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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest


Pidsumkom form on the rivals of the Dnieper of the new slurry became the belt of the new camp, which may have grown less by the mill - I will become the goat. For Turkic people, the word “Kozak” meant a large, independent group of people, who were not a little clearly identified in the population, inhabited the uninhabited outskirts. Vpershe slov'yanskі Cossacks z'yavilisya at 1480s Rokach, ale tіlki of poshirennyam krіpatstva in seredinі XVI art. The number of people has grown significantly. On the back of the house, the main Masa of the Cossacks was made by the villagers on Tuesday, the boules in the middle of them were also residents, the priest was amused, the shukachi was suitable for the nobility. Although Poles, Belarusians, Russians, Moldavians and Tatars poured in to the Cossack lavas, all the same, the great population of Pridniprov'ya was stored in Ukraine. The Russian ryzoid of the cossack is more distant than on the river, on the river Don.

The first organization is kozatstva . Ukranian Cossacks woke up at the pranks all lower than Dnіprom і yogo pivdennymi tributaries right behind the small prikordonnі outposts of Canova and Cherkas. On this generous, red and non-secure land, the stench organized to leave, so that they could be thoughtful and ridiculous, and they also took care of the thinness of horses and horses. In Vlasna, the hour of the whole trivial season of seasonal twists and turns steeped in them are the first elements of organization. Virushayuchi at the “Dike Field”, the stinks were robbed of their own mittens, but they were called, they were the otamans, most of them were better, smarter and more guilty, and more than just to defend the Tatars and they were much more . In favor of the steppe, ukripleni tabori (sichi) were established with small, high-quality pledges, and for bagatochka, the goats were reassigned at a busy post.

Kozatsky Tabir. Suchasna engraving

Kozatsky Tabir. Suchasna engraving

Kings of old age on the border lands have not worried, since they have lost, since they have grown up, they have often gone out of their way. Schopravda, old age, as members of the magnate families themselves profited from the situation, they extorted money for nothing, laid on the great (and often unauthorized) requisitions of the goats, who were reckoned with bribes and sharks. However, it’s important that they knew so much that they knew about the Cossacks of the ideal defenders of the cordons and the Tatars of the Nazis, and with one of the most obsolete regiments of Ukraine and the United States. So, at 1520 p. Cherkasy elder Senko Polozovich having recruited zagin kozakіv serve prikordonnoy wartu. At the age of ten years of old age, such as Yvstafy Dashkevich, Predslav Lyantskoronsky and Bernard Pretvich, they actively began to mobilize the goats for defense, but for attacking the Turks.

Persian magnates, scho organizovuvala Kozakіv, blasphemed non-Orthodox Orthodox Ukrainians. Before the most average of them having lain Dmitro ("Baida") Vishnevetsky , Kanivsky elder. In the right fit, the glory of the legendary life, it is important that the truth be seen. Proteus is sufficiently vidomo, from 1553-1554 rr. Vyshnevetsky Zbrava rozrіznenі kozatskі vatagi and zbuduvav on viddalenomu, strategically roztashovanomu for the bottom of the rapids of the island of Mala Khortytsya Fort, which may be considered a barrier to the Tatars. So Vishnevetsky falling asleep Zaporozka Sich , yak vazhazhatsya koliskoy ukrainsky kozatstva. In an unforgettable way, with his own Cossacks, organizing a trip to Krim’s and Naval Mav’s echoed praise of the Ottoman Turks themselves. Kohl Rіch Pospolita vіdmovilsya pіdtrimatі yogo chrestii pohid protest Moslems, Vishnevetsky pokhav at Moscow, zvidkov having sold swift attacks on Krim. Ale there win shy shchidko rozvavivsya i, turning to Ukraine, pulled into the Moldavian help. Tsey Krok, having appeared for him to be fatal, the Moldavians have passed over the Vishnevetsky to the Turks, since 1563. strata yogo in Constantinople. The memory of the exploits of Baidi saved the number of Ukrainian national people, the bagato of some kind and nothing.

