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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest


How can I bring healthy feelings to the economy, to the toothless, socially unredeveloped, culturally indestructible and politically weak suspension of legislative reforms, but more specifically: what kind of righteousness did you pass to the Ukrainian Habsburg Constitution of the XIX century? Until kіntsya XIX century foreign Ukraine * even the smallest of great health, wary of the new possibilities, which the constitution has now opened. Ale stony also rozumіli, scho law and constitutional health guarantee social and economic and national justice less than singing between. Proteus in the zagalny pidsumka Austrian Constitution of 1848 p. especially 1867 p. positive positive influences ’became a starting point until the unbilled day of political activity in Western Ukraine’s suspension, before the previous organizational growth. The new vibrations of activity are just as strong as those of Ukrainian Galicini, who are hostile to grave suspension ailments, to the forefront of an all-Ukrainian national rukh. If a new constitutional framework is in place for new opportunities, then the main incentive for them was the dedication of competition from the Poles. In the middle of that year, they mobilized their Ukrainian and Polish communities, and confrontation between them was lost.

Social and economic aspect

Pislya 1848 p. Galicia, Transcarpathia and Bukovina, as early as possible, were the only ones who were the richest in Europe, who spooked up some history of naming them “a bunch of economic absurdities”. One of the most gospodarskih dashing products of all kinds is the main export goods, such as wheat and chives, which have lived in Russia. There is no need to re-distribute promo-word marketing, on a modest scale, and it has become a rival to such high-tech industries, like Bohemia, Lower Austria and easy-to-learn indisputable ones. Politics Vіdnya lisha pog_shuvala camp. The imperator’s detachment didn’t show much interest in reducing the situation in Galichin, and altering the viral supply of power by not having to balance the tariffs unchecked. Land, populated by foreign Ukrainians, more than one world, lower Russia, more internal number, only Austrian empire.

* For example, XIX - on the cob of the XX century At the national level, the Ukrainian people felt that they had called themselves “Ukrainians” - self-styled, as before, the Ukrainian intellect began to live on gatherings. There were two main reasons for explaining the traditional name of the Rusyns: the Rusyn word was found to be close to the word Russian;

Prior to that, large provincial landowners had not sent any good economic benefits, but were not afraid of the need to increase their business share and did not allow them to cheaply and numerically work. Vidtak Galichina, Bukovina and overcrowded by the Madars of Transcarpathia were deprived of agrarian suspensions due to insignificant accumulated capital, weakly developed internal trade, low urban, and even more unobtrusive industry. Even less in the remnant of the ten-month table, there were more signs of the abbreviation.

Nekhtuvannya Vіdnya Galichinoy not guilty of doing hostility, nibi qya provіntsіya is not small for іmpperії great significance. At 1910 p. 15% of the monarchy lived here. For lands that were inhabited by Ukrainian people, the population was actually one with only one country, they were characterized by growth. The number of people in Galichin was increased by 5.2 million in 1849. up to 8 million at 1910 p. Ale tse accessed a krylo in a total amount of overtaking, a fragment of growth of the population density in the village - of 32 people per sq. km at 1780 p. up to 102 in 1910, the social problems of the society were more perishable.

In Galichini’s ethnical warehouse, there was also a great serpent, although they wanted to take a look at the first place, but the stinks were dramatic, lower than that. Yakshko in 1849 p. Ukrainians stored half of the residents of the province, in 1910 Bulo registered ponad 58% of the population of the Polish national nationality is less than 40 ° about Ukrainian. Navigate at Scheidniy Galichyny the part of Ukrainians went up to 62%. The singing world of peace was explained to the resettlement of the Poles from abroad and from the middle part of the province, as well as the polonization of the non-Polish population, especially the population. The main cause of the bull is the growing shyness of the Jews, the number of yakas at the provincial reserves of 6 from 1831. until May 12 at 1910 p., ototozhnuvatsya, borrowed from movi, with Poles.

