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Marketing Basics - Kotler Philip

The choice of means of disseminating information

Now the communicator has to choose effective communication channels. In general, communication channels are of two types: channels of personal communication and channels of non-personal communication.

CHANNELS OF PERSONAL COMMUNICATION . Two or more persons directly communicating with each other participate in a personal communication channel. This can be face-to-face communication, one-person communication with the audience, communication by telephone, via television and even through personal correspondence by mail. Personal communication channels are effective due to the fact that they provide participants with opportunities for personal contact and for establishing feedback.

Channels of personal communication can be further subdivided into explanatory, propaganda, expert appraisal and social services. Representatives of the company's sales staff who come into contact with customers in the target market participate in the outreach channel . The expert channel is composed of independent individuals with the necessary knowledge and statements to target customers. The main actors of the public service channel are neighbors, friends, family members or colleagues talking with target customers. This last channel, also known as the rumor channel, is found to be most effective in many product areas.

Personal influence has a lot of weight in relation to the categories of goods of high cost and high risk. Buyers of cars and large household appliances are not limited to referring to sources in the media, but seek to get acquainted with the opinions of knowledgeable people. Personal influence plays an important role in relation to goods, primarily those falling into the field of view of others.

To stimulate the work of channels of personal influence in their favor, a company can take a number of steps. It can: 1) identify influential individuals and influential organizations and focus additional efforts on their processing; 2) create opinion leaders by supplying certain individuals with goods on favorable terms; 3) to work purposefully with local influential figures, such as disc jockeys, heads of various training courses and women's organizations; 4) use influential persons in advisory and testimonial advertising, and 5) create an advertisement that has great “value as a topic of conversation” 8.

CHANNELS OF PERSONAL COMMUNICATION . Non-personal communication channels are means of disseminating information that transmit treatment in the absence of personal contact and feedback. These include means of mass and selective influence, a specific atmosphere, events of an event nature. Means of mass and selective influence include print media (newspapers, magazines, direct mail), electronic media (radio, television) and illustrative media (billboards, signs, posters). The media is aimed at large undifferentiated audiences, and the means of selective influence are targeted at specialized audiences (see Box 33 for an example of selective means). A specific atmosphere is a specially created environment that contributes to the emergence or strengthening of a customer’s predisposition to purchase or use a product. So, law offices and banks are designed to instill a sense of confidence and other ideas that can be valuable, from the point of view of clients 9. Events of an event nature are events designed to convey specific messages to target audiences. In order to produce a particular communication effect on the audience, public opinion departments organize press conferences, grand opening, launch ceremonies, etc.

Although personal communication is often more effective than mass communication, using the media can be the main way to stimulate personal communication. Mass communication affects personal relationships and behavior thanks to a two-stage process of communication sweat flow. “Often the stream of ideas communicated by the radio and the press rushes to opinion leaders, and from them to less active parts of the population.”

This two-stage communication flow has a number of consequences. Firstly, the influence of the media on public opinion is not as direct, powerful, and taken for granted as is commonly thought. Indeed, opinion leaders, that is, people who belong to the primary audience, people with whose opinions all the others reckon in one or several product areas, form and carry the appeal to the masses, in essence.

Secondly, there are objections to the notion that the style of purchasing behavior is determined primarily by the effect of “seeping wealth from top to bottom” from classes of a higher social position. Since people interact mainly with representatives of their own social class, they adopt fashion and other ideas from their own kind of people who are opinion leaders.

The third consequence is that the activities of a specialist in mass communication will be more effective if he begins to target his messages specifically to opinion leaders, giving them the opportunity to independently communicate these messages to the rest. So, pharmaceutical companies first of all strive to promote their medicines to the most influential doctors.

Box 33. Marketing Strategy Turns Deliberate Failure Into Sensational Success

Time magazine called it a “deliberate failure”, but the Paramount studio itself expects its new film to be another sensation. The film "Lost" continues the story, which began in the film "Saturday fever", which brought the Paramount film studio to $ 150 million in the United States alone. The main role of a young man trying to succeed as a dancer on Broadway, in the new film starred actor John Travolta. However, the plot can not be called one of the advantages of the film, “Lost” is a picture in which sound is much more important than the action itself, and there is more sense in dance numbers than in dramaturgy. But the film studio does not bother at all that the critics smashed the picture to smithereens. Paramount planners use a series of specially selected marketing techniques that, in their opinion, will provide the film, if not artistic recognition, then at least large profits.

One of the strategic approaches used by the film studio is that the film is aimed at a specific target audience - young fans of music and dance. An important means of achieving this audience in the marketing process of the picture is MTV, a cable television center that demonstrates videos to the accompaniment of rock-style songs. The Paramount film studio not only purchased advertising time from this television center, but also provided him with video clips from its film. These two-three-minute excerpts with music and dancing exactly correspond to the focus of the main materials broadcast on the MTV network, and, according to the movie studio, should arouse the desire of the television center to watch the whole movie.

To advertise the film "Lost" began very early. Typically, advertisements appear 7-10 days before the premiere. This time they appeared in three weeks. To expand the audience’s early awareness of the film, almost three months after the release of the picture, the radio stations began broadcasting the songs performed by the Bee Jeeze ensemble.

The studio took a similar strategic approach when releasing the screening of its recent film, The Swift Dance. This film also has little plot, but a lot of music and dancing. Even before the premiere, a selection of songs from this film gained popularity on the radio and among viewers of the MTV cable television network. “By the day of the premiere of Swift Dance, the whole country already knew the music from it,” says Frank Manusco, a spokesman for Paramount Film Studio. Like the film "Lost", the painting "The Swift Dance" received an extremely poor criticism, but provided Paramount with a gross income of $ 60 million. So Manusco has some reason to say that "the success of such films does not depend on reviews critics. "

If the film "Staying Alive" will justify the studio’s hope and become another sensation, Paramount will begin to implement plans to shoot several more musical and dance films in the future.