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|home Marketing Marketing: basic methodical postnik - Pavlenko A.F.|
Marketing: basic methodical postnik - Pavlenko A.F.
Marketing price policy - a whole complex of entrances, including including value for money, books, payment terms for comrades and servants, management of prices for insurance and respect for the opportunities for securing a business trip.
Politics price - one of the traditional head marketing elements, price tags є:
- one of the leading tools for competitive competition;
- one of the main changes of mind buying and selling goods;
- cleanly and simply vimiryuvannuyu zmіnnoyu, yak postіyno vikoristovuєtsya in ekonomіchnyh razrahunki fіrmi;
Fig. 14. The algorithm of marketing rosrahunku price
- an important, thought-provoking achievement of their strategic goals;
- nadіnim zasbov zrіvnovazhuvannya pititu i proponuvannya.
Vivchayuchi topic, requiring better understanding of the role of the only marketing pricing policy on the different types of market (the markets of monopolistic, oligopolistic and pure competition), different types of products are available, which are always available .
Basically, feeding them is an algorithm for marketing the price list (Fig. 14).
The first step that was given to the algorithm is the need for ownership, which can be achieved through the method of approval:
- denying the maximum firm chi such, scho postіyno zrostaє, a cut;
- reaching, saving money for sales, revenue for sale, parts of the market;
- help in the competitive struggle;
- social security (secured availability of goods and services for the purchase and purchase of goods and services);
- Vizhivannya Firmi.
The main objectives of the first stage of the marketing campaign are the price рах vrahuvannya and the calculation of the number of terms, that is, the officials, which can change the possible interval of the average price (Fig. 15).
On the other side of the marketing campaign, the price is the most important thing that you want to do, that’s why, like that, I’m infected at a given market. I can help you to see the price of the income, because the real price is worth the drain, if you drink expensive.
Particular respect here also gives me the most significant price for living, so that I can live up to the best price for the comrade.
The price of elastity is to become known for the assistance of certain parties.
Tsinova elastichnіst poitu (KE)
de KE - a number of important elasticities; R - Pochatkova price; X - drank, a kind of vіdpovіdaє Tsіnі R; DР - Зміна ціни; DX - winter meal.
Yakshcho 0 <КЕ <1 - drink unreliable and change
at times better income (low income); КЕ> 1 - drinks є elastichnim (comrade of high language).
Perehresna elastichnіst popita (KE)
de HA - pochatkova kіlkіst product A; DHA - winter sale of product A; RB - Pochatkova price product B; DРБ - Зміна ціни for product B.
If KE = 0 - products are in exchange;
КЕ> 0 - produce one after another one;
КЕ <0 - the products are not є in exchange with each other and do not have a competitive competitiveness.
Fig. 15. Officials who want to change what’s possible. Interval variatsіy price
Please note that the number of elastities and visitor comments is given in the table. 7. Vivchayuchi problems of elastichnosti to drink, also need to know the factors and factors, as well as the importance of the goods: the interchange of goods, the position before the price of commerce, the necessary items, skinny.
Table 7 TSINOVA ELASTIC DRINK
Significance of elastichnost
Spilling on the vital Vitorg firmi (Vitrati spozhivachіv)
Vіdsotkova zmіn kіlkostі purchases of food products for vіdsotkova zmіnu prices
KE = 1
Lonely elastich popit
Vіdsotkova zmіna kіlkostі purchases of products іn expensive іvіsotkovіі zmіnі prices
get paid without a change
get paid without a change
Vіdsotkova Зміна кількості purchases of products
To get a marketing message from a marketing partner є Visa application certificate for the sale of goods and sales. Qi vitrati on such see:
- postіnі (fіksovіnі) - do not vylynuyutsya fall under the obyad virobnitstva and realizatsії products;
- change - change (change or change) at a time until the change of obligation and the realization of products.
- povnі (zagalnі) - the sum of the permanent and permanent vitrates, the specific requirements for the specific legal and real products;
- average (pet), at that number average, post, average, and turn around the clock in a rose for a single product;
- marginal - the reduction of the value of the vitrats for the indemnification of the change of liability for the same product.
As a result, I’m able to ascertain the maximum value of the product, then I’m able to value the product, I can pay attention to the sale of my goods.
Go ahead and give them the opportunity to take notice of the maximum (I will look at the vitrate of the property) price for goods. To clarify the original price, analyze the price for a competitive comrade, browning in the manner of alternative purchases, or in order to receive expert advice.
Kintsevymi etapami marketing rozrahunku price є vibration method (method) price and non-rozrakhunok price.
