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Political economy - Bєlyaev O.O.

§ 3. International Economic Integration

One of the most important rice of the constant development of the gospel of gratitude has become the widespread assimilation of quietly any of the new regional alliances of powers, targeting the development and stimulation of the economical distribution of funds, trading in foreign countries. To economically process, I’m based on the principle of зв sounding, obeying the gratitude of the official country, in the literary world I will name the economic integration (в лат лат - integ integ er er)))). The process of economic integration of the main factors:

  • zrostayuchu Internationalization of the state life (dyalnostі);
  • the destruction of the international pratu;
  • igneous nature of scientific and technological revolution;
  • pіdvyshennya step (between) vіdkritostі natsіonalnih ekonomіk.

Zmist international integration

Economic integration is a complex process of voluntary interaction, proximity and interlocking of national economies of sovereign territories. In addition, it seems, such integration є wide middle-aged information, functionally different special needs and technical organization structure. Within the framework of such a meeting on the territory of the Krai-participant, activities are very much visible, see the state gifts on special Pilgov’s minds divided by foreign countries.

The flow of international integration processes is as clear as micro, so macro.

Transnational corporations

On the basis of the process, the process is based on the loss of private capitalistic integrated trends. Such is the tendency to find their way into the dynamic development of the minority viral complex - transnational corporations (TNCs). This process will be completed by the owners and partners in the interim of great enterprises (corporations) through the establishment of their own files behind the cordon on the basis of a system of different economic partners. On the whole, it is horizontal and vertical integration. Horizontal integration is supported by the evil of the company, as well as by one and the same company, by denying the additional payment for the sale of real estate, the first for everything in the country is based on the principle of filing. The vertical integration of the transmission of the company, the functionality of the winter cycles (for example, the addition of the factory virobnik syrovini to the company, as well as the factory virobnitsvo). TNCs have become the main noses of the private and single fraud. As a result of the international trade, a part of internal business exchange has grown. Thus, in the United States in the 90s, the share of the land became close to 40%, while in the lands of Western Europe, it became even one-third of the total oath of the common trade lands.

For the UNCTAD * 3 tribute, in the 90s, the rock had 39 thousand yews. TNC that 270 yew Іх філій із zagalnym sum of assets 2.7 trillion dollars. Shchorіchny oath sale, a kind of stink zdіysnyuyut, retransfer 6 trillion dollars. Ponad is a third of the most transnational TNCs in the US. I mean the experts of UNCTAD, for the rest of the rocky pace at a fast pace the evil company is, especially in Zakhіdnіy Europe. It is typical for us to advance to such sectors of economy, such as industry, pharmaceuticals and financial services.

* 3: {UNCTAD (UNCTAD) - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, How to Engage in Power Supply and Distribution of International Trade on an Equal and Higher Basis.}

The transnational leadership structure of the bagato in which you have spirited and mastered the goal of intermediate economic integration, so that you can formulate it in macro form. This type of integration is characterized by the mutual cooperation of national economies not inferior to the geographical sign (cordonity), and the first on the basis of interconnected sounds at the international level.

Tsіlі ta perevagi ekonomіchno integratsії

What are the main advantages and economic integration?

First of all, the whole country is a member of the Krai, the participants have overstepped the scale, which fields are available at the best retail markets, a short-lived vitrat, etc.

In a different way, the form of a covert and provocative treasure, fragments of a meta of more integrated integration of culture, of more than one community of participants, part-time participants, part-time participants.

Thirdly, integrating economically and economically wide national broad access to a wide variety of resources: material, labor, financial and new technology at the scale of a large

Fourthly, integration into the regions at the regional borders is preferable to enter for companies and to enter before this group, taking into account the competition from the side of the third subdivision.

By and large, it is economically close to the country that I can help you with most of the social problems and the most stable situations for the market of social and social services.

Regional Economic Integration

Already there is a big tendency for the whole world, there is a tendency to regional regional integration * 4. In the mid-90s, after the GATT / COT, a total of 30 mainstream integration groups were formed. It’s okay to stare at one’s own way and the character of vidnosin, who’s to blame between the participating countries, and so on for the results (insights) of the event.

