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International trade - Dakhno І.І.


3.1. Vilna Torgіlva

Ninі on the planet nalichuєutsya nearly two hundred independent powers. Stink vidigrayu unequivocally for the significant role of the private economy and the international trade in the secrecy. Ukranian expressions even show their own shirt to the nearest. From now on, in the sphere of international trade, the powers of the world are reckoned to dominate the very position, minds of the skinny. The leather country is actively abiding its policy at international trade, so as to reach out to the singing behavior. At international trade virіznyayut:

o foreign trade policy;

o international trade policy.

Understanding the " foreign trade policy", the desire to get the powers taken from the merchants of the western countries and their groups. To another, they mean collective powers of international trade.

The two main direct marketing policies are:

o politics of trade;

o protectionism.

Nasampered slіd rozlyanyuti, as well as English economy rozumіyut vіlnu mіzhnarodnuyu trade. In "Oxford Paperback Encyclopedia" (1998, p. 538), the article "Free trade" reads: "Economy policy, which is more for the large amount of goods for more international and international harmonization of international ) national trading policy. The policy of free trade is the same as import tariffs, and so are export subsidies, which are required to clean up industrial activity. At the conference with Zhenya In 1947, the bulletin of the first distribution for large-scale retail trade was distributed - to the General Government for tariffs and trade (GATT).

Ponad detsatrіchchya pislya Other svitovoj vіyni Britannia bula with a strong supporter krokіv v vіnovnovlennya vіlno ї tradeіvlі. At 1958 p. won the bills of the European-Trade Association, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), ale unacceptable trade furnishings, and now intensified the sale of the 1960s, and encouraged the European Union to join the European Union. The partnership with Europe is a partnership - REV - was founded in 1949; after 1987, rooku REV (COMECON) hit the road with the EU countries. Above all, the growth of the Japanese economy has increased the pressure on the country to go into tariffs, directly against Japan. On the cob of the 1990s, rock politics was economically uncontrollable - they must have been politically motivated by trade, dekhto - protectionist calls. At 1993 p. for example, the Uruguayan round of GATT territorial members has gone a little further to lower tariffs and export subsidies and on the sale of public trade organizations (SOT). There’s a great deal of satisfaction with the rules of the GATT, especially welcome visits, wait for the Uruguay round, and lower export subsidies and import duties by 20-36 times ”.

From now on, the policy of trade is signifying the consolidation of the power of direct participation at the head of trade. To enter, it’s not a power, but the market of the main regulator of international trade. Zrozumіlo, the power can’t rejoice more and more in the form of bargaining. Navigate the henchmen of the concept of viable trade allow the powers of the international trade agreements to impose, grant the greatest possible freedom to the subunits of state donations.

At the time of the great politics of trade in the country, I can work together, and I will have to change one person at a time. Such a policy аж bazhanoy і positive and, albeit nihto і nikoli in tsomu svіtі not bachiv її in a pure viglyadі. Such a policy є with its own lighthouse for quiet, warm water with a sea of ​​protectionism.

A foreign thought is being kept at the expense of economics, which Britain itself has at one time taken away from the unfair division of labor. On the cob of the nineteenth century. the representatives of the British ruling kylas had a point of dawning: "Everything is good for the British, good and for the decision". At the first half of the 19th century Britain, without a doubt, Bula Nairozvininіshoy industrial power power. Пї pіdprimєmtsi mali start rivals over promyslovtsy from the western lands. At 1849 p. Britain vidkrila their own markets in front of foreign countries and I reported their best wishes to their homeland. The United Kingdom was specializing in the launch of goods manufactured in manufactured goods, such as transport vehicles, engines, machine tools, paper, and textile (textile yarn and fabrics). The comrades were exported in exchange for the comrade of the first sector of the economy, and the very Persian carpets, huts (furs), wine (wines), shovkov (silk), village (timber), grain (grain), fruits (fruits), meat (meat). Greatest zisk zіd such a fraud pratsі itself reprieve Great Britain.

Shchob pokincity and dominance of Great Britain, a number of krains went into the hands of the sphere of free trade. With a draw of the 1870s, the US and Nіmechchin’s rock casts defended the policy of protectionism, the butt of which was assimilated by France and the other powers.

The southern territories promoted a traditional role in the international community, as I look at my colonial camp, so I look at those who played the role of the rightful stake.

The international party has recognized a minor contribution to the Other World War. The stench has been absorbed in writing. A number of independent powers began to wear industrial hats, and the okrugs of the country were able to distribute export-oriented industrial hats. In Belarus there is a country where you are developing, industrial development is available from direct, adapted to the needs of the metropolitan area. Nine is more promiscuous at the borders of the "third world" to grow apart from the dyalnosti of transnational corporations. Prote tse cannot see Yak vidmovu vid nav 'yazanogo in the historical past of the international vilu pratsі.

3.2. Protectionism

It’s clear that I mean protection in foreign economics, a secret in the Oxford Paperback Encyclopedia (1998, p. 1104): for domestic producers for foreigners (foreign competitors). I’m very interested in speeding up import for additional trading, quotas for the last bars. Before non-tariff bars, there are also rules for maintaining good health. advancement (bias) among sovereigns Akupivlahah and please, about voluntary export subsidies. Export donations also obliterate trade, as well as export and producer subsidies, and grant national taxes and expenses on general costs. at the scale of the trading trademark ".

