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Culturology - T. Gritsenko

Rosetok science and technology

An overly important factor in the continuous expansion of business technology. At the dob of the New Hour, it was a preoccupation to open the Kerovans by people mechanized virobnitstvo. Higher engine power for mechanical development by J. White, a versatile steam engine (1784), which would have been a bad type of machine. With the help of the Revolutionary Bula of the girdle of the galuse "machine-blowing". At 1794 p. English mechanic G. Modslі vainishov ruhomiy support (utrimuvach rіztsya) for a turning verstat. Zgodom support bouve of mowing і at verstata іshih typіv; Vin vikonuvav takozhe operations, as early as the hello human hand. The supervisors of the support turners, frezuvalnі, shlіfuvalnі, sverdlilnі that іnshі verstoorilsya fused to robotic machines.

Radical changes in the rhythm of life were introduced by steam transport : ground transport (steam train by J. Stephenson - 1814), river transport (steam train R. Fulton - 1807), marine (1819), as well as the wines from the middle of the 19th century. electromagnet telegraph (at 1844 p. S. Morse transmitting telegraphy in an electric way) i shvidko drukuyuchyh polygraphic machines. Participants called the XIX century. “Table and couple”: the steam units were stalled in the gallows of industry and the state thanks to the completion of the process of manufacture - a great enterprise based on manual production, before the machine industry.

At 1839 p. vinikaє photography - French artist and vinichidnik L.-ZH.-M. Having scored the first one, the dagger uses the practical method of photography - daguerreotype and advanced training for the Paris Academy.

At 1869 p. American wine-maker and promislovets D. Westingauz having rejected a patent for pneumatic hall galismo - Westinghouse galmo. Nimetsky vinakhidnik K.F. Drez, having constructed a transport car in the out-of-town passage, was brought in at the hands of an internal engine - a trolley. At 1863 p. in London, the persha pіdzemna zalіznitsya (3.6 km) - metro was prompted. Z 1868 p. subway dіє in new york city. The metropolitan area on the European continent is Budapest (1896 p.), Videnky (1898 p.) And Paris (1900 p.).

At 1869 p. v_dbulosya v_dkritty Suetsky channel. The yoga dovina became 164 km, the width along the bottom - 22 m, the first glibina - 7.5 m. In the year, the channel of boobs of absorption and expansion.

Rizke zrostannya drink for metal called before the winemaker the Englishman G. Bessemer envelope method of converting chavun into steel, the so-called besmemerivsky process (patent 1856 p.). At 1864 p. French metallurgist P. Marten became a whim of oxidizing smelting of iron and steel materials (chavunu, steel scrap), having forgotten how to use it, like it was, how to make it, they called it.

З кінця 70 рр. XIX century As soon as the telephone ring was broadened, an electric light bulb became ill. The American wine and wine producer T. Edison, at his own ministers, became the foundation of the famous “General Electric”, having scrutinized all the electrical technology. At 1882 p. Win prompting New York to perspire in the light of thermal power of the igneous corridor, and in 1896 p. Gave the stream Naybilsha gidroelektrostantsii - Niagarska. In the 80s pp. on the streets of Berlina z'yavlyayutsya pershі trams. At 1897 p. Nіmetsky engineer R.Dizel realizing his idea of ​​the engine of the inner city called by him.

At 1897 p. ITALIAN RADIO TECHNICIAN AND PIDPRIEMETS G. MARKONI Having obtained a patent on the fault of the radio operator .

For example, XIX century v_dbuvsya otpravnіy coup d'état for science. Bully podolanі stereotypes of science-related bridges, which were stored in full power of classical mechanics. For example, 1895 p. Nimetsky fizik V.K. X-ray povіdomiv about the new generation of promises іz with deluxe brutes. Become invisible, stink to permeate objects. Earlier for the X-ray "x-promenade" vidkriv in the Austro-Ugorschina visible Ukrainian exercises I.Pulyuy. Vin becoming a pioneer at the rivals ’and I got ready to swear a lamp for light microscopy.

At the end of the ХІХ century it was a pity for becoming a self-sustaining galaxy of the science of atomic physics. At 1896 p. French physicist A. Bekerel stubbornly waving his radioactive activity of uranium salts. The radioactivity of the elements, the radioactivity of the year saw the appearance of the French physicists P. Curie and that squad of M. Skłodowska-Curie . The stench itself was sent to the scientific domain of the understanding of “radioactivity”. M.Sklodovska-Curie Keruwala Radіvvim Institute at Parisі. At the same time with a member of the dossier at 1898 p. vіdkrila new elements: polonі i radіy.

A specific form of integration science and technology was the creation of a cinematograph , a kind of wine in 1895. Brothers Lum'єr patented in Paris. Glimpse of the boules are familiar with scenes that are known by nature: “The Great Robotics from the Lum'єra Plant”, “Arriving at the La Ciotat Station”, and “The Watering Sprinkler”. With a zagalom company Lyum'єr vipustil nearly 1.5 yew. one of the two-part films. The genre’s presentation has simple reports, game scenes on literary and historical plots.

XIX century Significantly and progressive technology. Tsey progres buv povyazaniya z perebudovuyu mіst at vіdpovіdnostі to consumer industry, transport, population zrostannya population. Bagato city’s bulo has been rewritten: universities have lost track of the world, they have saved themselves at the expense of Serednyovichchya, have been disregarded geometrically by reading the text from the street and prospectus. Repairing Portland cement, then we have extensively completed construction. At the middle of the XIX century. Having appeared a new type of equipment for metal and storage - Kristallpalas at Londoni (1851 p.).