних покриттів; речовин для коригування типу "штрих").

За допомогою техніко-криміналістичного дослідження матеріалів письма експертними методами можна встановити вид матеріалу чи виробу з нього; споживче призначення матеріалу виробу; джерело походження матеріалу та приблизний час виготовлення матеріалу.

Встановлення давності виготовлення документа. Під час дослідження обставин кримінальної справи, що мають суттєве значення для встановлення істини, іноді потрібно з'ясувати такі питання: коли виготовлений документ, у якій послідовності наносились окремі реквізити чи фрагменти документа (текст, резолюції, відбитки печаток або штампів).

Найпоширенішими для встановлення давності виготовлення документів є методи, за допомогою яких з'ясовують рецептурний склад матеріалів, з яких виготовлений документ: папір, фарбник, клей тощо. Встановивши час вироблення та застосування компонента, можна орієнтовно визначити час виготовлення документа.

Для встановлення давності виготовлення документів застосовують також методики, що грунтуються на використанні ізотопного та люмінесцентного аналізу.

Техніко-криміналістична експертиза документів вирішує такі питання:

• встановлює відносну давність документа;

• визначає спосіб виготовлення документа та його реквізитів;

• відновлює цілісність тексту пошкоджених і спалених документів;

• встановлює послідовність нанесення реквізитів та відбитків печаток і штампів у документі;

• відновлює видалені та закриті барвниками тексти;

• встановлює, чи здійснювалися дописування, вставки, додруковування, переклеювання карток, вклеювання в документ;

• ідентифікує друкарські машинки, печатки, штампи, пристрої (принтери, телетайпи, телеграфні апарати);

• встановлює групову належність матеріалів письма (паперу, картону, олівців, чорнила, паст, клеїв тощо).

Процес підготовки матеріалів до техніко-криміналістичної експертизи документів складається з таких етапів:

• огляду документів — речових доказів і визначення завдань дослідження;

• вибір експертної установи;

• добір порівняльних зразків;

• винесення постанови про призначення техніко-криміналістич-ної експертизи документів;

• пакування матеріалів дослідження та подання їх до експертизи.

Для формулювання завдань (питань) дослідження та вибору експертної установи використовують відповідні інструкції щодо порядку підготовки матеріалів на експертизу, а також довідкові посібники.

Control food

1. Які документи можуть бути предметом техніко-криміналістичного дослідження?

2. Ознаки класифікації документів.

3. Здійснення слідчого огляду документів.

4. Найпоширеніші способи внесення змін у документи.

5. Методи відновлення документів.

6. Ознаки технічного підроблення підпису.

7. Основні способи підроблення печаток і штампів.

8. Основні параметри друкарських машинок.

9. Встановлення давності виготовлення документа.

10. Завдання техніко-криміналістичної експертизи документів.