* 4: {Often at the beginning literature, if you want to talk about international integration, then you need to be more prosperous than the regional form of economic cooperation between countries.}

Great access and potential of regional and international economic integration of Europe. Tse poyasnyuєtsya yak polіtichnimi that sotsіalno-ekonomіchnimi Especially rozvitku danogo regіonu in perіod pіslya Druha svіtovoї vіyni so i Suchasnyj tendentsіyami rozvitku svіtovoї Economy, if sformuvalisya three svіtovі ekonomіchnі center (Zahіdna Єvropa, Pіvnіchna America s domіnuyuchoyu Rolla USA i Pіvdenno-Shіdna Azіya of prіoritetom Japan).

Historically, the right moment of economic integration in Europe was approved in 1951. ЄEuropeiskogo ob'єdnannya vugіllya i stalі. At 1958 p. six of the Western European powers (France, FRN, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg) were aligned with the Treaty of Rome in 1957. РопEuropean Economy and Consumer Goods (ЄЕС). Within an hour, the partnership became the first and foremost undisclosed form of the international integration, it was overthrown to possible economic corruption. For the size of the population, it is overwhelmingly the United States that is 1.5 times greater than the current economic potential. From the first warehouse to the EU, the company is in the process of integration with the transition from the commercial trading system to the first one in the previous areas of state donation. In the 90s, the rocks of the Integration Oblast became known as the European Union (ЄС).

Nine members of the ЄС є 15 krai. Surrounding the city, there are Austria, Great Britain, Greece, Denmark, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Finland, and Sweden. We shall sign the Agreement between them (1992), in these countries, national cordons on hats transported by the public (including working force), capitals, goods, and servants will be handed down. With the unified method: a huge passport, the system of commuting and transport, currency, taxes, standard system and mitna system. So, more than the wealth of the great number of minority bars in the country краC could save the world, for expert estimates, from 15 to 17 billion dollars. On the other hand, there’s the possibility of a slowdown in the country and the fact that there’s about 60% of the total foreign trade turnover of the United States trading at home.

For the management of the United Nations, there have been established international representatives, vicarities and ships, organizations that have been given significant oversight of the supreme powers and are more important for accepting the priority of the given union as a whole.

The “European Union has been relocating” to satisfy the super-quick people with the two main centers of the gospel statehood - the USA and Japan. Integration of the support of the Western European capital on the rivals to resist its main competitors. At your own house, in the country, you don’t have to go in until the ЄС, you’ll be rewarded with neutralization of the overtaking of an integrated integration. The stench has its role in the larger, broader beyond the warehouse of international economic groups. Before them lay down, secrecy, (until the mid-90s rock) General pleas for tariffs and bargains (GATT) * 5, the yak Bula is fragmented and used at Geneva in 1947; Organization of an economic partnership and development (OECD), the yak was bent in 1961. For the sake of organizing the weather, the policy of our participants and the deacon’s regulating the functions of the international capital and the need to help the countries to develop.

* 5: {At 1994 p. bulo was written to please the establishment of the Holy Organizing Trade Organization (COT), the yak disbursed its business in 1995, having come to the GATT. A new organization is being revised at home by the Memorandum on the rules for regulating the availability of meals and on the basis of international trade policy. Take your time with the patronage of the GATT to please that dominosti have passed from the "recession" of the COT. Ninj SOT including ponad of 100 member states.}

At once, the integration of the sound of the United States of America was completed. In 1990 p. on a daily basis the supply of Mexico is recognized to the zone of trade approved in the USA and Canada within the framework of the American American trade for free trade. For one of the most and most important ways to market. Integration processes in the whole region to finish the gliboki. So, on the cob of the 90s rock in the United States, nearly 4/5 of Canadian export was realized. For the USA, the Canadian market is also one of the largest and most famous foreign markets. It is more important to have a state gift from the USA for Mexico. In the US export section of the United States become ponad 2/3. Maizhe stilki mexicansky import, to your own homeland, should be from the USA.