Protein of the farmer population of the provincial population was insignificant. Ukrainians were deprived of the people by overwhelmingly agrarian. At 1900 p. Nearly 95% of them were engaged in state sponsorship. Less than close to 1% were praised in promo words (such as a minuscule won’t bull) and 0.2% in trading. The Ukrainian intellect, including the priesthood, was a small group, and it was here 12 to 15 thousand. osib. (For the fools of Volodimir Navrotsky - about 5 thousand., Including priests, the Poles - 38 thousand., Not reluctant priests.) For the time: 80% of the population of Poland took up the state thanks, 6.5% of them went to the city . At 1914 p. In Provincial Bulo, there were 300 high-ranking state officials, Polish officials, at that time there were only 25 more Ukrainians. From now on, while reforming the Habsburgs in Ukraine, there was little to be done about the more social and economic problems.

The share of the village. Yak і in Russia in 1861, the name of the country was in 1848, the legal status and political law did not ease the economic establishment. In daily situations, the problem was creeping in the middle of life. The main tractor, scho vis_v in the villagers, Buv Borg for otrimanі in 1848 p. land. On the spot, the Vidensky detachment, revealing with its power to cover the land, owing to the transfer of land, ale in 1853, rewriting the order, giving the village a part of this vitrat. At the end, the villagers pidlyalyali direct and indirect obodatkvannyu, including utriimannya shkіl, gentry tosko.

That naybilshu lyut at peasants viklikalo nutrition about so called servіtuti. Behind the minds of the crooks, the zemligers won over the right to do so with their foxes, passers-by (servants), which the villagers could have bored earlier. Tse meant that now the peasant Mav pay be-yak was designated as an assistant to the prince, to get some firewood, to keep the material chi vipasati thin. Zdebіlshogo pomіshchitskі valіі bіlі such high, scho, yak zdalosalos, legally krіpatstvo until 1848 just zamenili ekonomіchnim zakprіpachennyam. Pragnuchi zvіlnitsya vіd ekonomіchnogo zashmorgu pomіshchіv, thousands of villagers ztvertyalsya before the trial with the drive servіtutіv. For the Ivan Ivan Franks, s 32 yew. court judges about servitude, schoo fell from 1848 to 1881 p., helpers played 30 yew. The results of these processes did not deprive the sums of the one who was captured by the Habsburg system.

From zrostannyam prices to the earth, rosemi nadilіv villagers were shyly shy, and there were no profitable ways. At 1859 p. the middle rosemir of the village of Nadil in the Scheme of Galichina dorіvnyuvav 12 acres; at 1880 p. wine changed to 7, and in 1902 to 6 acres. In other words, there are hundreds of villagers, such as can be yak bіdnyakіv, so that yakі volodіli mensh lower 12 acres of land, zіs і 66 from 1859 p. up to 80 at 1902 p. The main reason for the change was the increase of land in the okrug of the rural peasantry, the average number of people with it became 3-4. Because of the changes in the village landfathers, the grandfathers grew up with great mothers, bits of bagaty bought up the land of the villagers, and even they couldn’t live on their crippled villages. Thus, in Scheidniy Galichyny ponad 40% of the land belonged to about 2,400 great land cultivators, and 60% of the cultivated soil was spread among hundreds of thousands of crooked villagers.

A gloomy prospect was seen in front of the villagers, they were startled to know that they were a dodatkov dzherela for a ride. Having hired up laborers to helpers, the stinks could be spent on the lowest wages in the empire, becoming close to those who were working in Austria itself. But if I wanted to take the borg from the ministers of war (they beat the bullets of єVrei-shinkari in the village and the banks in the city, the bankers didn’t fail), they rushed to fail in the economy. I look at the original interest rates — from 150 to 250 (one more reason why the capital wrapped itself up in feudalism was not invested in industry) is the small borg, who, after helping the villagers to get warm before the offensive, I’ve gotten over for a short hour. Homeless and unprotected villagers could, through vlasna, have no need to recognize the great zbitkiv; Most of the likhvaris often felt the urge to drink Pichi Chi kupuvati in a pose, and after the singing hour, if they increased the percent, they produced a magnificent rachunka. As a rule, the villagers did not unite the Borgs, moreover, they landed their land and sold them with a hammer.