The method of direct conformation and that of the species is shown in Fig. 16.
We offer a wide range of methods of understanding, which include changing the number of companies to sell and sell their products, identifying them as they need new products, and also providing them with the necessary equipment.
It is possible to roach by the method of simple formulas tsinu (Ts) so that:
C = B • K,
de В - vitrati for virobnitstvo and the realization of products; K is a factor, the value of which must lie down in the form of the value of the necessary income and the value of the increment (K> 1).
Victorian method of "average vitrati + income" transfer є vikoristannya іnshoї wording:
de Vp - direct vitrati for single products; P - bazhanov aide,%.
Razrahunok price on pіdstavі margіnalnykh vitrat ma мет on meti vstanovleneniya vitrat і bazhanogo side-by-side, on occasion with an oath of virobnitstva skin-specific party goods. From now on, on the occasion of the release of the first sale and sale of products (on the part of the goods) and on the basis of the future.
Fig. 16. Methods of direct value creation
The method of bezbitkovost_ - that is, taking advantage of the higher effective values of the increment for the actual value of the vitrate and the total virobnitzva (Fig. 17).
The value of the Z-free points of Q can be denoted by the formula
de F - postіynі vitrati; P - price; V - pet zmіnnі vitrati.
Fig. 17. Grafik zbzbitkovostі products
The main short-lived rozrahunku price on the previous page is those who do not need to worry here if they live with the established price. Viddak vigidnu for pidpriemstva price can not "confirm" the buyer. At the time of the call, the frequency of delivery is often obscured by the methodology of setting the price for delivery, because there are more than one evaluation of the value of the goods and the price of the goods.
Take the basics as a basis for the sub-appraisal by the buyer of the value of the goods, the insurance is three more things:
- if the price is for the satisfaction of any functional consumer needs, then the price will be set up until the satisfaction of such needs, as long as you have the same competitive position, so please wait for the most important goods
- I’m mostly pleased that the consumer is not looking for the product itself, but the price itself, then it’s very nice to buy it (antiques, paintings, paintings of the “prestigious” comrade) - as a symbol of fidelity - because of the standard skinny products);
- if price is not a big deal for selling goods, then rivals can be added to a wide range.
For razrahunku price on pіdstavі elastichnostі poit orintuyutsya to vzakozmozv'yazok mіzh zmіnoyu ryvnya іnnі vіdpovіdnymi zmіnami osyagіv sale.
The methodology of competitive pricing to enter from the price of the comrade to the company, which will mainly compete. Riznovidami Tsієї methods є:
- “Fallow” establishment of price - a reduction in the amount of purely (thoroughly) competitive competition in the market;
- “On the basis of leadership” - organization at the price of previous companies;
- valuation in order to look at the competitor’s most reluctant reaction (in the case of stronger competition);
- tender (close) price - a price tag in the process of fighting for a contract.
For valuation within the framework of the commodity nomenclature, price is reduced for the whole assortment group of goods, so that I can make it possible for the whole group in the whole, to get the most of the current position will be zbit.
The price behind the geographic sign of Urakhov is not only virobnichesk, but the first transport vitrati.
Valuation on the basis of legalized typical minds is based on official instructions in the country, laws and regulations, rules and regulations.
Marketing is indirectly appreciated - the whole policy of business is completely low, commercial credit, and also air-conditioned. Wonderful way to think of the minds for material desire to live together with the product industry.
Marketing practitioners have the same look and see:
- kіlkіsnі - for a dandy of great parties of goods;
- kasovі - for payment by payment; for the replacement of goods with goods, the amount of money;
- Functions - an intermediary for a weekend of marketing functions;
- trading - to intermediaries for trading operations;
- Seasonal - for a comrade;
- fіnalnі - for the remainder of the party goods;
- zalikovі - for a new product for a one-hour turn of the old;
- contract - on vimogu yakogo nadto important klіnta.
Credit policy of the company - go ahead to the appointment and no-go realizatsii of entrance to the middle-line credit of the start-up price of the hour of delivery of pre-made products.
Politics of condition - the price of the payment for deliveries, as follows:
- type of payment (type of currency);
- rozmіrv payment (basic price, as well as low, discount that bonus);
- payment allowances (for frequent payments, packaging, transportation, installation is thin);
- hour of payment (advance payment, payment upon delivery, payment has been deferred late);
- payment for payment;
- vidpovidnogo for payment (debitor, vidpovidny surety);
- subject, oath, hour, mіstsya that drain of servants.
