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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest



A stretch of mayzhe 150 rockіv vіd kіntsya XVIII to the cob XX century. Ukrainians tried to dominate the two empires: 80% of them sent to the Russian emperors, the Rashts inhabited the empire of Habsburg . So, the Ukrainians finished off on the New Year’s holiday at the warehouse of the political system, so I radically changed my mind and arranged it, they sounded like a stink. Yak usi imerії, Rosiyska іperіriya Romanovih and Austriyska Habsburgіv were a magnificent territorial conglomerate, a population of some developed and culturally different ethnic groups. Vadmirno centralized political identity symbolized in the person of the emperor, who, without having seen the need to consume his brother, respectfully, take a look at your bazhennyh your parents. Imperators and their best efforts to ensure the absolute absolute conquest, respect more than half the price, and moral and relevance. For their peace and honor, they appreciated their safety, stability and order. Tse buv ustrіy, a kind of sneezing part of the population of the empire respected no more reasonably, and we become more accustomed to navigation.

In the management of the numbers distributed to the great territories, the emperors spiraled forward in front of the army and the bureaucracy. The army harrowed, and with Nagoya expanded the cordon of the empire. Vaughn also secured the internal order. The bureaucracy was picking up the donations (the greater part of them went to the utilities of the Soviet Union), and it also frustrated the organization’s suspension of means, which are more likely to be of interest to the empire. On the other side of the nobility, - as a Ukrainian elder, so the Polish nobility, - panchoed in the Ukrainian suspension of the XVIII century. I’m following the principle of “less than a hand, Tim is more beautiful”, empirical bureaucrats, ruled in the XIX century, respected, by which by the greater number of laws and rules of the stench to obliterate suspension, so that you will be more alive. I would like to have the upper hand and give me your sign, I mean important decisions, they have signified the lives of Ukrainians, more and more often they have taken the imperial ministry from distant capitals.

Rosіyska іmpperіya

Rosіyska іmpperіya bula is one of the best for svіtі. Surrounding the majestic rozmirov won over and over again the vision of the last European powers in their political order. In the continent of the ruling continent, the rulers did not have such unavoidable power, as the kings and emperors did. Nowhere is the bureaucracy not so despotic , so the police are so hard-core, and the people are so hopeless, as in Russia. At the XVIII century. as a result of the reformation of Peter the Great, the First Katerini II, the empire was far ahead of the primitive and first prince of Moscow, the yak gave an ear. Vaughn could boast of a magnificent army, immortalized in Europe by officials, who had a grandfather grow up, and a noble elite. However, for the sake of the Russian government, the autocracy was not considered as the main principle of the long-standing Moscow policy; for such kings there was absolute authority over the success of the royal people.

* XVIII and XIX century The Ukrainian Russian Empire was, as a rule, called malorosy. Of these, who lived in the territory of the Austrian Empire, they prodded to name themselves Rusyns.

On the cob of the XIX century. Actually, there were signs that the young and popular Tsar Oleksandr 1 could, having brought the reform to a final logical endowment and granted the constitution, so that the autocracy was ruled by the rule of law. Ale nezabar became apparent, thanks to the "sanctification" the monarch did not direct the idea of ​​constitutionally seriously. Protein helped to reform the middle crippling liberal group of the imperial elite, who was born in 1825, immediately after death, the purchase of the noblemen by the way of establishing the constitutional rule was broken up. I want to rebel Decembrists recognized the impoverished defeat, • the new emperor Mikolu 1 gliboko defeating tse wiklik, kinuty yogo vladі, y vin virishuє bіlsh, nizhzh be-koli, take control of your piddanimi.

Zakokhany at the vіiskovskoy drill, Mikola 1 reckoned with the whole suspension of discipline and orders of a cute heart of the army. With the help of the method of expanding the bureaucratic apparatus in 1826 having handed over the Third Office of the Imperial Office, the first police station. Vin also punished to approve the gendarmerie, so that regular police, and significantly impose censorship. Ci come called before the time of the Tsar’s reign, Mikoli 1 entered the period, a great Russian historian Vasil Klyuchevsky, calling it “the most red-tape bureaucracy in our history”.

Rosіyska іmperska presence in Ukraine . The henchmen of the Russian autocracy often vouchsafed their great docility with the great rosaries and bagatony national warehouse of the empire. Having most clearly formulated one of the most important meanings of the Ukrainians, they began to serve the empire, besides knowledge as the patriot of Ukraine, Prince Oleksandr Bezborodko: “Russia is the whole country of the autocracy. Let me take a look at the rozmiri, the rznomnіnnost population and the sound and bagato іnshih mіrkuvan autocracy post for Russia і a single natural form of government. All the forbidden things are free, the best way is to have a weakened autocratic domination of the government to up to half the baggage, and to the weakened state bring people unheard of evil. ” Once in a while, bureaucratic rule over empire was such that no one was deprived of more than one people - the Russians - that led to the development of national traditions and historical traditions of the past.

