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Principles of Marketing - Philip Kotler
Now, the communicator will select effective channels of communication. In general, the communication channels are of two types: personal communication channels and channels of non-personal communication.
CHANNELS personal communication. two or more persons are involved in the channel of personal communication, communicating directly with each other. This can be face-to-face communication of one person with the audience, communication by telephone, through television and even through personal correspondence by mail. The channels of personal communication are effective due to the fact that they provide participants with an opportunity for personal conversion, and to provide feedback.
The channels of personal communications can be further divided into advocacy, expert-assessment and socio-household. The advocacy channel involves representatives trade company personnel who come into contact with customers in the target market. Expert evaluation channel comprise independent persons with the necessary knowledge and make statements to target buyers. The main actors of social and domestic channels are neighbors, friends, family members or co-workers talking with target buyers. This last channel, also known as the rumors of a channel is the most effective in many product areas.
Personal influence is a lot of weight in relation to the categories of products of high value and high risk. Buyers of cars and large household appliances are not limited reference to sources in the media, and strive to meet the views of knowledgeable people. Personal influence plays an important role in respect of goods in the first place come to the attention of others.
In order to stimulate the work of channels of personal influence in their favor the firm may take a number of steps. It can: 1) to identify influential individuals and powerful organizations and focus additional effort on their treatment; 2) create opinion leaders, persons providing certain goods on favorable terms; 3) targeted work with local influential figures, such as disc jockeys, managers of various kinds of training courses and women's organizations; 4) use of influential persons in the witness testimonials, advertising, and 5) create advertising has a greater "value as a topic of conversation." 8
CHANNELS non-personal communication. Non-personal channels of communication - it is a means of disseminating information, transmitting an appeal in the absence of personal contact and feedback. These are means of mass and selective exposure, the specific atmosphere of the event character event. The media and the electoral effects include amounts of print advertising (newspapers, magazines, sending direct mail), electronic advertising (radio, TV) tools and illustrative-visual means of advertising (billboards, signs, posters). The media focused on large undifferentiated audience, and the funds of the electoral impact - to specialized audiences (see box 33 with a story about the electoral impact of the example.). Specific atmosphere - a specially created environment conducive to the emergence or strengthening buyer's propensity to purchase or use of the goods. Thus, law firms and banks are designed to suggestion a sense of confidence and other ideas that can be valuable in terms of customer 9. Events event nature - this activities designed to report to the target audiences some specific applications. In order to produce on the audience or that the effect of the communication departments of public opinion organizations organize a press conference, the opening ceremony, start, etc.
Although personal communication is often more effective than the mass, the use of the media can be a basic method to stimulate personal communications. Mass communication affects the personal attitudes and behavior through a two-step process flow of communication then. "Often the flow of ideas, informs radio and print, rushes to the leaders of opinion, and from them - a less active part of the population."
This two-step flow of communication causes a number of effects. Firstly, the influence of media on public opinion is not so direct, powerful and self-evident, as is commonly thought. After forming and are handling weight, in fact, opinion leaders, t. E. The people who belong to the primary audience, the people whose opinion in one or several product areas are all the rest.
Secondly, there are objections to the idea that the style of consumer behavior is determined primarily by the effect of "trickle-down" of the classes of higher social status. As people interact mainly with the representatives of their own social class, they adopt fashion and other ideas have their own kind of people who are opinion leaders.
The third consequence is that the professional activities of mass communication will be more effective if it begins to target their treatment specifically at opinion leaders, giving them the opportunity to communicate these requests to the other. For example, pharmaceutical firms first of all seek to promote their drugs most influential physicians.
Box 33. The marketing strategy makes "deliberate failure" in the sensational success
The magazine "Time" called it "a deliberate failure", but the studio itself "Paramount" expects that her new film will be the next sensation. The film "Lost" continues the story begun in the film "Saturday Fever", which brought the studio "Paramount" 150 mln. USD. Only in the United States. The main role of a young man trying to succeed as a dancer on Broadway, in a new film starred actor John Travolta. However, the story can not be called one of the strengths of the film, "Lost" - a picture in which the sound is much more important than the action itself, and in the dance numbers make sense more than the drama. But the studio did not care what the critics tore the picture to the nines. Planners "Paramount" is used a number of specially selected marketing techniques which, in their view, provide the film if not the artistic recognition, or at least big profits.
One of the applied film studio strategic approaches lies in the fact that the film is oriented to a specific target audience - young fans of music and dance. An important means of ensuring the achievement of the audience in the process of marketing the picture is MTV cable television center, showing videos in the "rock" style, to the accompaniment of songs. Film studio "Paramount" is not only purchased at this time, the television station for advertising, but also gave him the video clips from his film. These two-three minute excerpts from the music and dance exactly match the orientation of the basic materials, broadcast on MTV Networks, and, according to the studio, we should arouse the spectators telecentre desire to see the film in its entirety.
Advertising film "Lost" started very early. Typically, ads appear for 7-10 days before the premiere. This time they appeared in three weeks. To expand the provision of an advance the awareness of the audience about the film, radio almost three months the release of pictures began to broadcast songs performed in her band "Bee Gees".
Similarly, the strategic approach used the studio and when placed on the screen of his recent film "Rush dance." In this film, too little plot, but a lot of music and dance. Even before the premiere of a selection of songs from the movie gained popularity on the radio and MTV viewers cable network. "By the day of the premiere of" The rapid dance "music from him already knew the whole country", - said the representative of the studio "Paramount" Frank Manusko. Like the movie "Lost," painting "Swift Dance" received very bad welcome criticism, but it has provided 'Paramount' gross revenues of $ 60 million.. So Manusko has some reason to believe that "the success of such films does not depend on reviews criticism. "
If the movie "Lost" meet the expectations of the studio and will be the next sensation, "Paramount" will implement plans to remove a few more pictures of music and dance in the future.