Discount - the price is low, a certain amount of health is needed until the payment term is negotiated.
The bonus is a little lower, so you can rely on the results of a secondary turnover.
The marketing department has a higher price tag - moreover, a better croc of realizational price policy. Farther away you can remember that one’s last bike, as long as you are regulated by the company until the last, the market is so thin.
In the process of managing prices, there can be more than one way (strategy, policy).
Politics of progressive lower price. The goods are introduced to the market for high prices, as well as competition, the appearance of analogs has progressively changed.
Politics "know the top". It is characteristic of fashionable novelties. It is characterized by the highest possible level of price for a long time on the market of a comrade and an exceptionally short hour of vikoristan.
Politics of high prices. It’s possible for unbelastic consumption, marriage of competition and sovereign prices, and for high-quality goods.
The policy of penetration. It is characterized by a cob of a low low price, a kind of progressive movement. For the introduction of goods to the new market.
Politics of differentiation price (price discrimination). The main method of selling the same product is to customers who are shopping for goods.
Politics of stable prices. The malleable of the trivial period of price is overwhelmed by the invariable.
Politics of prestigious prices. By the stretch of the trivial period, the price will be indefinitely high, the fragments є the symbol of exclusivity (koshtovnostі, hutro, antiquarian skinny).
Politics of traditional value. Polyana in the tradition of tradition, which is clear to the market.
Politics of psychological appreciation. Established price відповідно to the "internal logic" well, if only so called psychologically comfortable prices.
Politics shikuvannya price. Establishment of risen prices on a comrade of one assortment group with the method of differentiated differentiation.
The policy of the last passing segment of the market. After the segment is identified by the goods and the increased competition of the goods, it is necessary to transfer goods to the lower segment with lower prices.
Politics of the “cogwheel leader”. Sales to a set of goods, if the main product is sold at a zbit price, and the zigzag can be bent at the sale of virobi, to upgrade the set, which is significantly more efficient.
Politics of elastichnyh (deaf) prices. Passing on to the reaction of the company to the winter livelihood and the desire to extend it by the extension of a very small industrial hour.
Politics of competing prices. To be victorious with company leaders, such as for high-performance maritime partners and significant obligations to respect their comrades for those who are lower, lower than competitors.
The price policy for products that are known from the world. Awareness of the goods for sale prices (minimum prices), but for clearly high prices (so called comrade retro).
"Zaohochuvalna" policy. Sales of goods for an apparently low price, as long as they are hard to pay, significantly reduce the costs of their obligations to the public, and to give them a little extra money.
Tsіnova policy of vision. Victory low (often navigate zbitkovih) with one and the same method - to reach the last hour.
1. What is the reason for the double meta marketing price policy?
2. What is the reason for the role of price policy in one of the most important elements of marketing?
3. At a certain point in the role of the role of marketing price policy of the company є the best?
4. Name the marketing policies and policies that open the day.
5. Explain the logic and name this marketing algorithm for the price list.
6. Name the possible marketing and marketing policies and open the day.
7. To clarify the day of the exchange, as is the case with the marketing policy.
8. Explain the sutility of the law to those who proponuvannya.
9. Describe the officials, how to pour on the price of food.
10. Describe see the vitrate, so that there is a difference in the processes of realizing and realizing products.
11. Clarify the day’s methods of choosing the price for the delivery of vitrat. Razkrite їхні overtaking that sublimation.
12. Set up a graph of free-of-charge products and an explanation of the future from the perspective of marketing policy.
13. Clarify the day and describe the approach to the target price on the sub-active estimate of the value of the product.
14. Describe competitive marketing value.
15. What is the reason for the essence of tender pricing?
16. What is the reason for the essence and yakimi of value in the framework of the commodity nomenclature?
17. What is the reason for the essence of marketing value for geographical signs?
18. What are the laws, the rules, the rules of the order in Ukraine, how to process the approval?
19. What is the reason for the essence of bіrzhovogo value?
20. Describe the essence of that characterize see the marketing of indirect value.
21. Name the see book on the price.
22. What kind of money?
23. What is a bonus?
24. Explain the essence of that and think about the following such marketing policies:
- progressive lower price;
- "Knowing the top";
- high prices;
- differentiation price;
- stable prices;
- prestigious prices;
- traditional appreciation;
- Psychological appreciation;
- shikuvannya price;
- of the last passing segment of the market;
- "Zbitkoy leader";
- elastichnyh prices;
- competing prices;
- price on products, know from virobnitstva;
- "Ridiculous" price;
- price vizhivannya.