"77ze Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography" (1997, p. 235) in the article "Industry protection policies" (visitor protection) as follows: "Come in, live in national teams to clean up your industry (home-based industry) ) enter international competition. So come in and be able to capture tired industry galaxies (established industry) from the tariffs form or quotas for importing products or get new promotions (seek to promote new industry). " The cited vocabulary (p. 234) є article about the "Infant industry" ("Young Promotionality") means the following: "Promotionality, which is new to a particular country and there is little chance of success, but there is no chance of competition. promises, often from undeveloped courtiers, to find it difficult to compete with the import of similar goods because of the cord stretching for the first rock, the remnants of the winter of the scale of enjoy the scale (enjoy scale). insured, please give me a chance to charge tariffs and quotas for a port that will compete (competitive imports) to protect young industries. "

For example, the twentieth century in the United States, of course, there is an official discussion about industrial policy in the USA, which is about the permissibility, in the minds of the market economy, of coming in from the middle of the target market.

In the meantime, the participants in the discussion discussed the thoughts about the dangers of industrial (structural) policies and looked at one of the forms of unfair business practices. Most of the American fakhivtsiv vvazhaє, scho "rinok znakє krasche", nizh power, where you can direct the resources that are galaxy and I can be developed.

Disciples of the discourse also meant that you go industrial policy to become stony in large numbers. It’s important to know the country at the thought, because I wouldn’t have vikoristovuvala anyway the most industrial tool of industrial policy.

There are a lot of things that are quiet and meaningful, meaning that there are no overwhelming movements in the country, they can be easily shut off as usual. Do not wait for the big market to bring help to those who rely on the competitive market - it seems to be a winner (a winner), ale dekhto пере and re-loss (lossers). The system of free trade is not guaranteed, so all interests of all the regional-private parties will be covered and secured as soon as possible. Tsіy systemі marriage є internal justice. The adherents of such a zora point must be respected, so that the skin of the country is most independent in its own interest and vikoristovuvati ti methods and tools for economic development, but at the moment you can find out more.

As long as you can trade, you can see how people can live, then protectionism will not be possible for real life.

Protection policy is economical, including a large arsenal of visits through international trade, prior to the establishment of minimum tariffs and non-tariff entry and regulation of international trade.

Tariffs - the price of your tax on import comrade. There are two main types of tariffs:

o fiscal - to be stashed by the powers for the achievement of the need for penniless resources before execution;

o protectionist - to gain victorious powers for the seizure of products of national economy and foreign competition.

Mita є trikh vidіv:

o advornornі - to be sold at goods and services; goods declared to goods authorities;

o specificity - get together at the sight of the singing sum with an oath, kіlkostі thinly imported goods;

o Змішані - є on the basis of the meanings of the two kinds of mit. Behind the rosimir of rates, you can choose the following tariffs:

o preferences, seemingly, pіlgovі;

o conventions, because of their nature, too, I’m using pilgrims and expanding to a friend from the country, who can change the most favored nation treatment regimen (most favored nation treatment);

o zvichaynі - zatosovuyutsya to Todi, if not to preferential convention tariffs.

Next, explain that the regime of the national most convenient transferring the license is less than the same status of trading partners, which may not be special, but not special. Well, the pilgrims all the same є, ale, you’ll be amazed at the point of view of the Krai, you won’t be able to get any kind of value, because it’s a Krai-outsider.

Non-tariffs, enter the regulation of international trade transferring the order of administering and importing them to the import through the seizure of song galluses of the national economy. Before them lay down, zokrema, so come on:

o licensing and contingentuating import;

o anti-dumping and compensation;

o import deposits;

o "voluntary" obmezhzhennya import;

o Mineral and import prices.

Licensing at the sphere of international trade means a state’s access to provincial singing activities. Licensed winnings more than one hour for mercantilism and stagnant methods for regulating the trade balance.

There are two main types of foreign trade licenses:

o vidkrita general license, but “automatic”, only a month from the public at the permission of the competent sovereign body for non-repetitive invocation or delivery of goods by a stretch of singing term;

o іndіvіdualіnі licensesії, scho vidyayutsya on export-import goodsіv, yakі broadened licensed, ala yakі not covered by general licenses.

The quota is the chanted oath of the goods permitted on a military product. Є see the quotas:

o іndіvіdualіnі - to mix up vіvіz-vivіz to one specific country аbо z neї;

o groups - to expand to the country;

o global - obmezhuyut export and import vzagalі without the meaning of specific krask abo їх group.

An embargo є with a fence for bargaining with a singing power ’and proving yourself with okrimín powers, with their own corruption or even with international organizations.

"Dobrovіlnі" obmezhzhennya mean goiter'yazannya, so as to take on yourself the order of the country, especially because the company has to export the goods to the singing country, I can’t overwhelm the domestic one. This means that the bar’s occupation of the country-importer will not be established on the cordon of Russia, but on the cordon of the country-exporter.

The anti-dumping mito must be reserved at that time, most of all the price for exporting from abroad is lower, lower price is for the same comrade at the domestic market.

Admiralistic come in include technical standards and standards, standard formalities, sanitary and veterinary standards, shipping rates until the packaging of the goods is empty. The assigned aspects of international trade are detailed at the shops. 4.

You can talk about politics and politics. Ale Oskіlki vidavnitstіі IAPM in 2002 viišov the chief postnik of V. O. Khramov and Yu. A. Bovtruk "Zovnіshnyoekonomіchna polіtika", then the recited reader is addressing me to the last.