This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

Marketing: basic methodical postnik - Pavlenko A.F.

Theme 3. Marketing commodity policy

Marketing commodity polіtika - Tse complex zahodіv Zi stvorennya tovarіv (poslug) i upravlіnnya them for zadovolennya require spozhivachіv i otrimannya pіdpriєmstvom pributku.

The structure of marketing goods policy is depicted in Fig. eight.

The structure of marketing goods policy

Fig. 8. The structure of marketing goods policy

Selling of goods (services) - the creation of new goods and services; however, modifikuvannya (policy) of apparent powers and characteristics.

Servicing - as a result of the greater degree of authority of goods (service), already on the market.

Eliminuvannya - the whole process of knowing an old product from the market.

I will look at the marketing of the product - all the material and non-material characteristics and power, so that I can relate to satisfy my needs and develop various problems (Fig. 9).

The product is the nose of the corridor yak for the goods and the goods, so for the good.

For merchandise products, the product must be covered in the product of the product in the income received, a surplus of any reach of the goods.

. Product Concepts for Marketing

Fig. 9. Product Concepts for Marketing

For those who live, the goods are reserved for the market of goods by the merchant, the buy-in of the authorities, as well as specific dates are specific, there are some singing problems. Corrosion to the product can be done in the zadovolenny:

  • the first consumers: to satisfy hunger, fears, angry needs from overpowering, bespetsno skinny;
  • secondary consumers: malt is aesthetic, self-respecting good, prestige, life.

Success of the product on the market is marked by its competitiveness.

Competitiveness of the product - the whole health of the product is vibranim specific by living with the largest group of similar products, so that competitors can enjoy the market.

Viznachayuchi competitiveness of the goods, requiring that you take such logic.

Well, wait and see for yourself to deny the maximum living effect in the rosette on one of your vitrates. To that in the best-selling iglyadom competitiveness of the product (K) є maximization of the pet-living effect.

competitiveness of goods

Competitiveness is one-of-a-kind character, so wait for it to appear one-of-a-kind:

- specific markets (group spozhivachіv);

- products to competitors;

- a specific hour period.

In addition, it seems that competitiveness is seen in identifying the product of the product with similar products (competitors) for a particular market at a particular time.

The main elements of competitiveness є:

a) price competitiveness: satisfaction of the price of the goods; prices of the analogs of that substitute; Diyovist system of differentiation price is fallow in the form of livelihood and proponuvannya, as well as the policies of competitors; the flexibility of the system of books;

b) product availability: functionality, reliability, performance, availability of additional functions; prestige, suputny furnishings (the ability to buy, pay, recycle);

c) the competitiveness of the zbutu systems, advertisements, service: the effectiveness of the zbutu systems, the effectiveness of advertisements, the strength and reliability of the service and maintenance systems (technical, commercial, warranty, post-warranty), and the effectiveness of propaganda.

Evaluation of competitiveness of the product can be achieved by the expert method, by using the best method, as well as by the most important parameters of the product. The stay algorithm is shown in Fig. ten.

A single parametric index and the ith parameter (qi) are covered by the formula:

Single parametric indexi

de Pi - the ith parameter of the product; P100 is an analogous parameter of a hypothetical virobus (such as the one who is more satisfied with that group of people).

. Scheme otsіnyuvannya competitiveness of goods

Fig. 10. The scheme otsіnyuvannya competitiveness of goods with a change in the head parameters

Group parameters of Yandex (as a rule, economical - IG.E and technical - IG.T) to pay for the formula

Group parameters Yandex

de ai - pitoma vaga (significant) of the i-th parameter.

Competitiveness of the product (C) may be butted out for the formula

Competitiveness of goods

de ІГ.Т.А, ІГ.Е.А - відповідно гупові parametricі іndeksi (technical and economic) analogue goods.

The Integrated Competitiveness Indicator (Ki) can be used for formulas

Integral Competitiveness Indicator

de W - vitorg vіd sale of goods; В - turn Vitrati on virobnitstvo and realizatsіy goods.

Marketing companies have one of the most important objects of respect є development and introduction of new products.

Rozrobka (planuvannya) of new products - a systematic adoption of the solution for all aspects of the management and management of new products.

Depends on the world of novelty for producers and for the market.

- new products - new comrade, belts of some kind to form new markets (such as, for example, Bula Roschinna Kava, cultural pens, electronic yearbooks);

- new commodity lines: new comrades, as a result of which they can enter into new markets;

- expansion of essential commodity lines: new tokens are added to the existing ones (new packaging, candies, freezing chocolate with fresh chocolate and others);

- Conveniently and modifikatsіya іsnuyuchih goods_v;

- reposition: juvenile goods on new markets;

- “lower” price: the proclamation of new goods for the same prices as the old ones.

One by one, the world will recognize the goods with three different products, such as three novelties:

- products, I won’t need a new identification (vivchennya), scraps є tilki modifikatsіyu long time old products;

- products, right now I’m practically practicing vikoristannya, but I won’t need a new vivchenny;

- a completely new comrade, so as not to have analogues in the middle and to require vivchenenya.

