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Іstoriya Ukraine - Subtelny Orest
1920s rocky hour of unbranded development, vіdkrittіv i spodіvan in ukrainian culture. Dekhto navivat called the period of the cultural revolution, as well as birthdays. In order to be able to keep busy with the long-awaited dormitories of creative energy, we are busy with the political and political hegemony of the party and haven’t arranged their cultural activities. Extensive Ukrainian culture has spread the Ukrainian culture as well, since it has long been not small in Ukraine. Up ahead, Ukrainian culture could have gone to the middle of the power, shreds of such an important pledge, like the ministry of culture, were controlled by the beautiful Ukrainian patriots - Grinko, Shumsky and Skrypnik .
However, the head postal service to the boulevard boulevards of the revolution. I want to cultivate the culture the other day the third time became the emigration of the great part of the old Іntelіngentsії, the belt of the great galaxy of new talents with more than compensated її. Acts of these young Mitzvah boules were apolitical and virili to the idea of "the mystery of the mystery." Inshi belonged to the stick revolutionaries, after all, they were wrestlers and Ukrainian communists. If you don’t worry about the fact that there is an independence of independent statehood, then it’s a bit of a hassle for them to become an alternative to cultivating alternative culture of national independence of their people.
The revolution also brought cultural awareness to the novelty of the novelty, the old star of the old and the old marriage. They put in a folding, non-existent food about those who, in a certain direct sense, developed the Ukrainian culture, in order to establish themselves in order to establish an initiative and a kind of booty. Natnichy vidchuttyam vlasno і mіsіі that zastayuyuyu auditors, writers, artists and scientists learned from condemned to blame at the establishment of a new cultural world.
Literature . Nowhere didn’t that way show the mood, as in literature. Marxist scribes propagated a thought, which was for the sake of a healthy revolution, except for the tsarina’s suspension, she was guilty of fading the tsar’s culture. Tobto "bourgeois" the mystery of the past belonged to the new proletarian mystery. Schopravda, they stinked at once oddly, that "you can reach the international proletarian mystery more than being national stitches."
The attempt to bring proletarian culture to Russia led to the literary organization “Proletkult” winnings, spiraling into two main ambushes: first, proletarian culture can be altered, letting go of traditional tradition; in a different way, the creation of a cult culture of guilty brother's fate is Masi. Relocation from culture of the Russian city, “Proletcult” is not a great cause in the middle of the middle of Ukraine. However, one of the ideals has been tested in the process of winnings in Ukraine, so the so-called mass literary organizations.
At 1922 p. in Harkovі pіd kerіvnіtsvіt Sergіya Pilipenka, there was a perscha from the mass literary, organization - " Plow" . Having stated that scho for the masses (and in Ukraine, it meant for the peasants) required to do such a thing as you want, for the sake of organizing, I began to obscure the scribble of written notebooks, which without a damn covered 200 writers and thousands of cobs. One organization is so hanging up the mystery: “It’s a matter of our time in the kingdom of mystery that we know how to bring the mystery down, to know it to the earth, to make it much easier to see”. Through the river Vasil Yellan-Blakitny organizuvav literary group "Gart" , scho also struck praciuvati for the promotion of proletarian culture in Ukraine. The proto-members of the “Gartu” eschewed the ideology of “masovosti”, they were afraid to fight, but won’t be brought to the bottom of the mystery criterion.
The order of these marxist organizations censored also a small group of ideologically neutral, but "non-proletarian" writers and artists. Among the symbols of the most significant boulevard Pavlo Ticina . Futuristov having enchanted Mikhail Semenko . Maxim Rilsky and Mikola Zerov boules mid- neoclassical . The scribes more amazed that they scoffed at the symbolist Yurіn Mezhenk, who wanted to "do creative work more by looking at masa, I want to know more, while I’m trying to complete all of my own independence, by virtue of national identity." Oskilka Marxist and non-Marxian group organizations organized their magazines, they hung in their eyes and criticized their opponents, then they kept grinding the guest discourses.
If at 1925 p. Blakitny died, having broken apart th "Garth". Along with that, a big baguette of numerous members (among them the playwright Mikola Kulish, the poet Tichina and Bazhan, prose Petro Punch, Yury Yanovsky and Ivan Senchenko) approved the electoral organization “Vaplet” (Vitaly . Sturbovanny tim, scho vernytsy character of the "Plow" I will more easily perish. Ukrainian Provincialism, Khvilovy and that of the other comrades put before the Ukrainian writing so that I can reach the literary and artistic perfection. The stinks were called up to the celebration of Europe on the traditional traditions of cultural culture, and the independence of the Ukrainian culture in Moscow. Energetically look at Khvilovoy, in some kind of vigilantes you looked and sank, talked to wide literary discourse, yak sharpened from 1925 to 1927 p.