Dmitro Vishnevetsky (Baida)

Dmitro Vishnevetsky (Baida)

Zaporozka Sich . Roztashovana in the unavailability for the government, Zaporozka Sіch navіt pіslya death of his esteemed prodzhuzhivaet prosperity. A leather Christian Christian has the right to see his social community come to this island, fortified by the unapproachable smokers of a tree, and this will mark the birth of the Cossack fraternity. Mіg vіn when bazhannі th leave Sіch. Zh_nok and children didn’t take the syudy, they respected the fragments, they’ll be stolen in the steppe. The authority of a begotten ruler was evident in Zaporizhzhya, the Zaporizhzhya people recognized the self-liberation of these traditions and traditions, which were shaped by a stretch of generations. Usi malivnye rights could take their part in satisfying the rundown rads, in some of the parts I overstepped the side, shouting the most screaming.

At these elemental fences, they robbed him of such lightness and threw off the Cossack robes - hetman chi otaman, osavulіv, clerk, convoy and judge . Kozhen kurin (all of which I would call the name of a single person, lived in Kuren) by beating off an analogous group of lower officers, or even a foreman. During the period of the military campaigns, the foreman was corrupted by absolute authority, including the right to succumb to the death penalty. Ale in the peace hour of Vlad Bula obmezhenoyu. Zagagali zaporozhtsiv nalichuvalosa 5-6 thousand., Of which 10%, wintery, served as a mortgage, in that hour, as they took part in the campaigns, they engaged in a peaceful industry. Sichov gospodarstvo reluctantly spiraling to love, ribalism, bortnitsvo, salt in the main Dnipro. For Sichi, she was lying on the trading hats of the middle of the Commonwealth and the Chornomorsk uzberezhjam, the role of trademark and trade was important. In an ambush of fraternity and rivality, the Zaporozhian cossacks were confronted, while the Cossack foreman and rank-and-file Cossacks (blacks) progressively wined socially and economically, and that’s why they started to fork out.

Moscow and Kostaki registers . Bagato Kozakiv lived at the chopped bones. Zokrem, a population of Kanev at 1600 p. Nalichuvalo 960 sackers, right up to the camp, and 1300 goats from their homelands. Yak and Sichoviks, many Cossacks ignored the government, knowingly losing their elders. Rozumіyuchi marnіst be-ry test in order to distant and nepokіrnu Sich, Polish policeman, prote, having been able to get to his service misko kozatstvo chi have taken part in singing. In 1572 p. King Sigismund August the sanction of approval of the pen for 300 pays of goats for the Polish nobleman Badovskiy, who was not formally ordered by the official officials. I want to turn the crap out of the blue for nothing, I became a significant precedent for precedent: the Polish policeman recognized the cossacks of accepting a representative as well as the social faith, which likewise means little self-recognition.

A friend, moreover, sent a request for the execution of the sanctioned by the detachment of the Kozatsky corral of a small mice near 1578 p., For the rule of King Stefan Batorіya . The king established a fee to six hundred goats and allowed him to roztasuvati at metro station Terekhtemirovi svіy arsenal i spital; For the Cossacks, they scolded themselves for the elders of the former nobility and streamed “of the most self-inflicted attacks on the Tatars,” which often slowed down the ranks of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The commission of this non-random entry to the registry (registry) of goats fell on the guard cordon, but it was not less important, in the control of non-register goats. Up to 1589 p. registry kozakiv nalichuvalosa 3 tis. In the main process, there are more than one of the most common meshes, since the Cossacks of Mali have remained permanently formed, meaning moisture. So, I will reserve a registry cossack on I’m Tishko Volovich, including the cigars at Chigirin’s, two dolls with bets for rib, a lisy passoviska, 120 vulikivs, 3 tis. gold zlitkіv (із of them a thousand in a positive position at a great percent).

It is clearly noticeable that there is a recession in the number of unregistered goats, a little more small, less simple villagers. Відтак стосунки між 3 тис. registry and nearly 40-50 yew. unregistered goats often reached extreme straining. The protesters didn’t cross the streets of the fledgling Cossacks on Sich at the camps, but they had to join the Cossacks before registering for help. Thus, on the cob of the XVII century. three clearly unoccupied categories of kozaks were sent out: zamozhnі registry kozaki, so they went to the service before the assignment; Zaporizhzhya, who lived in a pose between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealths, that magnificent cossack, was delayed by the near-sided towns, led the cossack way of life, and a small official status was not small.