There are three ways to plan products:

  • puzzled - vizneshennya basic ideas, the whole of Victoria;
  • specifically - viznenzhennya specific characteristics and power of products;
  • expanded - not only specific characteristics of the products, but the first guarantee, the minds of those who turn thinly.

Vidpovidno until tsogo I look at three rivnі creation of a new product:

  • goods for the idea - a statement of the vigodi product for specific users;
  • goods from a real viconanny - a set of necessary attributes of a functional nature;
  • goods with goods - a complex of attributes, including including installation, delivery, trade credit, servicing.

The process of development (planning) of new products is possible to depict the most advanced algorithm (Fig. 11).

Algorithm for developing new products

Vivchayuchi chain algorithm, best of all to deceive respect on that.

By the method of developing new products, we can:

- security of the private parts of the market;

- penetration into new markets;

- Providing care for the innovative community;

- more effectively the need for labor, the channel for the distribution of household goods;

- Polyphenation of the financial camp of the company.

At this stage of development (generation) of ideas, a new stock of ideas and new products is being developed. The methods for developing such ideas can be more useful, livelihood agents, public services, vivcenny oskolnennya practice of competition, creative methods (synectics, morphological method, "brainstorming" method)

Ideas for new products are required in the collection (filtering). The goal of this etapu is to introduce the most affordable ideas, the possibility of realizing them. Kriterіyami such vіdboru Je mіstkіst market analysis that tendentsії Yogo rozvitku, konkurentsії camp popit, povedіnka spozhivachіv, mozhliva trivalіst zhittєvogo cycle mill Rinku zakupіvel materіalno-tehnіchnih resursіv, obsyagi kapіtalovkladen, nayavnі Qadri, rіven patent Zahist, mozhliva pributkovіst, Chinna system zbutu toscho.

I’ll give a thought to the idea of ​​a product - the whole idea of ​​a product is different and meaningful to the understanding (written description, drawing, design, layout). Golovnim here є z'yasuvannya stavlennya spozhivachіv to self ї conceptual goods.

Brokerage for strategic marketing - the next stopping point in front of the company is to invest resources at the site of the trial party test products. At this phase, the profitability of the products is changed, the most important obligations are paid to the product, the product needs to be seen, that is why you can see it carefully when looking at the product.

The position of health, future perception patterns (Fig. 12).

On the whole, this is also the way to supply food for the brand of goods, packaging, and also a complex of supreme services.

Product brand - price, symbol, term, pattern, color, form of identity, form of identity for identification of goods, differentiation of the market.

. Perceptsina map of the US automotive market

Fig. 12. Perceptual map of the US automotive market

Types of brands є:

  • marochna nazva (firma im'ya) - a part of the brand, yaku is possible vimoviti;
  • marochny (firm) sign - emblem, image, color;
  • commodity (torgovelny) mark - mark (abo її Chastina) zabezpechena Legal Zahist.

Packaging - on the one hand, on the one hand, on the other hand, the product on the other hand, on the other hand, on the other hand, on the other hand, on the other hand, on the other hand, on the other hand, one on the other side of the marketing complex. I will take a look at the rest of the packaging packaging of the box in Vigoda, I’m informing myself about the status of the product, I’m aware of the status of the product, I’m able to firmly.

If you want to test the party part of the product any time you want to carry out the most effective marketability, as long as you are in good condition with positive emotions. Upon completion of the short notice, go to the mass edition of the real product.

Vivchayuchi nourishment is often necessary for the development of new products, it is necessary to curtail respect for the reasons, as if to reduce it to negative ones. Stink, zokrema, can buti so:

  • insignificance of the entire market is insignificant, because I didn’t have the opportunity to enter the official web site to get enough money to go to the “point of no-win” point;
  • lack of suttvі vіdmіni new goods vіd waking up to the market;
  • low yakіst new product;
  • efficient and loyal marriage to the virobnik system and the marriage;
  • the product is not delivered to the market;
  • lack of structure of marketing;
  • high competition;
  • lack of performance from the side of the self-supporting factory.

Nastupnі nourishment of those who relate to the main aspects of managing production products. Of these, we will need more information on supplying the conceptual life cycle of the product and on the other way, the concept of marketing practices.

The life cycle of the product is a concept, a way to characterize the development of the product and the way to realize the product, go ahead with the right tactics for marketing at the time the product is needed at the market. Graphically, the model of the life cycle of the product is depicted in Fig. 13.

. Life cycle of the product

Fig. 13. Life cycle of the product

Managing the life cycle of the product, please see the logic of the conceptual modification of the marketing programs for the product (Table 5).


Features etapiv marketing and come in

Etapi life cycle

dosl_zhdennya, rozrobka that

in the summer

expanding the market for zbutu i

victoria overpricing

zrіlіst i nasichennya market


s market










Negative (zbitki)



Zero Chi negative



Market segment






Taka, scho zrostaє





Extension of the market

Preserving the parts of the market

Збільшення віддачі


Main view

Victory of unique authorities



Commodity policy





Number of stamps



abo kіlka



Kіlka novih
















Maximum Intensive


Vitrati on marketing






One of the most important aspects of managing production products is to take advantage of the stock list and assortment.

