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|home Economy Books International trade - Dakhno І.І.|
International trade - Dakhno І.І.
The term "foreign exchange operations" is possible at the university and the wider. The university has a significant bank bank for sale and sale of foreign currency. In a wide range of currency operations, purchase and sale of currency is included, as well as the operation of a wide range of foreign exchange values.
Currency operations for their nature є operations that entail the transfer of the right of ownership of foreign currency and foreign currency to international exchange (export and import currency). Foreign exchange operations by streaming and replenishing with capital.
We will clarify є operations with the resale of foreign currency, the cancellation and the repayment of financial loans for term, I will not transfer 180 days, the resumption of loans, dividends and income for investments.
The term "foreign exchange transactions, associated with a large capital" is extended to direct investment, portfolio of investments, payment of valuable deposits, and termination of financial loans for term 180 days.
Rosarize operations on the international penny market and operations on the international capital market, on which there is a medium-term and pre-term operation.
Operations on a private capital market for their character are based on commercial activity (which is due to third-party trading) and financial support (including void capital expenditures, cancellation of negligence).
Assets of the international capital market, in addition to foreign currency bank deposits, shares and regional deposits of Kazakhstan, and price shares. International trade in assets may include the exchange of various types of valuable folders.
International credit is an economical way of joining lesser powers, commercial banks and companies of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the help of foreign currency, credit and other commodity resources on the minds of the first and last term. International credit є a form of ruch of a posichkovy capital.
There are two main visions of the international rukh kapitalu, which we have є the international pose. The clergymen and the pozodavodtsy (lenders) can be buti sub'єkti yak of private, so і public law (for example, Svitovy Bank and inshi establish the UN system).
Another type of international rukapitalu вести investment in the assets of the company. If you don’t have to invest, don’t transfer the investor’s participation in the management of the company, then you’ll be called portfolio investment. If you invest directly on the managerial control, then you can have a quick investment (direct investment). Straighten the butt straight investor є transnational corporations. Capital to pacify in quiet countries, as well as to overcome the fuss and not all of it.
Theoretically, financial markets may be effective in increasing capital for all. Practically, it’s important that it’s important that you don’t be helpless, the frauds for the optimal transfer rate are low. Zokrem, at the international rukapitalu on a daily basis. The butt of this may be but Ukraine - if requested so far, you don’t want to go to foreign capital on a scale that deserves credit for respect.
Nearly 80% of the transaction for the purchase and sale of foreign currency is in the middle bank segment of the new foreign exchange market (as a result, the foreign currency is not available in the world).
The main sub-transactions of foreign exchange operations are the central banks of the states, for the obligations of their operations, to lead commercial banks.
Schrodenny turnover okremikh bankіv dosyagє milyardnyh sum. All-in-one, for example, such banks - Chase National, Chase Manhattan, Citybank.
Currency exchange operations of the interbank market - spot, forward, swap, exchange - futures and options. A special form of currency transactions є currency arbitrage.
Spot є operational purchase-sale of currency for the mind of delivery of supplies by a stretch of two working days within a day of settling down for refraining at the rate of exchange.
Swap is a currency operation which is to sell the singing currency from the smart wickup of such a sum back through the singing hour after the course, locked at the time of the congestion. The main participants in the swap market are commercial banks. Surrounding legislative regulation of the operation of insurance and tired sound. The operations are not amused by currency rizikіv, especially through the technical peculiarities of clearing rozrahunіv і riznitsyu at hours at robots rynnykh rynkiv planet. Please take care of the swap to be terminated for 1 to 6 months, and for the term term (up to 5 months).
String operations transfer the supply of currency by term, I will transfer three days to three days a day to complete the delivery. 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months get involved in the standard terms of the term string contracts.
Forward foreign exchange operations transfer the exchange of currency from Maybuty, ale after the course, we fix on the date of the deposit. Forward please settle down, as a rule, on lines of up to one fate, because of strong currencies, these terms can be significantly improved.
Forward exchange rate and swap rate exchange rate. As if the forward rate is higher for the spot rate, then the currency is quoted at premium, at the same time at a discount.