Schopravda, the villagers and I didn’t need to have a particularly bad time before piatics — the very same impoverished economical establishment has been driven by alcoholism, which has spurred the taint of scale. Till the same time, the land-goers were confused, as though they were monopolizing monopoly alcohol, and shinkars, who traded alcohol. One of the ways to improve the peasant’s peasant status is to advance the poses; Having learned from the fact that he earned money for coupons from coupons, they realized that they were in the shinka. In 1900 p. in Shіdnіy Galichinі one shack fell on dermal 220 inhabitants (ale t_lki one reason for weaving school on dermal 1500).

It’s not marvelous, since the middle of the last year of the health of the Ukrainian people is more busy. Yakshko in 1900 p. one liberty fell on 295 inhabitants of Austria, then in Galicia there was a loss of 1 to 1200. More than half of the children did not live up to five rockets, - as a rule, it was a lump in time and loss. Ale chi did not find the bulo those who had 50 thousand yew died of skin cancer. Cholovik. At his famous book “The Evil Galicini in Figures ...”, the Polish writer Stanislav Schepanovsky, who didn’t have the productivity of the Galician, became less than a quarter of the productivity of the average Europe, while living more than half. That’s why it’s more dangerous for evil to live in peace in Ukraine for less than half of the population, lower than the Czech Republic, from 13 to lower in English.

As the people are agrarian and osilii, the Ukrainian people felt extremely strong attachment to the land, and the villagers left, they could have lived even longer. On Kinets XIX century. it became apparent that some days of such a twist had come, and before the bahathma I got the need for emotion. I would like to see my brothers and sisters in Russia, Ukraine, Ukraine, and Ukraine, who would like to live with you in the best ways. The protest on the other side of the country was moved to Scheid, on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, the other Ukrainian went to Zahid through the Atlantic to Brazil, Canada and the other to the State.

Mista and bargaining. Nearly 10% of the population of Galicini lived in the great and malikh mistakhs. Yak I was in a position to do so; more than one hundred Ukrainians have little sight in the middle of the series; at 1900 p. ponad 75% of Moscow residents roamed my Polish, 14% - Ukrainian, and the reshta - German. Navigate to Ukraine’s Halychyna stockpiles over 25 — 30% of the Moscow population — even the poles and the Poles. Protein in the middle parts of the province 40–45% of Moscow residents put together Hebrews, while in unclear places, like, for example, Brody, ponad 70% of the boulevards were Hebrews. Zrostannya population mіst vіdbuvalosa irregularly. Yakshcho in Lviv - the cultural, administrative and economical center of the Halychyna Galichini - has grown over 70 thousand. at 1857 p. to ponad 200 yew. at 1910 p., then in most of the last months the process was over again.

Yak і in іshshih territories, the main economic function of the city fell in the bargain and that commercial dіyalnostі. And talking about bargaining in Western Ukrainian lands meant talking about Europe, the fragments of a stink of a whole danced the whole sector of the economy. Hebrews themselves acted as intermediaries between the village and the city. The other Ukrainian merchants brought in from the village outside the country some very good comrades (sirniki, extinguished), and the Ukrainian merchants bought up the villagers for sale and sold it in the city. At the very same place, all the dealers and the shops, the villagers could add such a ready-made comrade, like fabric, blistering, metal stuffing, they’ve been working on the Jewish remnants, they got the Hebrews. Yakshcho selyaninі rejected the purchase of goods for purchase, merchant-Hebrew having sold the goods to the Borg. Briefly seemingly, through єvrev the peasants themselves were drawn into the pennies of the Vidnosini, and were established in the cities.