Oskіlki for their new Ukrainian culture were close to the controversy of the Russians, then the party did not forget to see Ukraine as it were in the Russian territory. If I had to have an empire ryadovtsya I should have energized (rightly so, not many people would have liked to win), for a certain right to control Russia, a large part of Ukrainian lands, I would like to write up a medal before I write 17 on a medal, say no. in honor of Katerini II: "I turned those scho bulo vidirvane." In such a rozumіnnі Ukraine, wait for the ball nevid'mnogo part of Russia, deyakoy hour viddilenuyu vid ne ї due to historical "vipadkovostі". Vіdmіnnostі, whісh іmіdіvіvіvі mіzh rozіyanymi ukraіntsemy, having thrown a bi іmpіrsky bureaucrat, wined themselves on the heels of the whole time-hour vіdrekremlennya. Now, having arisen to be the Russians, the Ukrainians, or the “Malorosi”, are guilty of spending their time on the “good Rosiyans”. Vidtak politics in a row, straightened out to accelerate this "natural" process, was carried out right up to the fall of the empire.

A specific ubiquitous sign of the empire presence in the Ukrainian army army. The numerical pledges of the forts strengthened the whole country, and the commanders ossified the population with heavy duties. Nairashnіshoyu vіyskovoj guilty buv prizes before the army, in Ukraine in 1797 p. For the quiet, the Yakis handed the recruiter to the hands, termin the service, becoming 25 rock. Through the inhuman, the first part of the war, such a term was respected by the powerful mortal virok. It’s not marvelous that the recruits were transported hardships in kaydani several times, and the women punished the soldiers who were in kaipani and the soldiers sold it.

I’m selling political policy in the administration of the country, Oleksandr 1 of the first fanatically submitting authoritarian methods to the ministry Olexiy Arakchev at the age of 1816 and 1821 pp. the beginning of the independence of the independent settlement began. Nearly 500 yew. a soldier will not be instructed to settle a holiday for the sake of the country’s camps, some have a skin aspect of private life, in addition, they have the right to mother and child rights, and we will arrange and report to them. In Ukraine, nearly 20 such settlements disappeared. Proteus and suffocating orders gave rise to ochuvian fetus until 1857. Most of the village of Bulo is unformed. On the other hand, to finish the promo-stocks, the namagan’s butt of the royal bureaucracy in order to civilize the life of the discipline.

The process of consolidation in the Ukrainian lands of the empire structures of power was more often found in the 1770s, and the residual form was more severe in the 1830s. Today, Ukraine was divided into nine provinces, and three regional regions were stored. Prior to the Liberal Ukraine, the traditional cossacks and elders appeared, they included Chernigivska, Poltavska and Kharkivska provinces; it is notorious that the right bank was buried, the Polish gentry, both earlier and earlier, was in charge of the slave-economical lives of the Ukrainian villagers and de facto living in villages in Bulgaria, which was formed in the Kiev, Volyn and Podilsky provinces; in fact, the newly recovered Pivden, having stabbed with the Cossacks and the Krimsk Khanate, having submitted to Katerinoslavsky, Kherson and Tavria provinces. The skin of the governorate lasted for a while;

Ієrarhі government officer, who ruled in these administrative units, the Bula is the same in the empire. The governors stood on the territory of the governorate, named king. The governors were assisted by officials, who took care of such right-hand sides, like a huge order, blessed those taxes. The upper run-through of the administrative apparatus was recklessly formed from professional officials. The prototype on the second richest lower bagato ryadovtsіv - zokrem head of the gendarmerie, leader of the nobility, judges - they were robbed by the messianic nobles of their middle middle. The empire simply rejected professional officials to satisfy all their consumers.

A new system of management was found that was small, small, for the oldest part of Ukraine, most of which were corrupted by self-reliance on old Magdeburg law. At 1835 p. Kyiv stayed mid-middle having lost a special status. scho having been transformed by tsim right. Відтоді більшість Ukrainian cities have moved to the order of the provincial administrative administration. At the lowest administrative administrative level - in the village - for thorough law enforcement, the nobility was granted.

For the social resemblances of the members of the administration, who were very much in control in Ukraine in the 19th century, the leading rank was bureaucratic noblemen. Najvishchi plant, such as the governor’s son, naturally won over the ranks of the aristocratic families, at that hour the middle nobles occupied the plant of the middle rivie. Modestly post dilodov and writers blasphemed the scope of the city and the synod of the priests, the villagers may not have been sent until they know that they are planted.