The forward contract of government certificates, the lower type of contract - the exchange rate is unreported for the exchange rate on the date of delivery and the partner неп s unplanned payment is high.
Swap operation one day forward, mind one, spot one, spot one for sale of GOT currency, will immediately be bought out on lines. It’s possible and bestial situation.
Operational swap is the same as commercial banks, as well as commercial banks and the central bank of the country, as well as central banks of the Czech Republic without delay. At the Swiss Misty Basel since 1969 p. International Bank of Russia - the European subsidiary body of the IMF and the IBRD (foundations of the 1930s). The service is based on a mutual exchange of currencies based on a swap transaction. Central banks have a mid-term exchange swap for efficient foreign exchange interventions.
The swap transaction is also the same for diversification of national currency (to exchange for foreign currency), for international exchange of reserves, hourly foreign currency reserves, and increased consumption of foreign currency. For example, at the bank дол reserve dolarіv, ale yomu timochovo potrebnі єvro. At such a time, the bank sells dolars for Euro with a non-payment. Immediately, the bank was pleased to buy, for example, after 6 months of such a total sum of money from my partner.
On foreign currency markets the most common are spot transactions, two or more less operational swaps, on forward transactions there is a small portion of land.
Futures operations б with stringer bargains for the purchase and sale of currency, gold, financial and credit instruments for the fixed at the time the agreement is negotiated, and the transaction is closed through the song hour.
Please be able to come back 3 days to 3 days to 3 dates. The Clearing House is a mediator between the seller and the buyer, the guarantor is viscous by the parties of the goiters and the vicar.
From the first glance, I’ll look at the future operations to forward forward. In both falls, the currency is not delivered earlier, because after three days a day the deposit is due, the price of the contract with the Maybuty contract is indicated on the date of the deposit. Tuesday, the price of the transaction is as follows:
o terminities and forwards, please be advised for mutual home ownership, terminology should be considered for the terms and conditions, obligations should be taken into account, which were stored on foreign currency exchanges;
o indiviual forward forward roads for standardization of futures contract;
o forward contracts are settled on large sums and inaccessible for other investors, financial market is available;
o in absolute terms, forwards to forward operations will result in a supply of currency, at different futures transactions there will be no real supply of currency, but a recession will be available on an unlimited basis;
o the forward contract can be settled almost always in any currencies, futures should be operated with an exchangeable set (as a rule, stack reserve currencies).
Currency option є by agreement, which grants the right of buyers and those who want to sell, to buy in one way or to sell one-time currency in exchange for an exchange for a fixed fee on a fixed date, but it will be closed very often.
For gaining such a right, the buyer repay the sellers and the song bag of pennies, which are called premium. Rizik kuptsya obmeshuetsya rozmіr rallied ї premium. Rizik selling lowered on a bag of won premiums.
Існує кілька видів currency options:
o put (the right by the stretch of the song hour to sell the currency for the house price for the zhystu її від знецінення);
o count (the right to buy currency for a fixed price by a stretch of singing term in exchange for a fee of a late sum sum for a currency exchange rate);
o ропEuropeisky (the right to buy or sell foreign currency less than the required price for the contract);
o American (the right to buy or sell the currency be-until the termination of the contract).
On the other side of the contract for currency options, I can give you the opportunity to freeze the risk of an unacceptable change in the exchange rate, and if you look at the price, they’ve got a significant increase in currency markets.
Currency Arbitrage - the price of one-time purchase and sales of foreign currency on foreign markets by means of which you can remove the income from foreign exchange rates at the same currency and string transactions on financial markets. Currency exchange rates on winter markets. Wait for the term change of currencies from one market to the highest. As long as foreign exchange rates are more than the same amount, I’m going to change operations, change currencies, then you can win a rate of exchange rates. At tsomu є polyagє currency arbitrage.
The hourly currency arbitrage of transferє gained in excess of the hour of exchange rates at the hour, and the spacious - in the view of the third rate on the territorial market. Simple arbitrage can be seen in two currencies, and folding (cross-rate) - in three and more currencies.
The price of the operation is to secure the exchange of currencies, foreign currency exchange rates on stable markets.
Nasamkіnets meaningfully, why do I have to give me more money to look at the aspects of international monetary credit supply.