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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest


The struggle for the preservation of cultural self-esteem has long been one of the main topics in the history of Ukraine. Constantly intercepting the dominion of foreign powers, the stench repeatedly recognized the assimilation of the panimial culture. In the XVI century. With the entry of Orthodox Ukrainians among the Catholic Catholics, the middle of the family seemed to be more superstitious to the public, which was rooted in religion and culture. I am more and more involved in the struggle for Orthodox Christianity and Catholicism (at that time for all European religions of the main ideological nourishment), she left the cob in the first and last great discourse. Hang around exceptionally reliving food (for example, from the church, just for good reason, save the soul - Orthodox Christian), she also tackled the problem, which will save me the death of death in Ukraine in the meantime.

Church and cultural life

At the XV — XVI centuries, as in the hour of Kiev Rus, Orthodoxy was deprived of synonymic culture. The role in the Ukrainian suspension grew: the church served the Ukrainian community for the independence of the Vlasnaya power, for the United Institute of Independence. However, the very same method, if there was a need for a strong and supreme Orthodox Church, won the glory of the West at the camp. More than that, Catholicism and Protestantism, Orthodoxy has lost its patronage and the conquest of the state. There is not much for the hours of the Kiev Rus and the Galicia-Volinsky Principality. Ale pіdtrimuvati tisnі stosunki between the Orthodox Church and the Catholic rulers of Poland and Lithuania was very important, it’s possible to infuriate. Vipeshchuyuchi Catholic bones, those who could be sovereign, have praised the Orthodox Church of movbi for their unborn child.

Having violated the rule of Lithuania, the Ukrainian Mali are all ready for the optimism of the Vlasnian church. Do not bazayuchi deprivation of their numerical Orthodox piddanikh pid supremacy of the Moscow Metropolitan, in 1458 p. Grand Dukes of Lithuania restored the Metropolitanate of Kiev. Ohoplyuyuchy ten Bishoprics in Ukraine in Bilorus, the new Metropolitan Church of Russia celebrated church calls, turning to the supremacy of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Ale, we can see the practice that day, the Grand Dukes, and the king and the Polish, took their right of patronage, so that they could sign the Orthodox Metropolitan’s Orthodox Bishops. Otozh, the impetus of important church nourishment, became rulers of the worldly rulers, who belonged to the present, all the more orthodox Orthodox churches.

There are few disasters. The right of public authority to signify the bishop’s authority was the authority of the metropolitan. And those who had a leather Bishop himself, having established the laws of law, quickly recognized the organization of the discipline of the Orthodox Church. More zububnіshoy bula koruptsіya, born through the patronage of holy power. Newly-born priests in the priesthood often lived with a bribe, the dignity of the bishop, so that we could be more dear to the plains of our country, to sell the country, to land and land. For the sake of navigating the feudal lords, it seemed like selling roztashovany in the lands of the country and the monasteries to pay more, but to sign up to their relatives, they didn’t have the right to fall asleep. Neglected to navigate the priesthood of the clergy. So, Metropolitan Onisiphor Divochka Buv zvonovvaganiya at the ghosts; є Bishop Kirilo Terletsky, having been brought before a court for his supervision of the slaughter, the threat of danger, and the rule of law; КpisKop Ion Borzobogatiy vimagav at the parishioners a fee for the church’s meeting. Bieruchi butt iz svoіh ihrarhіv, paraphyal priests were sacrificed so much, now the classmates gotten too much, even the middle of them can be more easily spent "leave the people," as soon as possible to go to church, not at all.

Church Fortress on Podilli XV century

Fortress church on Podilli XV century

For such minds of culture, the influx of Orthodoxy has become great values ​​of divisions. Schools, save money, set up churches, get busy. Less literate teachers could begin reading the basics of writing, reading and catechism. From the middle of the middle, there are fewer changes in the program of school navigation. Conquered by the Turks of Constantinople at 1453 p. the intellectual and cultural stifle ousted and amused the Orthodox Church, which found the most advanced and most influential view.

Having lost the internal and external stimulus, the Orthodox culture has become a rite of passage, intercourse and non-fall.

Tim for an hour, the Poles experienced a cultural period of cultural diversity. Liven up in the strained splashes of creative energy at the Sunset, the Vidrodzhennya burst into them, and a new thought awoke with it. Vidіshovshi іd the middle middle age on the nourishment of the swept life, as well as special features, as astronomer Copernicus, the philosopher Andrzej Fritsch Modřevský, sang Jan Kokhanowski, imagined the new people’s living, Extensive new ideas were spied by graduates of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow and Polish students of the University of Italy and Nimechchini. On the cob of the XVI century in Poland nalichuvalosya nearly 20 drukaren and ponad 3 yew. parafial school.

The Reformation, in spite of what became remembered in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the middle of the 16th century, brought a new string of creative zbudzhennya. Svoїh poslіdovnikіv Sered 25-ZO% gentry znayshov kalvіnіzm - vіddam Protestantism Where Money Does Especially the role of the church in the right side vіdvodilasya, laity. Radical flow of Calvinism is Arianism, which has helped to elicit the dogma of Trinity and spread pacifism, has made it small, but it has become inflated in all Poland, Lithuania and Navi to Volin. By the method of expanding their ideas of Protestantism, schools, drukarni, and closed the literary life of Polish movement were recognized. In spite of the state of confederation on relegated soil, which we won in the 16th century, Rich Pospolita, in the middle of Europe and Europe, I was deprived of an oasis of relative tolerance. I explained to the great world the noble impulse of gentry - the non-ingenuity of the rights conveyed to those who were the least respectful to take a look, navigate the way they took them.

Strength for example XVI - on the cob of the XVII century Catholic reaction to Protestantism is not much found in Poland. Great peace was due to the merit of the use - the impact of the counter-reformation forces, which was manifested in Poland in 1564. Group members in their lavas of good faith, good blessings and discreet members, who had the most disciplined religious order to turn around in the bosom of their church to get lost. Having fallen asleep throughout the entire Commonwealth, I have the measure of brilliant colleagues, they didn’t more than shove the Poles from the warriors to Catholicism, and the first brought the Protestant and Orthodox youth to their power. So, in the first place, the Counter-Reformation Colony of Religion tolerance began to be passed on to the fanatical Catholicism.