For their servants єvreyskі merchants were extorted rivuvati yaknaivishchi profits. The representatives of the vernacular nationalities were in a big trouble, since the profits of the boules were not over the great, but the unrighteous. So, doslіdivshi ekonomіchnі vzaєmini mіzh єvreyami that ukraїntsyami on Zakarpattі, ugorsky ekonomіst іrlandskogo pohodzhennya Edmund Egan dopovіdav uryadovі scho admіnіstratsіya, magіstrati that pomіschiki carry their chastku vіdpovіdalnostі for zhalyugіdne encampment villagers Ale main fault lezhit on єvreyah - їhnі lihvarі, torgovtsі that shinkarі " amused rusiniv and pennies, and lane. " The exploiting methodology of the Jewish merchants exclaimed in the villagers hatred, proteas rozumіv, but without participation in Ukraine it became impotent to be a state official. Tsei looked at him at the dark report of the Habsburg police station before the settlement of the Ukrainian village before Sunday, sent to Vidnya in 1890: “Behind the vignette of peeled bread for the villagers to lie on the skin. Win to serve for them і as an assistant, д a mumbler, пос an intermediary, a special person. First, I wanted to banish ikh, then the villagers were in the first place to move. I would like to bury all over the world with the havoc of the whole camp, give us the percent interest, I control more than the villagers, and my clergy, let’s have mercy on the Kazati to re-engage in anti-Semitism in the sense of racial hatred. ”

Slide pdcrety, prote, what are the best of them themselves? Have you been patient and not a little bit short of concerns? For example, XIX century фхній фаховий profile has been ostracized by the following rank: 15% stored lichvar. 35 - trades, 30 - remisniks, 20 - representatives of professional professions. Most of the Jewish merchants bored with other kramaras, and the crippling ministry became subserviently to the bagat and the vplivu group, and was engaged in wholesale trade in Galicia.

Promislovіst. Looking at the competition on the side of the high-tech industry, unpleasant policies and the severity of the internal market, there are no great prospects for developing industry in Galicia. In addition, the marriage was completed. Until the 1890s, the banks didn’t give up commercial banks, the Jewish capital wrapped itself up at the bargain , and the Bagat Poles put pennies into the ground. Yak is not paradoxical, it was distributed in 1852. Budіvnitstvo zalіznits didn’t argue with Galicini's industrial development, but he didn’t.

Dibnu industrialization, which I felt before the arrival of the audience, a secret to the bastion, textile and shabroobnu, all kinds of competitive competition was captured by the presentation of competitiveness. Protee if the room is open, the store is filled with goods, the bagato shops have gone out of business. And the great number is quiet, they have lost, the remnant character is small, the most typical representatives of the boulevard are the number of Jews and Russians. Great enterprises had the leading rank in mediating on sales, the development of some was shown by the presence of the great masses of guests and guests in the alarm materials at the entrance, and also they were specializing in alcohol drinks.

Proteus from the 1890s showed signs of evil. Three banks were founded in front of the ten-year-old bulo, and they became the dzherel of financing the great industrial projects. Polish magnates, yak, for example, Andrzej Lubomirsky, achieved the goal of the training of students in business education, and in 1901 p. Bula is off target manufacturer. At a rapid pace, in the 1870s and 1880s, the naphtha rocks were traded in the Drogobich and Borislav districts, and the Austrian and English capitals were funded overwhelmingly. Prior to the cob of Persian St. John’s stink, they gave about 5 ° about the light naphtha video view.

Rows of proletarians rooted indefinitely in the middle of ale: 1902 p. nalichuvalosa 230 yew. Often, often occupied robots, of which 18 ° are about Ukrainian, 24% of Ukraine and Rashta are Poles. Yak і in Russia Ukraine, even after the "young" class zbirigav tisnі zvyazki with the village, і bagato ukrainskih and polishskih robіtnikіv turned in sylsk statehood, in part of the city in industrial activity. Protein zmіni overcame the progressive and mali seemingly insignificant scale. Viddak zhіdnoukrainskі lands for the development of economy lost the back of the most important іmpperії.