The ethnic warehouse of the bureaucracy in Ukraine has fallow in the fall of the region. In Livoberezhny Ukraine, de sites of the old Cossack elders denied the rights of the nobility, among the most favored ranks such good people of Ukraine, Yak Miloradovich, Miklashevsky, Kochubey, Zavadovsky Polny, Kapn. On Pravoberezhzhі Poles and Russians crossed. In Pivny, where there are people with experience and bureaucrats who want to be better off, they want to be better than the Russians. Tsikavo, scho a non-Russian, pestering lava officials, as a rule, rusifikuvavsya tsyomu becoming more and more "rosijskim", nizzh samі rosiyani.

The empirical bureaucracy of the Bula is organized into a vise - for their ranks and uniforms, the representatives of Russia were notoriously "famous" for the plazvati in front of their superiors and for lowering their water hours. Because of the absence of a constitution, she would have seized the rights of an individual, the official would get involved in private lives of people who often tramped around. The presence of bureaucrats has little if any, and it seemed like an insignificant number: the number of times the Russian Federation could have allowed was limited to 10 thousand yards. the population is less than 12 officials. At the entrance, the three-chotiri times bigger bulo.

The lack of patronage of the Russian government to protect their officials with a worthy payday was corrupt, they yawned the movies by yawning, especially on the corruption of the police. The dokey officials secured the treasury with a signified sum of pennies, the detachment didn’t praise a little, stinks of stink pennies were ripened from the population. Ale yakshchos rosiyani even called to carry the burden of a bureaucratic system, then for Ukrainian ears of XIX century. All the show was new and alien. It is possible, in order to clarify the fact, that the Ukrainian Mikola Gogol himself at his famous pious “Revisor” (1836 p.) Having adjusted such a blistering satire to the imperial bureaucracy.

Until Tsar Mikoli 1 (1825-1853) in the Russian Empire and having lost more of the unofficial and unsystematic police glance. Ale in 1826, as it was said at last, of hostilities to the rebels of the Decembrists, the tsar having fallen asleep the Third Viddil of the imperial office of great magnitude, having stolen the regular police station . At the same time, the main staff on the other hand is very small. The third time, having hired a number of donors, we went to fairs, shredders, twice, went to universal lectures, and won the big show, I respected them. The censorship was inherently stifled by the potential opposition of the victorious in Russia, ale for the rule of Mikoli 1 won became suvor, no matter how much; secrecy, dyali special groups, which re-read all, what happened drukom. Namagannya tsar to put pid control unauthorized іdeї gave pidstav to the most important poets of Ukraine Taras Shevchenko with irony respect, scho "vid Moldavan to fіnn in all languages ​​to all to bless, more than welfare."

I still have to trample on my repressive nature іmpperіya n_yak not Bula suto police power. Skorumpovane, ineffective rokidan according to the majestic territorial officials could not fail to see the whole construction, as a stream flowed from the capital. Wait for me to know the bureaucrat who, thanks for the goodness of chi for swag ig, shave your eyes on the insignificant violation of the law, but pom'yakshiti designations virok. Until then, well-off, because for the whole to finish pennies, it was allowed to rise in price for the cordon; in the middle of the ruling ruling party there were widespread enthusiasm, which could have helped the regime injustice.

Malorosijska mentality . Bagatokh representatives of the colossal Ukrainian elders were opposed by the power and magnitude of the empire, addicted to the power of blasphemy curiosity, and selfish vanity was quieter of the power of belonging to the noblemen of the Russian empire. Tom did not require a bully haughtily to feel buti vіrnopіddanimi emperor. For these, Ukraine has become more and more popular, more expensive, more imperial, and the Ukrainian people less than the “tribes” of the Russian people. You’ll stink at baiyuzhi chi to navigate more often than not, be it some political dyy, which are spiraling on the idea of ​​the main features of Ukraine. Typical for the “Little Mentality” are the words of Viktor Kochubey - Ukrainian, who, having lain down to the closest step of the emperor: “I want to be born more Ukrainians, I’m more and more grown-up, but I’m better to learn more. I take a look at the turbotis of your provinces (Ukraine . - Auth.) From the point of view of our interest in our suspension. Microscopic look do not turbulent me. "

Malorossiyska’s mentality recognized the merciless criticism at the side of historical schools of the 20th century. Vyacheslav Lipinsky , a proponent of the 1920s ’ideals of Ukrainian Ukrainian power and empowerment, showing that mentality is a typical complex of people that don’t have their own power. Winning, by the way, by virtue of the asymmetry in the Russian Federation, the malorrhuses often saw dear Ukrainian rice, waterbags were won by water from Rosigyan rice. It would be indescribable that the “Malorossiyska” self-reliance has overcome the middle of Ukrainian nobility, and the Ukrainian ones themselves often blasted the biggest thieves of ideological Ukrainian self-reliance.