Opponents of “Vaplite” were no worse than Pilipenko and the other “Plow” henchmen. With criticism of the “bourgeois-nationalist ideology”, communistism of Ukraine emerged. Navigate Stalin pointing to the heavenly eye of Khvilovoi. To fight against the widespread national ideas in literature in 1927 p. Bulletin of the pro-union organization of the Higher School of Higher Education and Science of the All-Ukrainian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs (all-Ukrainian proletarian writers ’letter) was strengthened and communal party control over literary dyalnі was strengthened.
I have uncovered this artwork and I’m doing literary work with a high go-go. At present, there are two prominent doby poets - Pavlo Tichina and Maxim Rilsky. Immediately after the entry in 1918 p. Persian zbіrki “Sonyachny clarinets” Tichina zdobuv widely throughout life. It was demonstrated to them in such offensive schools, such as “Saving Sonnies and Octavas” (1920 p.) And “Winter from Ukraine” (1924 p.), Mystetske Volodinnya in a word, healthy living. , scho do ticini є ж в в в в в в в в в роз ит ит ит укра укра укра укра укра укра in Ukrainian Maxim Rilsky, synod of a prominent Ukrainian player of the 19th century, bouv at the time of Tichin's hostile contrast. There was a great deal of publicity at the б Pid the main dawns ’zbirk (1918 p.), Sinya dalechin (1922 p.), Thirteen Spring (1926 p.), Streamers, philosophical and traditional traditions. In the midst of all the poets of that hour, to the special respect, merit Mikola Zerov, Pavlo Filipovich, Mikhailo Dry-Khmara, Evgen Pluzhnik, Volodimir Sosyura, Mikola Bazhan i Todos Osmachka.
The main topics of the prose books of the boulevard are the stories of the revolution and the big world in the life of people’s suspension. The "Sinih etutah" (1923 p.), Which can be understood by the subtle reverence of the word, a symbiosis of romanticism of gross realism, Mikola Khvilovy ospivyu revolution, at that time in the "Autumn" (1924 p.) And I (1924 p.) Win in the image of super-transcendence, with its own kindly reverence for her rosary. In such creatures, the yak “In the Lives” (1926 p.), Grigory Kosinka , who wants to get to know their troubles from the poor, from the wretched villagers, from the masterly zmalov’s villagers to foreigners. In the novel "Misto" the skeptical and mystical Valeriyan P іdmogilniy I will describe, as the Ukrainian villagers go into harmless life in a stranger for a nasty thing, so that they can see the best of the villagers. At his creative work “From the notes of a lackey” (1927 p.), Meister satiri Ivan Senchenko vismiyyu spineless varnishes, which gave birth to a happy mood. In the novel by Yuriy Yanovsky “Chotiri templates”, which is full of descriptive descriptions of peasant-partisans, the spirit of the vicious goats was revealed. But we are indeterminable because of the popularity of Bust Ostap Cherry , and, more accurately , the humoresques were read by millions.
In the middle of the playwright, I’ve got a posture of the bouv Mikola Kulіsh . Three yoyasnalishni p'єsi - “People’s Malachy” (1928 p.), “Mina Mazailo” (1929 p.) And “Pathetic sonata” (1930 p.) - they exclaimed the sensational new form of the tragedy and new tragedy of new growth chauvinism, “Little Russian” mentality, an anachronistic Ukrainian nationalism, spiritual impairment of communist doctrinaires. Persh dvі p'єsi having staged Les Burbil Les Kurbas at his hometown theater. The proto-party party officials have reserved the “Pathetic Sonata” staging in Ukraine, although they want to save the crowded eyes of Leningrad and Moscow. At the new Todd Galuz - kinematografi - svitovogo glory having healed Oleksandr Dovzhenko. Yogo film “Zvenigora” (1927 p.), “Arsenal” (1929 p.), “Earth” (1930 p.) Razpovidyut about the flames, which was brought to Ukraine by the revolution and that of radian Vlad.
The science of science. Experiment and innovation have also expanded in the field. Having put in place a new social and economic device, the Radyansky detachment, having set the goal of new types of students and students at the weekend, prompted them to open the bourgeois let’s pass. Radyansky teachers stated the need to learn from the principles of communal values and ideology. Skods were blasphemed by the programs for this purpose, in a special way the importance was given to the renewal of the first visit, to the collective introduction of the technical sanctuary. The water hour before another bulo is presented with classic and human disciplines and the whole community is blocked by the main principles of religion. Zdobuvali the popularity of the theory of the famous teacher Anton Makarenko, schvo vvazhenya ototenny vagomishim from the development of the child, nizzh decline.
I would like to appreciate the importance of these experiments, but I’ve delivered a complete set of information, but those who have gotten into practice can make sure that they’re accessible, no matter how much, it’s obvious. Navigation at the foreign seven-seater schools, as well as at professional and technical and middle school mortgages was unpaid, and children of the villagers and robots were so eager to hear it. Zavdyaki tsyomu mzhzh 1923 і 1925 pp. the number of schoolchildren in Ukraine increased from 1.4 million to 2.1 million. The number of written languages in 1920 is 24% 57%. In the meantime, they lost the unwritten letters that they had grown and ponad 40% of children’s school age.