Zaporozhtsi write a sheet to the Turkish Sultanov. Picture 1. Yu. Rєpіna

Zaporozhtsi write a sheet to the Turkish Sultanov. Picture 1. Yu. Rєpіna

The fight against the Turks and Tatars . On the first stages of their formation, there are irregular Cossacks, especially Zaporozhye, in their eyes are not less magnates and royal officers, and the great part of the simple population has little more to see than ever left. On Kinets XVI century such a negative image of a Cossack having recognized Zmin, taken from the lower bridges of faith, by the great world was largely due to the fact that the Cossacks, who were far away, often attacked the Tatars of the most powerful overlord of the Ottoman Turks. Від Turkіv suffered no more than Ukrainian. All Europe XVI century tremtyla vid one thoughts about the bulk of the Ottomans, yak in 1529 p. They ousted Ugorshchina and didn’t sweep Vіden a little. The great part of Skіdnoї Europe lost its direct threat to the Tatar raids. The axis of one’s skin is that, having mocked the “Busurmans” , they said Ukrainian people about Muslims, Obov'yazkovo having won the fervor of compatriots and glory behind the cordon.

Pevich rich, the Zaporozhye people felt the need to attack the Turks in glory, ale, organically resemble, stink the same way, and practical values: the Tatars gave the village a little more, and the floodplain in the Ottoman towns was much better. Most attacked by the sea. Flotillas of 40–80 seagulls were visited by the Cossacks due to the method of Cossacks, close to 60 people could be accommodated in cutaneous crayons. Having approached the Ottoman fortress near the Dnieper, the stinks attacked the Tatar and Turkish Ukrainians on the Chornomorsk Uzrezhzhі. The first such assault dates back to 1538, before the fall of Sich, if the Cossack flotilla frequently snapped Turkish fortress Ochakіv. At the offensive rock of the Kozaki, more and more often they organized such a campaign, having won this glory, even at that time the Ottoman Empire of the Empire is the most powerful state. Later at 1595 p. the Austrian Habsburgs, who had shabbled with the Turks, sent their ambassador Erich von Lyasota to Sich for an accommodation in order to protect the Turkish villas near Moldova. Having made contacts with the Cossacks, the Pope is Roman. Sіch dіyala so, there won’t be a sovereign power, come at the head of the Supreme Council of the Supreme Assembly.

Naybilshogo rozmakhu cossack campaigns pulled together between 1600 and 1620 pp. At 1606 p. the Cossacks slaughtered Varna - the most solid Turkish land on the Black Sea, at 1608 p. Під їхніми strikes after tapping Perekop, at 1609 p. bulo was plundered by Kіlіy, Ismazyl and Akkerman, at 1614 p. after having conceded the assault on Trabzund, scho in Maliy Azії. And in 1615 p. the stench made an especially zuhvaly swoop, if 80 Cossack gulls on the eyes of the Sultan and 30 thousand pledges penetrated the harbor of Constantinople, burned, and then flowed away. At 1620 p. the Kozaks repeated the qiu action. Ranishe, at 1616 p., Stink zdobuli Kafu - rinok rab_v at Krimu - and I called thousands of nevilnik. Describing the price of the kozatskiy dianyan, Turkish historian of the XVII century Hire I respect: “You can do it hummingly, since you dumb on your own people, so much less you dared about your life, and you were less afraid of death, no less ... Know how to tell you that you have the right to be safe and sound. May be confined to us. ”

No less hostile boules exploits Kozakіv on land. Of exceptions to the Polish Polish instrumentation kozakіv, Sultan Osman II, having won the most magnificent 160 thousand times at once from thousands of his own Crimean Vasalians, having ruined on Rich Pospolita. In 1620 p. Під Цецорой Poles recognized a terrible defeat. Ale through a 35-thousand-thousand-year-old polishka vysko, who wanted to take advantage of the turkish pid Khotin, vryatuvala vid of the undetermined deaths per hour pidmoga 40 yew. kozakіv on cholі with hetman Sagaydachnim .

The efforts of the supporters gave the Cossacks the arrogance of power. At their difficult negotiations between the Poles and the Poles, the Kozaks felt that they were calling themselves defenders of the veri, a lyric brotherhood, and fighters for the common good. Such rhetoric by the singing world was taught at the university for the interests of the cossack and the small on the way to reconfigure the order, which the Cossacks to possess the rights and privileges bestowed upon the warriors. Water time, the Cossacks gravely gravely captured the idea of ​​defending Christianity and the lofty people. The price of the newest appointment of the vicious apprentice is to deal with the burning problems of the internal life of suspension.