Commodity nomenclature (gray products) - the whole group of goods, you’ll be sure to bind yourself, otherwise you will sell them to the very same groups of customers, and besides, you can trade them all the same type of trading mortgages, because of course they have to .

Commodity assortment - there are a whole range of assortment groups and commodity units that are specific to the purchasers. Yogo main characteristics:

  • latitude - the number of merchandise groups, of which there are warehouses;
  • Glibina - the number of items at the leather goods group;
  • nasichinist - the main position is invisible, which can be stored from them;
  • Harmony - a world of sporting goods in different commodity groups, I will take a look at the latest winners, I’ve been able to organize the distribution of channels, and I’ve got a very good channel.

The basis for the management of the assortment and the nomenclature is laid on the basis of the process of innovation and innovation.

E-mail, so that you know the old product from the list of products and realities, please be aware of the following criteria:

  • economic importance of the product for business (often in circulation, reliable sales, profitability);
  • position of the product on the market (often a market, market potential, position of competitive products);
  • mira vikoristannya a product of viral robbers and folding needs;
  • prospects for the product (stage of the life cycle, the possibility of modifying).

Innovation is possible by the method of differentiation and diversification.

Differentiation - as an addition to the nomenclature groups (product lines) with new positions.

Diversification - as a result of additional implicit programs by new nomenclature groups (product lines).

Horizontal diversification - due to the availability of new controversial technology-nomenclature product groups.

Diversification is vertical - it’s due to the new product groups of the lower production technological level.

Laterally diversifіkatsіya - tse dopovnennya nayavnoї prog nomenklatura GROUP, SSMSC not toil zhodnogo tehnologіchnogo zv'yazku of poperednіmi.

Organizational forms of product management and product characteristics and their characteristics are listed in Table. 6.


№ for / p

Organizational form









Usi funktsii marketing p_priyadko-vano one kerivnik. I recommend the system to companies, but I want to launch a small assortment of sporting goods


decor system





Usі funktsії marketing merchandise policies for a very good product (group of goods) is ordered by a middle-aged clerk. Recommended system

but for the company, I’ll want to launch a great assortment of goods, I’ll need a lot of respect for leather


decor system




new product

The system is being adjusted as a supplement to a permanent marketing system to strengthen respect for the processes of development and reservation to the market for new products

Timchasovo Chinna system (until the moment of cob of commercials realizatsii new product





Functions of marketing commodity policies look around with a group of customers with functional functions. The committee is trying to improve the system of crate goods.




(Rizikova) group

An independent group is highly qualified, specializing in developing new products (type of know-how)

Timchasovo Chinna system (up to the moment of sale

On zakіinchennya those vivchayuyut problems and management of products p_dpriimstva, zakrema so_:

  • zadadto shvidke old products;
  • н н н н р р р щ щ щ щ щ о о шир шир шир шир шир шир шир шир шир шир шир шир щ щ щ щ щ щ щ щ щ щ р.
  • servicing purchasers with equal income;
  • World Riziku in the process of introducing new products into the market;
  • commodity "canalism";
  • the need for a respectful shutter of the Vikonavtsiv and Kerivnitsva to the "details";
  • opratsyuvannya strategic іshen;
  • lack of “separatism” in commodity policy.

Self-control routine

1. Give visnozhennya marketing product policy and describe the structure.

2. Describe the main attributes of the product.

3. Give visibility and clarification to the marketing concept of competitiveness of goods.

4. Explain the sutility of the export method otsіnyuvannya competitiveness of goods.

5. Clarify the day and describe the algorithm for evaluating the competitiveness of the product for the main parameters.

6. Explain the logic to the algorithm of new products production.

7. Explain the daylight understanding of the “new product”.

8. Explain the sutnost three ways to plan new products, three ways to create goods.

9. Name that, comment on the main meta of development of new products.

10. Name and explain the daily methods of developing new products.

11. Name and explain the criteria for the selection of new products.

12. Explain the daily strategic marketing of new products.

13. Explain the daily situation of the products. Bring in handy goods and try to get a good card.

14. Explain the daily method of encouraging perceptual cards.

15. Give viznazhennya brand product. Назвіть типи марок та поясніть актуальність цього питання в сучасній маркетинговій діяльності.

16. Охарактеризуйте роль упаковки товару в сучасній маркетинговій діяльності.

17. Охарактеризуйте методи ринкового випробування нових товарів.

18. Дайте визначення життєвого циклу продукції та охарактеризуйте його основні етапи.

19. Охарактеризуйте особливості маркетингу на різних етапах життєвого циклу продукції.

20. Назвіть головні причини, які можуть завадити успіху нової продукції на ринку.

21. Поясніть сутність та охарактеризуйте основні характеристики товарного асортименту.

22. Поясніть сутність та охарактеризуйте методи елімінування продукції.

23. Поясніть сутність та охарактеризуйте види товарної диференціації та диверсифікації.

24. Охарактеризуйте основні організаційні форми управління продукцією підприємства.

25. Назвіть основні проблеми управління продукцією підприємства.