Great zmіn recognized as such a blessing. The University was reorganized by the number of institutes of national education (INO) of the medical, physical, technical, agronomic, pedagogical profile, as well as special services for the robotic strength. I would like to go to the bachelor’s institute and I would like to pay, children’s children and villagers, I’ve got more students, I paid for them. Z 30-40 yew. students who went to college in Ukraine for example 1920s, nearly 53% were in Ukrainian, 20% were in Russia and 22% were in Ukraine. The Ukrainians overpricedly competed in the galaxy of agronomy and pedagogy, the Russians in the management of the exact sciences, and the Ukraine in the medical trade.
The 1920s rocky became the period of the science of science and especially of the Ukrainian knowledge, which can be even larger in scale than the literary renaissance. I’ve got it right, Ukrainian national orders, not to let it go, set up science, often look at the important role, a yak with a length of the 19th century. vidigravali at the official Ukrainian national humanities science. Pragnuchi demonstrate your progress, the bolsheviks also coached the science of science. At 1919 p. the stinks didn’t lose the chance for the goal in Kiev by the detachment of the Skoropadsky Academy of Sciences, and they shook their eyes with their children. By stretching out the kolkokh of offensive rockies, the Academy with ф (і files (behind the vignette of the university) got hold of new up-to-date series. In general, I realized the freedom to do so, to publish my views and to get in touch with foreign colleagues, but in general they didn’t constitute a threat to peace.
Mikhail Grushevsky Sergiy Єfremov
Independently of those who were most prominent of Ukraine’s students did not belong to school, and acted in a national manner, Ukrainian nationalism, a happy party not of a major vibra, so as to form a core of them. From the transition from the mid-1920s to the politics of the Ukrainian Communities, they scoured the ministry of sanctuary, they tried to re-enter the bag of their past students, so that they would be able to go around the corner for a long time. Zavdyaki tsoma in 1924 p. Having turned to Kyiv, the patriarch of Ukrainian science (and political opponent of the community), Mikhailo Grushevsky, who became a new member of the Academy and having systematically received Ukrainian history. That’s how they taught themselves to the bagato schoolchildren, who lived behind the cordon of Zakhidnyi Ukrainy. In addition, the waterfront of the prestige of the Academy lost the strength of the “bourgeois nationalist” tendencies.
The first president of the Academy became the exhortations of the presentations Volodymyr Vernadsky . However, with her valuable Academy, she wondered over the unremitting power of the Vice-President Sergiy Єfremov and the Secretary-General Agatangel Krimsky . Until 1924 p. In the Academy there are 37 new members and about 400 corresponding members. Kіlkіst її publishers grown up s 32 y 1923 p. up to 136 at 1929 p. The third section - historical-philological, physical-mathematical and suspension-economic - found the most important section, in which the main role was played by Grushevsky . It was stocked up in dozens of departments, comsite and comités, and they were engaged in systematic vivchennyam bagatokh aspects in Ukrainian history, literature and movi. The section was seen in the chronicle “Ukraine” , which will be a useful mouthpiece for Ukrainian-owned studios; In addition, the members of the Council have seri ied their last periodic views and hundreds of monographs. Prior members of the secular section, apart from Grushevsky, belonged to the historians Dmitro Bagaliy, Mikhailo Slabchenko, Olexandr Ogloblin i Josip Germanisse, literary people Sergiy Yefremov and others
In the suspension and economic section of the price of history of Ukrainian law, writing Mykola Vasilenko ; Kostyantin Vobliy became the first successor of the economic geography of Ukraine. Although she wants to take part in a physical and mathematical section, she didn’t play such an important role, yaku became a year out, and she also had low prominent students. Among them are mathematician Dmitro Grave, physicist Mikola Krilov, chemists Leo Pisarzhevsky and Volodimir Kistyakivsky. The Academy of Bula wants a great, not the only one round of science in Ukraine. Two members, the historians of Bagal and Slabchenko, have conceded the previous centers near Kharkiv and Odessa. So same center Bulo vіdkrito th in smaller cities, the center of Polta vі, Chernigov and Dnepropetrovsk.
On the other hand, on the other hand, on the suspension of humanities science, buggy at non-Marxist students in 1929. Radyansky detachment fell asleep at Harkov Institute of Marxism. Yogo meta felt at the preparation of the philosophy, history and politics, they could have chosen their subject from the Marxist point of view and ideologically defended the regime. The next post at the Institute was becoming a Galician Matviy Yavorsky, who wished to marry the history of Ukraine and the Ukrainian history school on the basis of the Marxist Vitlumachi.