The main goals of the Pivnichamerican American about freedom of trade (NAFTA) є: the adoption of the Mitneys otmezhen at the mutual trade; reach of the Glavny Rivne of the Integrated Market: goods, quality, technology and labor resources; zezpechenennya mayzhe maximally independent form of meeting the necessary energy resources; Competitiveness of the pivnically-American region against Western Europe and the Asia-Pacific economic centers. Please be advised to negotiate the transfer of the transfer of the tariff and non-tariff tariffs to the return bidder and come in to stimulate the return on investment.

The loss of the middle integration is typical for the territory of the North-East Asia, the Arab region, Africa, and America. For example, the Association of National Banks of Asia has made more acquiescence of 60s at the warehouse of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Brunei. Kіlkіst krai - members of the social associations with an hour of growth. At 1992 p. The participants of the rally have voted to make sure that by stretching the closest 15 streets to the zone of regional regional trade through low tariffs at the end of the year. Ninethe process of the zagodnogodospodskogo closer proximity to the country and the interdependence of their economy, the internalregional trade nouveau grandfather of greater dynamism. Take care of the region for the remaining ten years and become its own indicator of global returns and mega-tendencies in the current systems of international economic integration.

To fight and scale of the so-called so-called Asian Integrated Mass, a country that surrounds ten ASEAN countries - Brunei, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, India, Japan, China, Japan, Korea and Turkey. Обx revise intensive trading and economic sound and technological solutions in the sphere of investment and technology. About 2 billion people live here, the gross domestic product will grow by 7 trillion dollars, the share of the new export is 29%, the import is 25%, and the intensive process will transfer the analogous indicator of the European Union. The significant part of the Asian-Pacific trade is falling on trading in the middle of the Japanese, American, Canadian, Taiwanese and Korean-Korean corporations. For the remaining ten years in the region, the role of China is economical.

At the same time, models of the Pacific American and Asian-Pacific economic integration are being recognized in Europe. As a rule, in Western Europe, there has been a substantial increase in the share of the market to an economic, monetary and political union, which is supported by a higher percentage of existing structures, so that there are more important regula

On a larger scale, and the more obvious natural and labor potential, it is more economical, and I will call it Latin American Socialist Integration (LAAI). Yogo Bulo, 1980 r. on the basis of the Krai, until recently, the Latin American Association of Votno Trade was renewed. To LAAI include: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Chile, Ecuador. Assotiation of the transmission of the closed system of regional pilgrim mit.

Within the framework of the LAAI, there are three subregional trade and economic organizations: the Andeska and La-Platska groups and the Amazon pact, members of which are united in the majority of international organizations. The most integrated results were reached by the Andska Group (Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Ecuador). All of the transmission of the reservation of the same basic tariffs, the deductible for the supply of foreign investments, the development of national industrial and commercial markets.

Meta-integration of integration between Latin America and Latin America, with the development of regional economic and retail trading, the form of brains for a large market, the wide distribution of knowledge.

There is a tendency to emerge and integrate into the economy on the African continent. For example, the main zusilla of the Economic Union of the Republic of Western Africa (EKOWAS) is directly tied to the development of tariff problems and the reintroduction of the union to the Mitya Union.

On the cob of the 90s of rock at Central and Scheme of Europe (for the sake of plenty of REV - for the sake of economical cooperation), you can also be born and formed in the form of integrated, international, public and international education. Ale poksho ikh of the Integration was economically clear did not crystallize.

Prior to the structure of the current gospel statehood, it is also necessary to include middle-sized organizations, so that functionalities can be integrated. Among these organizations can be virocremy: Є Europe alcohol production from atomic energy (атом euro atom); Organizing Ukrainian - exporting nafti (OPEC); International Organization of Public Partnerships Cream of international and international organizations, activities of both international and international, motor transport insurance, marine insurance, and small amounts of phosphate. In my own way, as a rule, all the special functions and functional organizations are closely related to regional and international integration. For example, Euroatom contacts with the International Agency for Atomic Energy and the timely organization of European commitments for Europe and Europe, as well as the European Union.

In this way, the development of holy statehood, the promotion of yogic to sacrifice, commitment to science and technology and social and economic progress, made up the growth of integrated structures: middle-aged, socially and economically. Ninethe processes of economic sustainability of the world have covered all over the world.

The loss of economic and international relations between the countries in the different regions in different forms and with all the irregular processes is allowed to increase the number of international resources.